1946 Cabinet Mission to India

The Cabinet Mission of 1946 came to India aimed to discuss the transfer of power from the British government to the Indian leadership, with the aim of preserving India's unity and granting it independence. Formulated at the initiative of Clement Attlee, the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, the mission had Lord Pethick-Lawrence, the Secretary of State for India, Sir Stafford Cripps, President of the Board of Trade, and A. V. Alexander, the First Lord of the Admiralty. Lord Wavell, the Viceroy of India, did not participate in every step but was present.

Background

Towards the end of their rule, the British found that their temporary patronage of the Muslim League conflicted with their longstanding need for Indian unity. The desire for a united India was an outcome of both their pride in having politically unified the subcontinent and the doubts of most British authorities as to the feasibility of Pakistan.[1] This desire for Indian unity was symbolized by the Cabinet Mission of March 1946,[2] sent by the British government,[3] in which the subject was the form of a post-independent India. The three men who constituted the mission, Stafford Cripps, Pethick-Lawrence and A.V. Alexander favoured India's unity for strategic reasons.[4]

Upon arriving in the subcontinent the mission found both parties, the Indian National Congress and Muslim League, more unwilling than ever to reach a settlement. The two parties had performed well in the elections and emerged as the two main parties in the subcontinent, the provincial organisations having been defeated. That was because of the separate electorates system. The Muslim League had been victorious in approximately 90 percent of the seats for Muslims.[5] After having achieved victory in the elections Jinnah gained a strong hand to bargain with the British and Congress.[6] Having established the system of separate electorates, the British could no longer reverse its consequences in spite of their genuine commitment to Indian unity.[7]

Plan

The mission made its own proposals, after inconclusive dialogue with the Indian leadership,[8] seeing that the Congress opposed Jinnah's demand for a Pakistan comprising six full provinces.[9] The mission proposed a complicated system for India with three tiers:[10] the provinces, provincial groupings and the centre.[11] The centre's power was to be confined to foreign affairs, defence,[12] currency[13] and communications.[14] The provinces would keep all the other powers and were allowed to establish three groups.[15] The plan's main characteristic was the grouping of provinces. Two groups would be constituted by the mainly-Muslim western and eastern provinces. The third group would comprise the mostly-Hindu areas in the south and the centre,[16] such as UP, CP, Bombay, Bihar and Madras.[17] Group B would comprise Sind, Punjab, Northwest Frontier and Baluchistan. Bengal and Assam would make up Group C.[18]

Reactions

Through the scheme, the British expected to maintain Indian unity, as both they and Congress wanted, and also providing Jinnah the substance of Pakistan. The proposals almost satisfied Jinnah's insistence on a large Pakistan, which would avert the moth-eaten Pakistan without the mostly non-Muslim districts in Bengal and Punjab being partitioned away. By holding the full provinces of Punjab and Bengal, Jinnah could satisfy the provincial leaders who feared losing power if their provinces were divided.[19] The presence of large Hindu minorities in Punjab and Bengal also provided a safeguard for the Muslim minorities remaining in the mostly-Hindu provinces.[20][21]

Most of all, Jinnah wanted parity between Pakistan and India. He believed that provincial groupings could best secure this. He claimed that Muslim India was a 'nation' equally entitled to central representations as Hindu India. Despite his preference for only two groups, the Muslim League's Council accepted the mission's proposals[22] on 6 June 1946 after securing a guarantee from Wavell that the League would be placed in the interim government if the Congress did not accept the plan.[23]

The onus was now on Congress.[24] It accepted the proposals, understanding it to be a repudiation of the demand for Pakistan, and its position was that the provinces should be allowed to stay out of groups that they did not want to join, in light of both NWFP and Assam being ruled by Congress governments. However, Jinnah differed and saw the grouping plan as mandatory. Another point of difference concerned the Congress position that a sovereign constituent assembly would not be bound to the plan. Jinnah insisted it be binding once the plan was accepted.[25] The groupings plan maintained India's unity, but the organisation's leadership and, most of all Nehru, increasingly believed that the scheme would leave the centre without the strength to achieve the party's ambitions. Congress' socialist section led by Nehru desired a federal government able to industrialize the country and to eliminate poverty.[26]

Nehru's incendiary speech on 10 July 1946 rejected the idea that the provinces would be obliged to join a group[27] and stated that the Congress was neither bound nor committed to the plan.[28] In effect, Nehru's speech squashed the mission's plan and the chance to keep India united.[29] Jinnah interpreted the speech as another instance of treachery by the Congress.[30] With Nehru's speech on groupings, the Muslim League rescinded its previous approval of the plan[31] on 29 July.[32]

