1948 Democratic National Convention

The 1948 Democratic National Convention was held at Philadelphia Convention Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, from July 12 to July 14, 1948, and resulted in the nominations of President Harry S. Truman for a full term and Senator Alben W. Barkley of Kentucky for Vice President in the 1948 presidential election. One of the decisive factors in convening both major party conventions in Philadelphia that year was that the Philadelphia area was part of the newly-developing broadcast television market. In 1947, TV stations in New York City, Washington and Philadelphia were connected by a coaxial cable, so in 1948 two of the three new television networks, NBC and CBS, had the ability to telecast along the east coast live gavel to gavel coverage of both conventions. In television's early days, live broadcasts were not routinely recorded, but a few minutes of Kinescope film of the conventions has survived.[1]

1948 Democratic National Convention
1948 presidential election
Truman 58-766-09 (3x4 C)
35 Alben Barkley 3x4
Nominees
Truman and Barkley
Convention
Date(s)July 12–14, 1948
CityPhiladelphia, Pennsylvania
VenuePhiladelphia Convention Hall
Candidates
Presidential nomineeHarry S. Truman of Missouri
Vice Presidential nomineeAlben W. Barkley of Kentucky

Organization

The convention was called to order by the permanent chairman, Senator Alben W. Barkley of Kentucky.[2] With delegates demoralized by Republican wins in 1946 that had given them control of Congress, and what appeared to be Truman's slim chance for reelection in his own right, on July 13 Barkley gave the keynote speech, as he had in 1932 and 1936.[3] He roused the delegates with his opening declaration "We have assembled here for a great purpose. We are here to give the American people an accounting of our stewardship in the administration of their affairs for sixteen outstanding, eventful years, for not one of which we make an apology!"[4] Barkley continued by recalling the bad times of the Great Depression of the 1930s to turn the Republicans' most-repeated attack back on them.[5] Republicans proposed "to clean the cobwebs" from the federal government.[5] Said Barkley: "I am not an expert on cobwebs. But if my memory does not betray me, when the Democratic party took over ... sixteen years ago, even the spiders were so weak from starvation they could not weave a cobweb in any department of the government in Washington!"[5] Barkley concluded his hour-long oration with a visionary call for the Democrats to "lead the children of men ... into a free world and a free life," which inspired the delegates to cheer for more than 30 minutes.[5] His rhetorical effort had the effect of energizing delegates, who began to recover their enthusiasm.[5] It also had the effect of propelling Barkley towards the vice presidential nomination.[5]

The balloting

Balloting for president and vice president took place on July 13.[5] Southerners who opposed the expansion of civil rights attempted to stop Truman's nomination, but he was easily nominated on the first ballot.[5]

President

In the absence of three dozen Southern delegates who walked out of the convention with Thurmond, 947 Democrats voted to nominate Truman as their candidate (against 263 for Senator Richard Russell, Jr. of Georgia).

Presidential Balloting, DNC 1948, before switches
Contender Vote
President Harry S. Truman 926 (75.04%)
Senator Richard Russell, Jr. 266 (21.56%)
James A. Roe 15 (1.22%)
Paul V. McNutt 2.5 (0.20%)
Senator Alben W. Barkley 1 (0.08%)
Not Voting 23.5 (1.90%)

Vice President

Various Democratic Party leaders had promoted candidates for the vice presidential nomination, including Alben W. Barkley and Wilson W. Wyatt of Kentucky, William Preston Lane Jr. and Millard Tydings of Maryland, Oscar R. Ewing of Iowa, James Roosevelt of California, and Joseph C. O'Mahoney of Wyoming.[6] In addition, Truman tried unsuccessfully to interest William O. Douglas in the nomination.[7] During the convention, Barkley's keynote speech won over delegates.[7] When it became clear Barkley had enough support to obtain the nomination, Truman agreed to accept him as his running mate.[7] Barkley was then nominated by acclamation.[8]

Dispute over civil rights

On July 14, Northern Democrats led by Mayor of Minneapolis Hubert Humphrey and Illinois Senator Paul Douglas pushed for the convention to adopt a strong civil rights platform plank and endorse President Truman's pro-civil rights actions.[9] They were opposed by conservatives opposed to racial integration and by moderates who feared alienating Southern voters (regarded as essential to a Democratic victory), including some of Truman's own aides. They were supported by northeastern urban Democratic leaders, who thought the plank would appeal to the growing black vote in their cities (traditionally Republican).[10]

