1949 Major League Baseball season

The 1949 Major League Baseball season.

1949 MLB season
LeagueMajor League Baseball
SportBaseball
DurationApril 18 – October 15, 1949
Regular season
Season championsAL: New York Yankees
NL: Brooklyn Dodgers
Season MVPAL: Ted Williams (BSR)
NL: Jackie Robinson (BKN)
World Series
ChampionsNew York Yankees
  Runners-upBrooklyn Dodgers
Finals MVPJoe Page (NYY)

Regular season standings

American League
Rank Club Wins Losses Win %   GB
1st New York Yankees 97 57 .630
2nd Boston Red Sox 96 58 .623 1
3rd Cleveland Indians 89 65 .578 8
4th Detroit Tigers 87 67 .565 10
5th Philadelphia Athletics 81 73 .526 16
6th Chicago White Sox 63 91 .409 34
7th St. Louis Browns 53 101 .344 44
8th Washington Senators 50 104 .325 47
National League
Rank Club Wins Losses Win %   GB
1st Brooklyn Dodgers 97 57 .630
2nd St. Louis Cardinals 96 58 .623 1
3rd Philadelphia Phillies 81 73 .526 16
4th Boston Braves 75 79 .487 22
5th New York Giants 73 81 .474 24
6th Pittsburgh Pirates 71 83 .461 26
7th Cincinnati Reds 62 92 .403 35
8th Chicago Cubs 61 93 .396 26

World series

1949 World Series
New York Yankees (4) vs. Brooklyn Dodgers (1)
Babe Ruth Award: Joe Page, RP, New York
Game Date Score Series
(NYY-BKN)
Location Attendance Time
1 October 5 Yankees 1, Dodgers 0 1–0 Yankee Stadium 66,224 2:24
2 October 6 Dodgers 1, Yankees 0 1–1 Yankee Stadium 70,053 2:30
3 October 7 Yankees 4, Dodgers 3 2–1 Ebbets Field 32,788 2:30
4 October 8 Yankees 6, Dodgers 4 3–1 Ebbets Field 33,934 2:42
5 October 9 Yankees 10, Dodgers 6 4–1 Ebbets Field 33,711 3:04

Awards and honors

1949 Award Winners
  American League National League
Award Player Position Team Player Position Team
Most Valuable Player Ted Williams LF BSR Jackie Robinson 2B BKN
Rookie of the Year Roy Sievers OF SLB Don Newcombe RHP BKN

Statistical leaders

  American League National League
Type Name Stat Name Stat
AVG George Kell, DET .343 Jackie Robinson, BKN .342
HR Ted Williams, BSR 43 Ralph Kiner, PIT 54
RBI Vern Stephens, BSR
Ted Williams, BSR
159 Ralph Kiner, PIT 127
SB Bob Dillinger, SLB 20 Jackie Robinson, BKN 37
Wins Mel Parnell, BSR 25 Warren Spahn, BSB 21
ERA Mike Garcia, CLE 2.36 Dave Koslo, NYG 2.50
SO Virgil Trucks, DET 153 Warren Spahn, BSB 151

All-Star game

July 12, 1949
Ebbets Field, Brooklyn, New York
Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
American League 4 0 0 2 0 2 3 0 0 11 13 1
National League 2 1 2 0 0 2 0 0 0 7 12 5
Starting pitchers:
AL: Mel Parnell
NL: Warren Spahn
WP: Virgil Trucks (1–0)   LP: Don Newcombe (0–1)   Sv: Vic Raschi (1)
Home runs:
AL: None
NL: Ralph Kiner (1), Stan Musial (1)

Feats

Cycles

Records

National League

Managers

American League

Team Manager Comments
Boston Red Sox Joe Cronin
Chicago White Sox Jack Onslow
Cleveland Indians Lou Boudreau
Detroit Tigers Red Rolfe
New York Yankees Casey Stengel
Philadelphia Athletics Connie Mack
St. Louis Browns Zack Taylor
Washington Senators Joe Kuhel

National League

Team Manager Comments
Boston Braves Billy Southworth and Johnny Cooney
Brooklyn Dodgers Burt Shotton
Chicago Cubs Charlie Grimm and Frankie Frisch
Cincinnati Reds Bucky Walters and Luke Sewell
New York Giants Leo Durocher
Philadelphia Phillies Eddie Sawyer
Pittsburgh Pirates Billy Meyer
St. Louis Cardinals Eddie Dyer