Interim government and breakdown

Concerned by the diminishing British power Wavell was eager to inaugurate an interim federal government. Disregarding Jinnah's veto, he authorised a cabinet in which Nehru was the interim prime minister.[33] Sidelined and with his Pakistan of "groups" refused Jinnah became distraught. To achieve Pakistan and impose on Congress that he could not be sidelined, he resorted to "direct action", which sparked rioting and massacres.[34] Direct Action Day further increased Wavell's resolve to establish the interim government. On 2 September 1946, Nehru's cabinet was installed.[35]

Millions of Indian Muslim households flew black flags to protest the installation of the Congress government.[36] Jinnah did not himself join the interim government but sent Liaquat Ali Khan into it to play a secondary role. Congress did not want to give him the important position of home minister and instead allowed him the post of finance minister. Liaquat Ali Khan infuriated Congress by using his role to prevent the functioning of Congress ministries,[37] demonstrating (under Jinnah's instructions) the impossibility of a single government for India.[38]

Britain tried to revive the cabinet mission's scheme by sending Nehru, Jinnah and Wavell in December to meet Attlee, Cripps and Pethick-Lawrence. The inflexible arguments were enough to cause Nehru to return to India and announce that "we have now altogether stopped looking towards London."[39] Meanwhile, Wavell commenced the Constituent Assembly, which the League boycotted. He anticipated that the League would enter it as it had joined the interim government, Instead, the Congress became more forceful and asked him to drop ministers from the Muslim League. Wavell was also not able to obtain a declaration from the British government that would articulate their goals.[40]

In the context of the worsening situation, Wavell drew up a breakdown plan that provided for a gradual British exit, but his plan was considered fatalistic by the Cabinet. When he insisted on his plan, he was replaced with Lord Mountbatten.[41]