In a speech to the convention, Humphrey urged the Democratic Party to "get out of the shadow of states' rights and walk forthrightly into the bright sunshine of human rights." The convention adopted the civil rights plank in a close vote (651½-582½). In response, all 22 members of the Mississippi delegation, led by Governor Fielding L. Wright and former Governor Hugh L. White, walked out of the assembly.[11] Thirteen members of the Alabama delegation followed, led by Leven H. Ellis.[12] The bolted delegates and other Southerners then formed the States' Rights Democratic Party ("Dixiecrats"), which nominated Strom Thurmond for President and Wright for Vice President.

The fight over the civil rights plank was a launching point for Humphrey. He was elected to the United States Senate that year, and in 1964 was elected Vice President.

Truman's acceptance

Truman was scheduled to give his acceptance speech at 10 PM on July 14, but the convention was behind schedule, so he spoke in the early morning hours of July 15.[13] In his opening, Truman told the delegates "Senator Barkley and I will win this election and make these Republicans like it — don't you forget that!"[14] His pugnacious attack on what he termed the "Do-Nothing 80th Congress", further energized the delegates who had not taken part in the Dixiecrat walkout.[15] Truman's speech was looked on in retrospect as the start of the "Give 'em Hell, Harry!" campaign theme that enabled Truman to win the November general election.[5]

See also

References

  1. ^ Simmons, Amy V. (5 August 2016). "The first televised Democratic Convention, 70 years later: An unplanned delegate remembers". Philadelphia Sun. Retrieved 6 August 2016.
  2. ^ Taylor, Jeff (2013). Politics on a Human Scale: The American Tradition of Decentralism. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books. p. 212. ISBN 978-0-7391-7575-0.
  3. ^ Politics on a Human Scale, p. 212.
  4. ^ Shogan, Robert (June 1968). "1948 Election". American Heritage. Rockville, MD: American Heritage Publishing Company.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i "1948 Election".
  6. ^ "Truman Happy to Take Barkley After Trying to Stop Him". St. Louis Post-Dispatch. St. Louis, MO. July 13, 1948. p. 1 – via Newspapers.com. (Subscription required (help)).
  7. ^ a b c "Truman Happy to Take Barkley After Trying to Stop Him", p. 1.
  8. ^ Cornell, Douglas B. (July 14, 1948). "Truman OK's Barkley Boom". Owensboro Messenger. Owensboro, KY. p. 1 – via Newspapers.com. (Subscription required (help)).
  9. ^ Steve Inskeep, Ron Elving (August 27, 2008). "In 1948, Democrats Weathered Civil Rights Divide". npr.org.
  10. ^ Steven White (March 15, 2013). ""The Crackpots Hope the South Will Bolt": Civil Rights Liberalism & Roll Call Voting by Northern State Delegations at the 1948 Democratic National Convention" (PDF). sas.upenn.edu.
  11. ^ Katagiri, Yasuhiro. The Mississippi State Sovereignty Commission: Civil Rights and States' Rights Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2001; p. xxiv.
  12. ^ Pietrusza, David (2011). 1948: Harry Truman's Improbable Victory and the Year That Transformed America. New York, New York: Union Square Press. p. 237. ISBN 978-1-4027-6748-7.
  13. ^ Pietrusza, David (2014). "Harry S. Truman's Speech at the 1948 Democratic National Convention--Harry S. Truman (July 15, 1948)" (PDF). www.loc.gov. Washington, DC: Library of Congress. p. 3.
  14. ^ "Harry S. Truman’s Speech at the 1948 Democratic National Convention", p. 3.
  15. ^ "Harry S. Truman’s Speech at the 1948 Democratic National Convention", p. 4.

External links

Preceded by
1944
Chicago, Illinois
Democratic National Conventions Succeeded by
1952
Chicago, Illinois
1948 Democratic Party presidential primaries

The 1948 Democratic presidential primaries were the selection process by which voters of the Democratic Party chose its nominee for President of the United States in the 1948 U.S. presidential election. Incumbent President Harry S. Truman was selected as the nominee through a series of primary elections and caucuses culminating in the 1948 Democratic National Convention held from July 12 to July 14, 1948, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. As a sitting President, his nomination was secured.