Notable events

January–March

  • January 28 – The New York Giants sign their first black players, outfielder Monte Irvin and pitcher Ford Smith, and assign them to a minor league affiliate at Jersey City. Irvin will eventually go on to have a Hall of Fame career for the Giants, but Smith never reaches the major leagues.
  • February 7 – Joe DiMaggio signs a $100,000 contract with the New York Yankees. It is the first six-figure contract in major league history.
  • March 2 – A slumping Joe DiMaggio leaves spring training in Florida to have his ailing right heel examined at Johns Hopkins Hospital. DiMaggio is assured that surgery is unnecessary and returns to the Yankees. The as yet undiagnosed heel ailment will continue to plague DiMaggio throughout the season.

April–May

June–July

  • June 2 – The Phillies hit five home runs in an inning, tying a major league record set by the Giants in 1939. The Phillies defeat their opponent this day, the visiting Reds, 12–3.
  • June 5 – Commissioner Happy Chandler rescinds the ban against players who had participated in the Mexican leagues.
  • June 12 – Charlie Grimm resigns as manager of the last-place Chicago Cubs and moves to the club's front office as a vice president. Grimm is replaced by Frankie Frisch.
  • June 13 – The Giants trade catcher Walter Cooper to the Reds for catcher Ray Mueller.
  • June 14 – Following the Phillies 4–1 win over the Chicago Cubs at Wrigley Field, first baseman Eddie Waitkus is shot by Ruth Ann Steinhagen, an obsessed fan, at Chicago's Edgewater Beach Hotel. The shooting occurs just before midnight. The bullet punctures Waitkus' lung and lodges near his heart. After undergoing four operations, he recovers enough to play the following season, but he is not the same ballplayer. At the time of the shooting, Waitkus was batting .304 and leading the all-star voting among National League first basemen. Waitkus' shooting serves as the inspiration for the "Roy Hobbs" character in the Bernard Malamud novel, The Natural, and its subsequent film adaptation.
  • June 24 – The Boston Red Sox pound the St. Louis Browns for 25 hits in a 21–2 win. Ted Williams contributes seven RBIs to go along with two home runs, three runs scored, and a stolen base.
  • June 28 – After missing the first 65 games of the season due to a bone spur in his right heel, Joe DiMaggio awakes in early June to find the pain in his heel has disappeared. DiMaggio returns to the Yankee lineup with a home run and a single in a 5–4 win over the Boston Red Sox at Fenway Park. The crowd of 36,228 is the largest for a night game in Fenway history. With the win, the first-place Yankees move 4½ games ahead of the second-place Philadelphia Athletics and 6 games ahead of the third-place Red Sox.
  • June 29 – The Yankees come back from a seven-run deficit to defeat the Red Sox, 9–7. Joe DiMaggio belts two home runs in the win, a three-run shot in the fifth and a tie-breaking two-run blast in the eighth that provides the margin of victory.
  • June 30 – Joe DiMaggio belts his fourth home run in three games, a three-run shot off the left field light tower at Fenway Park. DiMaggio's home run powers the Yankees to a 6–3 victory and a three-game sweep of the Red Sox. The Red Sox drop to fifth-place, 8 games behind the front-running Yankees.
  • July 2 – Monte Kennedy of the New York Giants shuts out the Brooklyn Dodgers, 16–0. Kennedy contributes a seventh-inning grand slam to his cause. The 16-run margin sets a club record for biggest shutout win that would stand until 2000.
  • July 4 – At Yankee Stadium, the New York Yankees sweep a doubleheader against the Boston Red Sox, extending Boston's losing streak to eight games. The Yankees take the first game, 3–2, and the rain-shortened second, 6–4. The sweep leaves the Red Sox 12 games behind the first-place Yankees.
  • July 6 – Walker Cooper ties a modern record with six hits in seven at-bats, smashing three home runs and collecting 10 RBIs in the Cincinnati Reds' 23–4 pummeling of the Chicago Cubs.
  • July 8 – Monte Irvin and Hank Thompson, called up three days earlier from Jersey City, become the first blacks to play for the New York Giants. Thompson starts at second base and Irvin pinch hits in the eighth. When Thompson steps in against Brooklyn Dodger Don Newcombe, it is the first time in major league history that a black batter and pitcher have squared off.[1] The Dodgers win the game, 4–3.
    • A 16-inning affair between the Phillies and Braves ends at 1:01 a.m., becoming, to date, the latest-ending National League game in history. The Braves win the game, 4–3.
  • July 12 – The American League defeats the National League, 11–7, in the All-Star Game at Ebbets Field. The NL commits five errors in the game. The contest is noteworthy for also being the first Midsummer Classic to feature black players: Jackie Robinson, Roy Campanella, and Don Newcombe of the National League, and Larry Doby of the American League.
  • July 24 – Stan Musial bats for the cycle in the Cardinals' 14–1 rout of the Dodgers. With their third straight win over the Dodgers, the Cardinals erase the lead Brooklyn has held for most of the season and catapult into first place in the National League.
  • July 26 – Wally Moses of the Philadelphia Athletics collects his 2,000th career hit in a 5–4 win over the St. Louis Browns
  • July 28 – Jackie Robinson raises his National League-leading batting average to .364 after a 12 for 25 streak. Robinson's average will drop, but he will win the batting title with a career-high .342 average.