References

  1. ^ Ian Talbot; Gurharpal Singh (23 July 2009). The Partition of India. Cambridge University Press. pp. 39–40. ISBN 978-0-521-85661-4.
  2. ^ Ian Talbot; Gurharpal Singh (23 July 2009). The Partition of India. Cambridge University Press. p. 40. ISBN 978-0-521-85661-4.
  3. ^ Hardy; Thomas Hardy (7 December 1972). The Muslims of British India. CUP Archive. p. 247. ISBN 978-0-521-09783-3.
  4. ^ Ian Talbot; Gurharpal Singh (23 July 2009). The Partition of India. Cambridge University Press. p. 40. ISBN 978-0-521-85661-4.
  5. ^ Hermanne Kulke; Dietmar Rothermund. A History of India (PDF) (4th ed.). Routledge. p. 318.
  6. ^ Hardy; Thomas Hardy (7 December 1972). The Muslims of British India. CUP Archive. p. 247. ISBN 978-0-521-09783-3.
  7. ^ Hermanne Kulke; Dietmar Rothermund. A History of India (PDF) (4th ed.). Routledge. p. 318.
  8. ^ Ian Talbot; Gurharpal Singh (23 July 2009). The Partition of India. Cambridge University Press. p. 40. ISBN 978-0-521-85661-4.
  9. ^ Hardy; Thomas Hardy (7 December 1972). The Muslims of British India. CUP Archive. p. 247. ISBN 978-0-521-09783-3.
  10. ^ Barbara Metcalf; Thomas Metcalf (2006). A Concise History of Modern India (PDF) (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 215.
  11. ^ Hermanne Kulke; Dietmar Rothermund. A History of India (PDF) (4th ed.). Routledge. p. 319.
  12. ^ Ian Talbot; Gurharpal Singh (23 July 2009). The Partition of India. Cambridge University Press. p. 40. ISBN 978-0-521-85661-4.
  13. ^ Hermanne Kulke; Dietmar Rothermund. A History of India (PDF) (4th ed.). Routledge. p. 319.
  14. ^ Barbara Metcalf; Thomas Metcalf (2006). A Concise History of Modern India (PDF) (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 215.
  15. ^ Ian Talbot; Gurharpal Singh (23 July 2009). The Partition of India. Cambridge University Press. p. 40. ISBN 978-0-521-85661-4.
  16. ^ Barbara Metcalf; Thomas Metcalf (2006). A Concise History of Modern India (PDF) (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 215.
  17. ^ Ian Talbot; Gurharpal Singh (23 July 2009). The Partition of India. Cambridge University Press. p. 40. ISBN 978-0-521-85661-4.
  18. ^ Stanley Wolpert (2009). A New History of India. Oxford University Press. p. 359.
  19. ^ Barbara Metcalf; Thomas Metcalf (2006). A Concise History of Modern India (PDF) (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 215–216.
  20. ^ Barbara Metcalf; Thomas Metcalf (2006). A Concise History of Modern India (PDF) (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 216.
  21. ^ Hardy; Thomas Hardy (7 December 1972). The Muslims of British India. CUP Archive. p. 249. ISBN 978-0-521-09783-3.
  22. ^ Barbara Metcalf; Thomas Metcalf (2006). A Concise History of Modern India (PDF) (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 216.
  23. ^ Hardy; Thomas Hardy (7 December 1972). The Muslims of British India. CUP Archive. p. 248. ISBN 978-0-521-09783-3.
  24. ^ Barbara Metcalf; Thomas Metcalf (2006). A Concise History of Modern India (PDF) (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 216.
  25. ^ Hermanne Kulke; Dietmar Rothermund. A History of India (PDF) (4th ed.). Routledge. p. 319.
  26. ^ Barbara Metcalf; Thomas Metcalf (2006). A Concise History of Modern India (PDF) (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 216.
  27. ^ Barbara Metcalf; Thomas Metcalf (2006). A Concise History of Modern India (PDF) (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 216.
  28. ^ Stanley Wolpert (2009). A New History of India. Oxford University Press. pp. 360–361.
  29. ^ Barbara Metcalf; Thomas Metcalf (2006). A Concise History of Modern India (PDF) (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 216.
  30. ^ Stanley Wolpert (2009). A New History of India. Oxford University Press. p. 361.
  31. ^ Ian Talbot; Gurharpal Singh (23 July 2009). The Partition of India. Cambridge University Press. p. 40. ISBN 978-0-521-85661-4.
  32. ^ Hardy; Thomas Hardy (7 December 1972). The Muslims of British India. CUP Archive. p. 249. ISBN 978-0-521-09783-3.
  33. ^ Hermanne Kulke; Dietmar Rothermund. A History of India (PDF) (4th ed.). Routledge. p. 319.
  34. ^ Barbara Metcalf; Thomas Metcalf (2006). A Concise History of Modern India (PDF) (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 217.
  35. ^ Hermanne Kulke; Dietmar Rothermund. A History of India (PDF) (4th ed.). Routledge. p. 320.
  36. ^ Stanley Wolpert (2009). A New History of India. Oxford University Press. p. 363.
  37. ^ Hermanne Kulke; Dietmar Rothermund. A History of India (PDF) (4th ed.). Routledge. p. 320.
  38. ^ Stanley Wolpert (2009). A New History of India. Oxford University Press. p. 363.
  39. ^ Stanley Wolpert (2009). A New History of India. Oxford University Press. p. 363.
  40. ^ Hermanne Kulke; Dietmar Rothermund. A History of India (PDF) (4th ed.). Routledge. p. 320.
  41. ^ Ian Talbot; Gurharpal Singh (23 July 2009). The Partition of India. Cambridge University Press. p. 40. ISBN 978-0-521-85661-4.

Bibliography

  • Ian Talbot; Gurharpal Singh (23 July 2009). The Partition of India Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-85661-4
  • Hermanne Kulke; Dietmar Rothermund. A History of India (4th ed.). Routledge
  • Barbara Metcalf; Thomas Metcalf (2006). A Concise History of Modern India(PDF) (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press
  • Stanley Wolpert (2009). A New History of India. Oxford University Press.
  • Peter Hardy (7 December 1972). The Muslims of British India CUP Archive. ISBN 978-0-521-09783-3.

Further reading

1946 in India

Events in the year 1946 in India.

Abdul Majeed Khwaja

Abdul Majeed Khwaja (1885–1962), an Indian lawyer, educationist, social reformer and freedom fighter, was born at Aligarh, a small but historically significant town in the northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.

[Another child of his namely- Ajmal khwaja.Who is currently in Madinah. (Saudi) ] ...

A liberal Muslim, he was deeply committed to Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi's ethical approach of nonviolent resistance. He actively opposed the partition of India in 1947 and dedicated his entire life to the promotion of Hindu-Muslim harmony.

He made a lasting contribution to the education of Indian Muslims in the modern era.

He died on 2 December 1962 and was buried in the family graveyard adjacent to the shrine of the Sufi saint Shah Jamal on the outskirts of Aligarh.