1948 Democratic Party vice presidential candidate selection

This article lists those who were potential candidates for the Democratic nomination for Vice President of the United States in the 1948 election. At the 1948 Democratic National Convention, President Harry S. Truman won nomination to a full term. Truman had become president upon the death of his predecessor and 1944 running mate, Franklin D. Roosevelt. As the 25th Amendment had not yet been passed, there was no method for filling a vice presidential vacancy, and Truman served without a vice president during his first term. Truman's nomination faced significant opposition from the South, as did the party's platform on civil rights. Though Truman attempted to convince Supreme Court Justice William O. Douglas to join the ticket, Douglas declined. Truman instead selected Senate Minority Leader Alben W. Barkley, the preferred choice of many Democratic delegates, and a border state Senator who could appeal to both the Northern and Southern wings of the party. The Truman-Barkley ticket won the 1948 election, defeating the Republican (Dewey-Warren), Progressive (Wallace-Taylor), and Dixiecrat (Thurmond-Wright) tickets.

1948 United States presidential election

The 1948 United States presidential election was the 41st quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 2, 1948. Incumbent President Harry S. Truman, the Democratic nominee, defeated Republican Governor Thomas E. Dewey. Truman's victory is considered to be one of the greatest election upsets in American history.Truman had acceded to the presidency in April 1945 after the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1945. Defeating attempts to drop him from the ticket, Truman won the presidential nomination at the 1948 Democratic National Convention. The Democratic convention's civil rights plank caused a walk-out by several Southern delegates, who launched a third-party "Dixiecrat" ticket led by Governor Strom Thurmond of South Carolina. The Dixiecrats hoped to win enough electoral votes to force a contingent election in the House of Representatives, where they could extract concessions from either Dewey or Truman in exchange for their support. Truman also faced a challenge from the left in the form of former Vice President Henry A. Wallace, who launched the Progressive Party and challenged Truman's confrontational Cold War policies. Dewey, who was the leader of his party's moderate eastern wing and had been the 1944 Republican presidential nominee, defeated Senator Robert A. Taft and other challengers at the 1948 Republican National Convention.

Truman's feisty campaign style energized his base of traditional Democrats, consisting of most of the white South, as well as Catholic and Jewish voters; he also fared surprisingly well with Midwestern farmers. Dewey ran a low risk campaign and largely avoided directly criticizing Truman. With the three-way split in the Democratic Party, and with Truman's low approval ratings, Truman was widely considered to be the underdog in the race. Virtually every prediction (with or without public opinion polls) indicated that Truman would be defeated by Dewey.

Defying predictions of his defeat, Truman won the 1948 election, garnering 303 electoral votes to Dewey's 189. Truman won 49.6% of the popular vote compared to Dewey's 45.1%, while the third party candidacies of Thurmond and Wallace each won less than 3% of the popular vote, with Thurmond carrying four southern states. Truman's surprise victory was the fifth consecutive presidential win for the Democratic Party, the longest winning streak for either party since the 1880 election. With simultaneous success in the 1948 congressional elections, the Democrats regained control of both houses of Congress, which they had lost in 1946. Thus, Truman's election confirmed the Democratic Party's status as the nation's majority party.

Carl Sherman

Carl Sherman (October 16, 1890 – July 17, 1956) was an American lawyer and politician.

Cecil R. King

Cecil Rhodes King (January 13, 1898 – March 17, 1974) was an American businessman and politician. King, a Democrat, served as the first member of the United States House of Representatives from California's 17th congressional district for fourteen terms, serving from August 1942 to January 1969. King was first elected by special election on August 25, 1942 after previously serving out the term of Lee E. Geyer who had died in Washington, D.C. on October 11, 1941.

Dixiecrat

The States' Rights Democratic Party (usually called the Dixiecrats) was a short-lived segregationist political party in the United States. It originated in 1948 as a breakaway faction of the Democratic Party determined to protect states' rights to legislate racial segregation from what its members regarded as an oppressive federal government. Supporters assumed control of the state Democratic parties in part or in full in several Southern states. The Party opposed racial integration and wanted to retain Jim Crow laws and white supremacy in the face of possible federal intervention. Its members were referred to as "Dixiecrats", a portmanteau of "Dixie", referring to the Southern United States, and "Democrat".