August

  • August 3 – Boston Red Sox pitcher Ellis Kinder strikes out 14 batters in a 9–3 win over the St. Louis Browns. It is the most strikeouts by a Sox pitcher since Smoky Joe Wood struck out 15 in 1911.
  • August 5 – Luke Appling of the Chicago White Sox appears in a major league-record 2,154th game, surpassing Rabbit Maranville's previous mark. Appling will finish his career with 2,218 games played.
  • August 6 – Adrian Zabala sets a National League record by balking three times in the Giants' 3–1 win over the St. Louis Cardinals. Despite the loss, the Cardinals remain 1/2 game ahead in the National League by virtue of the second-place Brooklyn Dodgers' loss to the Cincinnati Reds.
  • August 7 – In the first game of a doubleheader against the Browns, Yankees catcher Yogi Berra suffers a fractured thumb when he is hit by a pitch after hitting a three-run home run in his previous at bat. The injury will keep Berra out of the Yankee lineup until September. The Yankees win the game, 20–2.
  • August 8 – Carl Furillo returns to the Dodgers' lineup after an injury and collects two hits and a run scored in Brooklyn's 2–1 win over the rival Giants. The win keeps the Dodgers tied with the Cardinals for first place. Furillo will hit .431 over the final eight weeks of the season and finish at .322, fourth best in the league.
  • August 9 – Dom DiMaggio's 34-game hitting streak comes to an end in the Boston Red Sox' 6–3 win over the Yankees at Yankee Stadium. Hitless in his first four at-bats, Dom hits a sinking line drive in the eighth that his brother Joe catches at the shoestrings. The resurgent Red Sox move within 5½ games of the Yankees with the win.
  • August 15 – With the defending National League-champion Boston Braves struggling at 55–54 and dogged by rumors of clubhouse dissension, manager Billy Southworth takes a leave of absence and is replaced for the rest of the season by Johnny Cooney.
  • August 17 – The St. Louis Cardinals move back into first place with a 4–3 win over the Cincinnati Reds.
  • August 21 – The New York Giants receive a forfeit victory over the Philadelphia Phillies when fans at Shibe Park bombard the field with bottles after umpire George Barr rules that Phillie Richie Ashburn trapped a line drive. The forfeiture is the first in the majors since 1942. The Giants were leading 4–2 with one out in the ninth inning when the forfeit was declared.
  • August 22 – The New York Yankees acquire Johnny Mize from the New York Giants in exchange for $40,000. At the time, the Yankees' lead over the now second-place Boston Red Sox is down to 2½ games.
    • The Boston Braves score two runs in the ninth inning to defeat the Brooklyn Dodgers, 7–6. One of the runs comes on Eddie Stanky's first home run of the season. The loss is Brooklyn's sixth in seven games and drops the Dodgers two games behind the Cardinals.
  • August 26 – With a doubleheader sweep of the White Sox, the Red Sox close to within 1½ games of the Yankees. The Red Sox win the first game, 11–4, behind Mel Parnell, who becomes the majors' first 20-game winner of the season, and Ted Williams, who slams his 31st and 32nd home runs of the season. The Red Sox take the second game, 10–7.
  • August 28 – In the first game of a doubleheader in Chicago, Tommy Henrich crashes into the wall while chasing a Chuck Kress fly ball and fractures two vertebrae. The injury will sideline Henrich for three weeks. In the second game, the newly acquired Johnny Mize dislocates his shoulder. With the exception of seven pinch-hit appearances, he will miss the rest of the regular season. The Yankees are also playing without Yogi Berra, who fractured his thumb earlier in the month. Despite the injuries, the Yankees sweep the doubleheader by scores of 8–7 and 7–5.