British Raj

The British Raj (; from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent from 1858 to 1947. The rule is also called Crown rule in India, or direct rule in India. The region under British control was commonly called British India or simply India in contemporaneous usage, and included areas directly administered by the United Kingdom, which were collectively called British India, and those ruled by indigenous rulers, but under British tutelage or paramountcy, and called the princely states. The whole was also informally called the Indian Empire.

As India, it was a founding member of the League of Nations, a participating nation in the Summer Olympics in 1900, 1920, 1928, 1932, and 1936, and a founding member of the United Nations in San Francisco in 1945.This system of governance was instituted on 28 June 1858, when, after the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the rule of the British East India Company was transferred to the Crown in the person of Queen Victoria (who, in 1876, was proclaimed Empress of India). It lasted until 1947, when it was partitioned into two sovereign dominion states: the Dominion of India (later the Republic of India) and the Dominion of Pakistan (later the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, the eastern part of which, still later, became the People's Republic of Bangladesh). At the inception of the Raj in 1858, Lower Burma was already a part of British India; Upper Burma was added in 1886, and the resulting union, Burma, was administered as an autonomous province until 1937, when it became a separate British colony, gaining its own independence in 1948.

Constituent Assembly of India

The Constituent Assembly of India was elected to write the Constitution of India. Following India's independence from Great Britain in 1947, its members served as the nation's first Parliament.

An idea for a Constituent Assembly was proposed in 1934 by M. N. Roy, a pioneer of the Communist movement in India and an advocate of radical democracy. It became an official demand of the Indian National Congress in 1935, C. Rajagopalachari voiced the demand for a Constituent Assembly on 15 November 1939 based on adult franchise, and was accepted by the British in August 1940. On 8 August 1940, a statement was made by Viceroy Lord Linlithgow about the expansion of the Governor-General's Executive Council and the establishment of a War Advisory Council. This offer, known as the August Offer, included giving full weight to minority opinions and allowing Indians to draft their own constitution. Under the Cabinet Mission Plan of 1946, elections were held for the first time for the Constituent Assembly. The Constitution of India was drafted by the Constituent Assembly, and it was implemented under the Cabinet Mission Plan on 16 May 1946. The members of the Constituent Assembly were elected by the provincial assemblies by a single, transferable-vote system of proportional representation. The total membership of the Constituent Assembly was 389: 292 were representatives of the states, 93 represented the princely states and four were from the chief commissioner provinces of Delhi, Ajmer-Merwara, Coorg (Near Madikeri) and British Baluchistan.

The elections for the 296 seats assigned to the British Indian provinces were completed by August 1946. Congress won 208 seats, and the Muslim League 73. After this election, the Muslim League refused to cooperate with the Congress, and the political situation deteriorated. Hindu-Muslim riots began, and the Muslim League demanded a separate constituent assembly for Muslims in India. On 3 June 1947 Lord Mountbatten, the last British Governor-General of India, announced his intention to scrap the Cabinet Mission Plan; this culminated in the Indian Independence Act 1947 and the separate nations of India and Pakistan. The Indian Independence Act was passed on 18 July 1947 and, although it was earlier declared that India would become independent in June 1948, this event led to independence on 15 August 1947. The Constituent Assembly (elected for an undivided India) met for the first time on 9 December 1946, reassembling on 14 August 1947 as a sovereign body and successor to the British parliament's authority in India. As a result of the partition, under the Mountbatten plan, a separate Constituent Assembly of Pakistan was established on 3 June 1947. The representatives of the areas incorporated into Pakistan ceased to be members of the Constituent Assembly of India. New elections were held for the West Punjab and East Bengal (which became part of Pakistan, although East Bengal later seceded to become Bangladesh); the membership of the Constituent Assembly was 299 after the reorganization, and it met on 31 December 1947.

Direct Action Day

Direct Action Day (16 August 1946), also known as the Great Calcutta Killings, was a day of widespread communal rioting between Muslims and Hindus in the city of Calcutta (now known as Kolkata) in the Bengal province of British India. The day also marked the start of what is known as The Week of the Long Knives.The 'Direct Action' was announced by the Muslim League Council to show the strength of Muslim feelings towards its demand for an "autonomous and sovereign" Pakistan. The Action resulted in the worst communal riots that British India had seen.