The party did not run local or state candidates, and after the 1948 election its leaders generally returned to the Democratic Party. The Dixiecrats had little short-run impact on politics. However, they did have a long-term impact. The Dixiecrats began the weakening of the "Solid South" (the Democratic Party's total control of presidential elections in the South).The term "Dixiecrat" is sometimes used by Northern Democrats to refer to conservative Southern Democrats from the 1940s to the 1990s, regardless of where they stood in 1948.

Edna F. Kelly

Edna Kelly (née Flannery; August 20, 1906 – December 14, 1997) was an American politician who served as a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives from New York.

Kelly was born in East Hampton, New York. She graduated from Hunter College in 1928. She was a delegate to the 1948 Democratic National Convention, 1952 Democratic National Convention, 1956 Democratic National Convention, 1960 Democratic National Convention, and 1968 Democratic National Convention. She was elected to Congress in 1949 to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Andrew L. Somers and served from November 8, 1949 until January 3, 1969. She was part of the Democratic National Committee from 1956 until 1968.

Throughout her 19-year career in the House, Kelly was recognized for her expertise in foreign affairs, serving as the chair of the Subcommittee on Europe and retiring from Congress as the third ranking member of the House Committee on Foreign Affairs. During her tenure, Kelly was responsible for measures that settled displaced people after World War II and refugees for Russia and Eastern Europe. She also helped to create the United States Arms Control and Disarmament Agency.Early in the 1950s, she was among the first in Congress to advocate for a tax reduction for low-income single parents left with the sole responsibility of caring for their dependent children. Congresswoman Kelly called attention to the inequity in the Tax Code that permitted business deductions for entertainment, but none for child care. Her proposal became part of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954.Kelly can also be credited with promoting the first equal pay for equal work bill, which she introduced in 1951. It was a landmark effort, which established a new era in the fight for women's equality. She was in attendance when President John F. Kennedy signed the Equal Pay Act into law June 10, 1963.She received numerous awards, including the Mother Gerard Phelan Award from Marymount College; an honorary doctorate from Russell Sage College; and her alma mater Hunter College's highest honor, the Centennial Medal.She was married to New York City Court Justice Edward L. Kelly of Brooklyn, who died in 1942.Kelly died in Alexandria, Virginia of cancer and a series of strokes at the age of 91. She had two children, eight grandchildren and 17 great-grandchildren.

George C. Hawkins

George Copeland Hawkins, Jr., usually known as George C. Hawkins (December 4, 1918 - August 9, 1991), was an Alabama lawyer and Democratic politician.

Hawkins was born in Elora in Lincoln County in south Tennessee and established a law practice in Gadsden in Etowah County north of Birmingham. He was a member of the American Bar Association and the Association of Trial Lawyers. He was an alternate delegate to the 1948 Democratic National Convention, which meeting in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, adopted a civil rights platform plank opposed by many of the delegates from the then segregated American South. Some of the Alabamians staged a walkout in protest.He was elected to the Alabama House of Representatives in 1950 and 1954 but left the House to run for governor in 1958. Victory instead went to John Malcolm Patterson, who defeated George Wallace in a runoff election. Hawkins was elected in 1962 to the Alabama State Senate at the time Wallace won the first of his four nonconsecutive terms as governor. In 1964, he was a candidate for the United States House of Representatives but was defeated, 59.6 to 40.4 percent, by the Republican James D. Martin, also of Gadsden, when Barry Goldwater handily won the electoral votes of Alabama that year. Martin, who had lost a U.S. Senate race in 1962 against the Democrat Lister Hill, left the House seat after one term to wage an unsuccessful battle in 1966 for governor against Wallace's first wife, Lurleen Wallace.Hawkins was a United Methodist. He was married from 1942 until his death of renal failure at the age of seventy-two to the former Jane Elizabeth Smith (1920-2009), a daughter of Hulet Magnum Smith and Ruth Lee Smith of Tuscaloosa, Alabama, and a graduate of the University of Alabama. The couple had five children. Eight years after her husband's death, she relocated for the last eleven years of her life to Coronado, California, where she engaged in photography, painting, and appreciation of nature. She is interred next to her parents at Tuscaloosa Memorial Park, but Hawkins is buried at Forrest Cemetery in Gadsden.