September

  • September 4 – The Cardinals sweep a doubleheader against the Reds, 6–4 and 11–2, to push their lead over the Dodgers to 2½ games.
  • September 5 – The Yankees sweep a Labor Day doubleheader at Shibe Park against the Athletics. Joe DiMaggio hits a grand slam and drives in five runs in the Yankees' 13–4 win in the opener. The Yankees take the second game, which was shortened by darkness, 5–2. The Yankees lead over the Red Sox now stands at 1½ games.
  • September 8 – In an 8–0 win over the Chicago Cubs, Red Schoendienst steals the St. Louis Cardinals' 17th and final base of the season, setting a major league record for fewest steals in a season.
  • September 9 – At Yankee Stadium, Ellis Kinder wins his 19th game of the season as the Red Sox pound the Yankees, 7–1, cutting the Yankees' lead in the American League to 1½ games.
  • September 10 – Stan Musial's two-out, two-run home run in the top of the ninth gives the Cardinals a 6–5 win over the Cincinnati Reds, which maintains St. Louis' one-game lead in the National League.
  • September 11 – The Washington Senators set a major league record for the most base on balls in an inning by surrendering 11 in the third inning during a 20–5 rout at the hands of the New York Yankees.[2]
    • Stan Musial blasts three home runs as the Cardinals sweep a doubleheader from the Cincinnati Reds, 7–5 and 7–4, to extend their lead over the Dodgers to 1½ games.
  • September 13 – Ralph Kiner ties a major league record held by six players with his 4th grand slam of the season. In the Pirates' 11–6 win over the Philadelphia Phillies, Kiner hits 2 home runs and drives in 6 runs. The 2 home runs come in his first 2 at-bats of the game. Kiner had homered in his final 2 at-bats in yesterday's game, making it 4 home runs in 4 consecutive at-bats over 2 games. It is the 2nd time in his career that Kiner has accomplished the feat.
  • September 14 – Ellis Kinder wins his 20th game of the season, shutting out the Detroit Tigers, 1–0, at Fenway Park. It is also Kinder's 10th consecutive win. Kinder joins teammate Mel Parnell as a 20-game winner. It is the last time this century that the Red Sox will feature a pair of 20-game winners.
  • September 18 – The injury-plagued Yankees receive another blow when Joe DiMaggio is stricken with pneumonia. Without DiMaggio, the Yankee still top the Indians, 7–3, at Cleveland Municipal Stadium. The Red Sox, however, keep pace with an 11–5 rout of the visiting White Sox to remain 2½ games behind the Yanks. Ted Williams hits his 39th and 40th home runs of the season and drives in 6 runs, giving him 153 RBIs for the season. Teammate Vern Stephens also hits his 40th home run and drives in his 150th run.
  • September 19 – The Yankees stretch their lead of the idle Red Sox to 3 games with a 6–0 blanking of the Indians.
  • September 21 – The Yankees squander an 8–1 lead at Yankee Stadium and fall to the Chicago White Sox, 9–8. Coupled with the Red Sox' 9–6 victory over the Indians, the Yankees lead shrinks to 2 games.
    • The Cardinals and Dodgers split a doubleheader at Sportsman's Park, leaving the Cards in front by 1½ games. The Cards take the first game, 1–0, while the Dodgers answered back with a 5–0 win in the second.
  • September 22 – The Dodgers amass 19 hits and 13 walks in a 19–6 rout of the host Cardinals, bringing the Bums to within a 1/2 game of first-place. Carl Furillo has 7 RBIs for Brooklyn. In a losing effort, Stan Musial hits his 32nd home run of the season—his 21st against lefties, a major league record for a left-handed batter that will later be matched by Ken Griffey, Jr. in 1996 and 1998.
  • September 24 – At Fenway Park, the Red Sox defeat the Yankees, 2–0, to draw within a game of first-place New York. Ted Williams belts his 42nd home run and Ellis Kinder wins his 13th straight game, moving to 4–0 on the season against the Yankees.
  • September 25 – A 6–1 by the Cardinals over the Cubs, coupled with the Dodgers' 5–3 loss to the Phillies, gives the Cards a 1½ game lead in the National League.
    • The Yankees, in first-place all season despite 71 injuries that kept players out of games, fall into a first place tie with the Red Sox after losing to Boston, 4–1, at Fenway Park. Ted Williams hits his 43rd home run of the season, and Mel Parnell allows four hits in winning his 25th game of the season. Joe DiMaggio, still out of the lineup with pneumonia, listens to the game from his hospital bed.
  • September 26 – Before 67,634 at Yankee Stadium, the Red Sox come away with a 7–6 win and move into sole possession of first place when Johnny Pesky scores on a disputed squeeze play. The Sox rally from a 6–3 deficit by scoring four runs in the eighth. The winning run scores when Bobby Doerr drops a surprise squeeze bunt in front of Tommy Henrich, playing first base, and Pesky slides under the catcher's tag at home plate. Umpire Bill Grieve calls Pesky safe, and Casey Stengel is fined for a post-game confrontation with the ump. Now ahead by one game, the Sox depart for a three-game set in Washington before going back to New York for a final two-game showdown against the Yankees.
  • September 27 – Vic Raschi wins his 20th game of the season as the Yankees top the A's, 3–1. The Yankees remain one game back, however, by virtue of the Red Sox' 6–4 win over the Senators.
  • The Cardinals fall to the Pirates, 6–4, cutting their lead over the idle Dodgers to 1 game.
  • September 28 – The American League race deadlocked again after the Yankees win a seesaw battle against the A's, 7–5, and the Red Sox fall to the Senators, 2–1, on a wild pitch by Mel Parnell in the bottom of the 9th. Joe DiMaggio, down 18 pounds from his bout with pneumonia, takes batting practice for the Yankees.
  • September 29 – The Cardinals fall to the Pirates and former Cardinal Murry Dickson, 7–2. It is Dickson's 5th win of the season against his former team. Meanwhile, the Dodgers sweep a doubleheader against the Braves, 9–2 and 8–0, moving them ahead of the Cardinals by a 1/2 game in the National League.
  • September 30 – The Red Sox move ahead of the Yankees by a game when they defeat the Senators, 11–9, and the Yankees are defeated by Dick Fowler and the A's, 4–1. Aided by 14 walks, the Sox win the game despite being outhit by the Senators, 18–5.
    • Ralph Kiner hits his 54th home run of the season and 16th in the month of September as the Pirates defeat the Reds, 3–2.