George F. Montgomery Sr.

George F. Montgomery Sr. was a Democratic member of the Michigan House of Representatives.

Montgomery was born in Ionia, Michigan in 1909 and graduated from the University of Michigan in 1929. He worked as a teacher, was first elected to the House in 1944, and was defeated for re-election in 1946. Montgomery unsuccessfully sought election to the House in 1950, 1954, and 1956; as State Superintendent of Public Instruction in 1947; and to the Senate in 1952. He was a delegate to the 1948 Democratic National Convention.Montgomery again won election to the House in 1958, serving for just over two decades before retiring in 1980. Montgomery died on March 10, 1981, at his home in Pompano Beach, Florida, and his body lay in state in the House chamber of the Michigan State Capitol. His son, George Jr. also served in the House for three terms with his father.

Harry Norwitch

Harry Norwitch (born Hershel Arnowitch, June 18, 1894 – April 16, 1973) was an organized labor leader and Democratic politician from Philadelphia.

Norwitch was born in Odessa, Russia (present-day Ukraine) in 1894 and emigrated to the United States with his family as a child. Initially settling in Baltimore, Norwitch went to work at a clothing factory from the age of 13. He married Mae Schreiber in about 1917; they had two children, Mildred and Bernard. Norwitch became affiliated with the Amalgamated Clothing Workers union and moved to Philadelphia in 1926 to work as a business agent for the Joint Board Cutters and Trimmers Local 110. His union work brought him into local politics, and he became active in the Nonpartisan League, a socialist group, in 1934. He joined the Democratic Party and served as a delegate to the 1948 Democratic National Convention in Philadelphia, where President Harry S. Truman was nominated for a new term.In 1949, Norwitch ran for a seat on Philadelphia's City Council in a special election that followed the death of L. Wallace Egan. Every seat on the Council was, at that time, held by Republicans, but Norwitch emerged the victor in his West Philadelphia district, defeating Republican James H. McHale, Progressive Lillian R. Narins, and independent Democrat Michael J. O'Connor. He and Maxwell E. Seidman, elected the same day, made up the council's entire Democratic caucus.

In 1951, Norwitch was reelected to Philadelphia City Council from West Philadelphia's 3rd district, part of a Democratic wave that swept the Republicans from power for the first time in 67 years. In 1954, he successfully opposed the efforts fellow Democrats James Hugh Joseph Tate and Michael J. Towey to weaken the civil service reforms of the new charter. The following year, he was reelected with a slightly reduced majority.In 1956, charter amendments aimed at weakening civil service protections were proposed again. Norwitch remained opposed, but the amendments found the required two-thirds vote in Council to make it on to the ballot for popular approval. The referendum failed in a vote that April. That same year, Norwitch sponsored a bill to extend the city's rent control policy. The bill passed, but was struck down by the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania that December. In 1959, Norwitch ran for a fourth Council term and defeated Republican Abraham Levin with 63.7% of the vote, his greatest margin to date.As chairman of City Council's appropriations committee, Norwitch was involved with decisions about taxation and spending. In the early 1960s, he joined with Council President Tate to oppose the tax hikes called for by Mayor Richardson Dilworth, while continuing to advocate the city worker wage increases the new taxes were intended to fund. Ultimately, Council and the mayor agreed to a budget that was the largest in the city's history, including a wage tax hike from 1.5% to 1.625%. Norwitch defended the deal, noting that city workers' salaries lagged behind the rest of the nation, and that the tax increase was evenly spread between wage and property taxes. Norwitch also voted for increased funding for police and schools. In 1963, Norwitch ran for a fifth term. He had no primary election opposition and easily defeated Republican Mary Jane Ladner, getting 59% of the vote.That same year, Norwitch testified before a grand jury investigating campaign contributions to him by a laundry business while a bill regulating such businesses was before the Council. Norwitch claimed there was no connection between the two, and was never charged. After Tate was elected mayor, Norwitch continued to support him, and clashed with fellow Democrat and City Council President Paul D'Ortona over taxation issues. In a change from his position of a few years earlier, Norwitch held the line on spending, voting to stop proposed pay increases for some city workers.In his attempt at re-election in 1967, Norwitch did not receive the endorsement of the Democratic City Committee, which remained neutral in his race against his primary opponents. He accused party chairman Francis R. Smith of pitting blacks against whites and seeking a "racial fight when all Philadelphians should be working hand-in-hand to solve the problems of our big city." Norwitch blamed Smith for redistricting changes that made his 3rd district predominantly black, which had not been the case before. After calling the Democratic machine "self-serving" and calling Smith's tactics "despicable," Norwitch quit the race; the Democratic City Committee then endorsed local attorney and ward leader Charles L. Durham, who went on to win the primary and general elections. After his retirement, Tate appointed Norwitch deputy managing director of the city. Norwitch died of heart failure at Albert Einstein Medical Center in 1973, and was buried in Mount Lebanon Cemetery in Delaware County.

Harvey Peltier Jr.

Harvey Andrew Peltier Jr. (January 18, 1923 – December 5, 1980), was from 1964 to 1976 a member of the Louisiana State Senate from District 21, which included Lafourche and Terrebonne parishes in South Louisiana. He served alongside Claude B. Duval, senator from Terrebonne and St. Mary parishes.Peltier resided in his native Thibodaux, Louisiana. At the age of twenty-five, he was a delegate to the 1948 Democratic National Convention held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, which nominated the Truman-Barkley ticket. He was appointed in 1975 by Governor Edwin Edwards as a trustee of the University of Louisiana System and was its first president from 1975 until his death in 1980.Peltier's father, Harvey Peltier Sr., an attorney, banker, and horse breeder, a political confidante of and a campaign manager for Governor and U.S. Senator Huey Pierce Long Jr. was a member of the Louisiana House of Representatives from 1924 to 1929 and held the same senate seat as his son, from 1930 to 1940. Peltier Sr. also served on the former Louisiana State Board of Education as the elected member from Louisiana's 3rd congressional district.Peltier's mother was the former May Ayo (1902-1992). He had a sister, Bernice P. Harang, and three brothers, Donald Louis Peltier (1926-2008), Richard Benton Peltier (1938-2007), and Dr. James R. Peltier (born 1930), a member of the Louisiana State University Board of Supervisors. Peltier's brother-in-law, Warren Harang Jr. (1921–2005), was a former president of the Thibodaux Chamber of Commerce and the American Sugar Cane League, a member of the Lafourche Parish School Board, and the mayor of Thibodaux from 1968–1978, 1986–1990, and 1994–1998.In 1945, Peltier married Irma Mary Geheeb (1924-2014), the third daughter of Albert John and Cleo Belou Geheeb. Known as "Mickey", she graduated from the former Ursuline College, now Ursuline Academy, in her native New Orleans. The Peltiers lost an infant son in 1952 and have three surviving children, Patricia P. Crum, Harvey "Drew" Peltier III, and wife Linda, and Mary Ellen Peltier. Peltier's son-in-law, John Mitchell Crum (1945-2012), was a district attorney of the 40th Judicial District of St. John the Baptist Parish.The Peltier family is interred in the family tomb at St. Joseph Cemetery in Thibodaux.In February 2014, four months before the death of his wife, Peltier Jr. was posthumously inducted into the Louisiana Political Museum and Hall of Fame in Winnfield. Peltier's colleague in the Louisiana House, Richard P. "Dick" Guidry of Lafourche Parish, was inducted in the same ceremony.

Hubert Humphrey

Hubert Horatio Humphrey Jr. (May 27, 1911 – January 13, 1978) was an American politician who served as the 38th vice president of the United States from 1965 to 1969. He twice served in the United States Senate, representing Minnesota from 1949 to 1964 and 1971 to 1978. He was the Democratic Party's nominee in the 1968 presidential election, losing to Republican nominee Richard Nixon.