October

Movies

It Happens Every Spring

The Stratton Story

Deaths

See also

External links

References

  1. ^ Okrent, Daniel (1988). The Ultimate Baseball Book. Boston, USA: Houghton Mifflin Company. p. 352. ISBN 0395361451.
  2. ^ "Washington Senators vs New York Yankees September 11, 1949 Box Score". Baseball-Almanac.com. Retrieved May 14, 2012.
1949 Boston Braves season

The 1949 Boston Braves season was the 79th season of the franchise.

1949 Boston Red Sox season

The 1949 Boston Red Sox season was the 49th season in the franchise's Major League Baseball history. The Red Sox finished second in the American League (AL) with a record of 96 wins and 58 losses. The Red Sox set a major league record which still stands for the most base on balls by a team in a season, with 835.

1949 Brooklyn Dodgers season

The 1949 Brooklyn Dodgers held off the St. Louis Cardinals to win the National League title by one game. The Dodgers lost the World Series to the New York Yankees in five games.

1949 Chicago Cubs season

The 1949 Chicago Cubs season was the 78th season of the Chicago Cubs franchise, the 74th in the National League and the 34th at Wrigley Field. The Cubs finished eighth and last in the National League with a record of 61–93.

1949 Chicago White Sox season

The 1949 Chicago White Sox season was the White Sox's 49th season in the major leagues, and their 50th season overall. They finished with a record 63–91, good enough for 6th place in the American League, 34 games behind the first place New York Yankees.