Born in Wallace, South Dakota, Humphrey attended the University of Minnesota. At one point he helped run his father's pharmacy. He earned a master's degree from Louisiana State University and worked for the Works Progress Administration, the Minnesota war service program, and the War Manpower Commission. In 1943, he became a professor of political science at Macalester College and ran a failed campaign for mayor of Minneapolis. He helped found the Minnesota Democratic–Farmer–Labor Party (DFL) in 1944. In 1945, he won election as mayor of Minneapolis, serving until 1948 and co-founding the liberal anti-communist group Americans for Democratic Action in 1947. In 1948, he was elected to the U.S. Senate and successfully advocated for the inclusion of a proposal to end racial segregation in the 1948 Democratic National Convention's party platform.Humphrey served three terms in the Senate from 1949 to 1964. He was the Senate Majority Whip from 1961 to 1964. During his tenure, he was the lead author of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, introduced the first initiative to create the Peace Corps, sponsored the clause of the McCarran Act that threatened concentration camps for "subversives", proposed making Communist Party membership a felony, and chaired the Select Committee on Disarmament. He unsuccessfully sought his party's presidential nomination in 1952 and 1960. After Lyndon B. Johnson acceded to the presidency, he chose Humphrey as his running mate, and the Democratic ticket was elected in the landslide 1964 election.

In March 1968 Johnson made his surprise announcement that he would not seek reelection, and Humphrey launched his campaign for the presidency. Loyal to the Johnson administration's policies on the Vietnam War, he saw opposition from many within his own party and avoided the primaries to focus on winning the delegates of non-primary states at the Democratic Convention. His delegate strategy succeeded in clinching the nomination, and he chose Senator Edmund Muskie as his running mate. In the general election, he nearly matched Nixon's tally in the popular vote but lost the electoral vote by a wide margin. After the defeat, he returned to the Senate until his death in 1978.

John F. Shelley

John Francis "Jack" Shelley (September 3, 1905 – September 1, 1974) was a U.S. politician. He served as the 35th mayor of San Francisco, from 1964 to 1968, the first Democrat elected to the office in 50 years, and the first in an unbroken line of Democratic mayors that lasts to the present (as of 2018). His term in the United States House of Representatives, immediately prior to his mayoralty (1949-1964), also broke a long streak of Republican tenure (44 years) and began a streak of Democratic representatives for San Francisco (and, coincidentally, the 5th district) that continues to the present (as of 2018).

Shelley earned a law degree from the University of San Francisco in 1932. He served in the United States Coast Guard during World War II and was a member of the California State Senate from 1938 to 1946. He ran an unsuccessful race for the Lieutenant Governor's office against Goodwin Knight in 1946. Shelley would then make his mark as a leader of the California delegation to the 1948 Democratic National Convention, when he helped marshal his state's votes to support a strong civil rights plank. Shelley entered the United States House of Representatives in 1949 and served until 1964, when he stepped down to be inaugurated Mayor of San Francisco after winning the November, 1963 election by nearly a 12-point margin against his nearest opponent, Harold Dobbs (50-38.5%).

John Schneider Jr.

John Schneider Jr. (August 20, 1918 in Sheboygan, Wisconsin – July 6, 1985) was a member of the Wisconsin State Assembly.

Lewis McMurran

Lewis Archer McMurran Jr. (April 11, 1914 – July 17, 1989) was a member of the Virginia House of Delegates from 1948 until 1977. He represented the City of Newport News, Virginia including representing Warwick County, Virginia before it was consolidated into the City of Newport News.

He was born in Newport News, Virginia on April 11, 1914. He attended Washington and Lee University.

He served in the United States Navy Reserve in World War II rising to the rank of Lieutenant Commander.

He was a Democrat. He was member of the Virginia Delegation to the 1948 Democratic National Convention. He was elected to the Virginia House of Delegates in 1948. He served until 1977. His committee assignments included Federal Relations (Chairman), Chesapeake and Its Tributaries, Counties Cities and Towns, and Roads and Internal Navigation.

Through his work in the Virginia General Assembly, he was instrumental in the founding of Christopher Newport University in 1960 as a two-year branch of the College of William and Mary. In 1964 the first building built for Christopher Newport University (Lewis Archer McMurran, Jr., Hall) was constructed on the site of the current campus.

In 1981 the College of William and Mary awarded Lewis A. McMurran Jr. an honorary degree (LL.D.).

He was a member of the Presbyterian Church and the James River Country Club.

He was the founding chairman of the Jamestown-Yorktown Foundation, the Virginia state agency that operates Jamestown Settlement and the Yorktown Victory Center. As a member of the Virginia House of Delegates he was instrumental in the creation of the Virginia 350th Anniversary Commission in 1954 and served as its chairman. He continued as chairman of the Jamestown-Yorktown Foundation until 1986 and was chairman emeritus at the time of his death in 1989.

Richard Russell Jr.

Richard Brevard Russell Jr. (November 2, 1897 – January 21, 1971) was an American politician. A member of the Democratic Party, he served as the 66th Governor of Georgia from 1931 to 1933 before serving in the United States Senate for almost 40 years, from 1933 to 1971. Russell was a founder and leader of the conservative coalition that dominated Congress from 1937 to 1963, and at his death was the most senior member of the Senate. He was for decades a leader of Southern opposition to the civil rights movement.Born in Winder, Georgia, Russell established a legal practice in Winder after graduating from the University of Georgia School of Law. He served in the Georgia House of Representatives from 1921 to 1931 before becoming Governor of Georgia. Russell won a special election to succeed Senator William J. Harris and joined the Senate in 1933. He supported the New Deal early in his Senate career but helped establish the conservative coalition of Republicans and Southern Democrats. He was the chief sponsor of the National School Lunch Act, which provided free or low-cost schools lunches to impoverished students.During his long tenure in the Senate, Russell served as chairman of several committees, and was the Chairman of the Senate Committee on Armed Services for most of the period between 1951 and 1969. He was a candidate for President of the United States at the 1948 Democratic National Convention and the 1952 Democratic National Convention. He was also a member of the Warren Commission.Russell supported racial segregation and co-authored the Southern Manifesto with Strom Thurmond. Russell and 17 fellow Democratic and one Republican Senators blocked the passage of civil rights legislation via the filibuster. After Russell's protege, President Lyndon B. Johnson, signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 into law, Russell led a Southern boycott of the 1964 Democratic National Convention. Russell served in the Senate until his death from emphysema in 1971.

Sam Lumpkin

Samuel Edgerton Lumpkin (April 21, 1908 – July 9, 1964) was a United States politician from Tupelo, Lee County, Mississippi. A Democrat, he served as the 21st Lieutenant Governor of Mississippi from 1948 to 1952 under Governor Fielding L. Wright. He was born in Hudsonville in 1908.Before elevation to Lt. Governor he served in the Mississippi House of Representatives, eventually rising to position of the Speaker of the House in 1940He was also a delegate to the 1948 Democratic National Convention and was an unsuccessful candidate for Democratic nomination for governor in 1951.During the 1952 presidential election he endorsed Republican nominee, General Dwight D. Eisenhower and led so-called "eisencrats" faction in Mississippi.Lumpkin was found dead of a heart attack at his home's pool in 1964.

Thomas A. Wofford

Thomas Albert Wofford (September 27, 1908 – February 25, 1978) was a United States Senator from South Carolina. Born in Madden Station, Laurens County, South Carolina, he attended the public schools and graduated from the University of South Carolina at Columbia in 1928, and from Harvard University Law School in 1931. He was admitted to the bar in the latter year and commenced the practice of law in Greenville. He was assistant solicitor of the thirteenth judicial circuit from 1935 to 1936, and was assistant United States district attorney from 1937 to 1944. In 1947, Wofford was one of the defense attorneys in the Greenville Lynching Trial. He was a member of the board of trustees of Winthrop College from 1944 to 1956. Wofford also was a delegate to the 1948 Democratic National Convention from South Carolina.

Wofford was appointed on April 5, 1956 as a Democrat to the US Senate to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Strom Thurmond and served from April 5, 1956, to November 6, 1956; he was not a candidate for election to fill the vacancy, and engaged in the practice of law. He was a member of the South Carolina Senate from 1966 to 1972, and changed party affiliation to Republican. He resided in Greenville, and died there in 1978; interment was in Woodlawn Memorial Park.

Turnip Day Session

The Turnip Day Session (or "Turnip Day" session) was a special session of Congress to begin on July 26, 1948, called by President Harry Truman during his acceptance speech two weeks earlier during the 1948 Democratic National Convention. The name "Turnip Day" comes from Missouri folklore.

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