1949 Cincinnati Reds season

The 1949 Cincinnati Reds season was a season in American baseball. The team finished seventh in the National League with a record of 62–92, 35 games behind the Brooklyn Dodgers.

1949 Cleveland Indians season

The 1949 Cleveland Indians season was the 49th in franchise history. The club entered the season as the defending World Champions. On March 5, 1949, Indians minority owner Bob Hope donned a Cleveland Indians uniform and posed with manager Lou Boudreau and vice president Hank Greenberg as the World Series champions opened spring training camp in Tucson, Arizona.

1949 Detroit Tigers season

The 1949 Detroit Tigers season was a season in American baseball. The team finished fourth in the American League with a record of 87–67, 10 games behind the New York Yankees.

1949 Major League Baseball All-Star Game

The 1949 Major League Baseball All-Star Game was the 16th annual midseason exhibition game for Major League Baseball all-stars between the American League (AL) and the National League (NL). The AL continued its early dominance of the Midsummer Classic with an 11–7 win at Ebbets Field, home field of the NL's Brooklyn Dodgers. The win moved the AL's all-time record in the game to 12–4.

The 1949 All-Star Game was the first to have African-Americans in the line-up. Jackie Robinson of the Dodgers started for the NL at second base, while his teammates catcher Roy Campanella and pitcher Don Newcombe also played for the NL. Cleveland Indians' outfielder Larry Doby played the final four innings of the game for the AL.

1949 New York Giants (MLB) season

The 1949 New York Giants season was the franchise's 67th season. The team finished in fifth place in the National League with a 73-81 record, 24 games behind the Brooklyn Dodgers. The games were now broadcast on the then new station WPIX-TV, which was launched the year before.

1949 New York Yankees season

The 1949 New York Yankees season was the team's 47th season in New York, and its 49th season overall. The team finished with a record of 97–57, winning their 16th pennant, finishing 1 game ahead of the Boston Red Sox. New York was managed by Casey Stengel in his first year. The Yankees played their home games at Yankee Stadium. In the World Series, they defeated the Brooklyn Dodgers in 5 games.

1949 Nippon Professional Baseball season

The 1949 Nippon Professional Baseball season

1949 Philadelphia Athletics season

The 1949 Philadelphia Athletics season involved the A's finishing 5th in the American League with a record of 81 wins and 73 losses.

1949 Pittsburgh Pirates season

The 1949 Pittsburgh Pirates season was the 68th season of the Pittsburgh Pirates franchise; the 63rd in the National League. The Pirates finished sixth in the league standings with a record of 71–83.

1949 St. Louis Browns season

The 1949 St. Louis Browns season involved the Browns finishing 7th in the American League with a record of 53 wins and 101 losses.

1949 St. Louis Cardinals season

The 1949 St. Louis Cardinals season was the team's 68th season in St. Louis, Missouri and its 58th season in the National League. The Cardinals went 96–58 during the season and finished second in the National League.

1949 Washington Senators season

The 1949 Washington Senators, the 49th edition of the Major League Baseball franchise, won 50 games, lost 104, and finished in eighth and last place in the American League. It was the worst showing by the Washington club in 40 years, since the 1909 Senators lost 113 games. The team was managed by Joe Kuhel; it played its home games at Griffith Stadium, where it drew 770,745 fans, seventh in the circuit.The Senators actually won 25 of their first 45 games and stood in third place after Sunday, June 5, 1949. But they would win only 25 games more all season, playing at an abysmal .229 rate over their last 109 contests. In today's 162-game schedule, that would have resulted in a 37–125 mark, surpassing the 1962 Mets' record for futility. At year's end, manager Kuhel would be replaced by Bucky Harris, the Senators' 1924 "boy wonder" manager, now 53, returning for a third term as skipper of the Senators.

1949 World Series

The 1949 World Series featured the New York Yankees and the Brooklyn Dodgers, with the Yankees winning in five games for their second defeat of the Dodgers in three years, and the twelfth championship in team history. This victory would start a record run of five consecutive World Series championships by the Yankees, and was also the first of 14 AL pennants in 16 years (1949–1964 except for 1954 and 1959) for the Yankees.

Both teams finished the regular season with exactly the same records and winning their respective leagues by exactly one game.

1949 MLB season by team
American League
National League
Pre-modern era
Modern era
See also

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