The Muslim League and the Indian National Congress were the two largest political parties in the Constituent Assembly of India in the 1940s. The Muslim League had demanded, since its 1940 Lahore Resolution, that the Muslim-majority areas of India in the northwest and the east, should be constituted as 'independent states'. The 1946 Cabinet Mission to India for planning of the transfer of power from the British Raj to the Indian leadership proposed a three-tier structure: a centre, groups of provinces, and provinces. The "groups of provinces" were meant to accommodate the Muslim League demand. Both the Muslim League and Congress in principle accepted the Cabinet Mission's plan. However, Muslim League suspected that Congress's acceptance was insincere.Consequently, in July 1946, it withdrew its agreement to the plan and announced a general strike (hartal) on 16 August, terming it as Direct Action Day, to assert its demand for a separate Muslim homeland.Against a backdrop of communal tension, the protest triggered massive riots in Calcutta. More than 4,000 people lost their lives and 100,000 residents were left homeless in Calcutta within 72 hours. This violence sparked off further religious riots in the surrounding regions of Noakhali, Bihar, United Provinces (modern Uttar Pradesh), Punjab, and the North Western Frontier Province. These events sowed the seeds for the eventual Partition of India.

First Nehru ministry

After independence, on 15 August 1947, Jawaharlal Nehru assumed office as the first Prime Minister of India and chose fifteen ministers to form the First Nehru ministry.

Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles and Fundamental Duties of India

The Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles of State Policy and Fundamental Duties are sections of the Constitution of India that prescribe the fundamental obligations of the states to its citizens and the duties and the rights of the citizens to the State. These sections comprise a constitutional bill of rights for government policy-making and the behaviour and conduct of citizens. These sections are considered vital elements of the constitution, which was developed between 1947 and 1949 by the Constituent Assembly of India.

The Fundamental Rights are defined as the basic human rights of all citizens. These rights, defined in Part III of the Constitution, applied irrespective of race, place of birth, religion, caste, creed, or gender. They are enforceable by the courts, subject to specific restrictions. The Directive Principles of State Policy are guidelines for the framing of laws by the government. These provisions, set out in Part IV of the Constitution, are not enforceable by the courts, but the principles on which they are based are fundamental guidelines for governance that the State is expected to apply in framing policies and passing laws.

The Fundamental Duties are defined as the moral obligations of all citizens to help promote a spirit of patriotism and to uphold the unity of India. These duties set out in Part IV–A of the Constitution, concern individuals and the nation. Like the Directive Principles, they are not enforceable by courts unless otherwise made enforceable by parliamentary law.

Guiding values of the Indian constitution:

a)We, the people of India

b)Sovereign

c)Socialist

d)Secular

e)Democratic

f)Republic

g)Justice

h)Liberty

I)Equality

j)Fraternity

Independence Day (Pakistan)

Independence Day (Urdu: یوم آزادی‬‎; Yaum-e Āzādī), observed annually on 14 August, is a national holiday in Pakistan. It commemorates the day when Pakistan achieved independence and was declared a sovereign state following the end of the British Raj in 1947. Pakistan came into existence as a result of the Pakistan Movement, which aimed for the creation of an independent Muslim state in the north-western regions of South Asia via partition. The movement was led by the All-India Muslim League under the leadership of Muhammad Ali Jinnah. The event was brought forth by the Indian Independence Act 1947 under which the British Raj gave independence to the Dominion of Pakistan which comprised West Pakistan (present-day Pakistan) and East Pakistan (now Bangladesh). In the Islamic calendar, the day of independence coincided with Ramadan 27, the eve of which, being Laylat al-Qadr, is regarded as sacred by Muslims.

The main Independence Day ceremony takes place in Islamabad, where the national flag is hoisted at the Presidential and Parliament buildings. It is followed by the national anthem and live televised speeches by leaders. Usual celebratory events and festivities for the day include flag-raising ceremonies, parades, cultural events, and the playing of patriotic songs. A number of award ceremonies are often held on this day, and Pakistanis hoist the national flag atop their homes or display it prominently on their vehicles and attire.

Interim Government of India

The Interim Government of India, formed on 9 December 1946 from the newly elected Constituent Assembly of India, had the task of assisting the transition of British India to independence. It remained in place until 15 August 1947, the date of the independence (and partition) of India, and the creation of Pakistan.

Jawaharlal Nehru

Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru (; Hindi: [ˈdʒəʋaːɦərˈlaːl ˈneːɦru] (listen); 14 November 1889 – 27 May 1964) was a freedom fighter, the first Prime Minister of India and a central figure in Indian politics before and after independence. He emerged as an eminent leader of the Indian independence movement under the tutelage of Mahatma Gandhi and served India as Prime Minister from its establishment as an independent nation in 1947 until his death in 1964. He is considered to be the architect of the modern Indian nation-state: a sovereign, socialist, secular, and democratic republic. He was also known as Pandit Nehru due to his roots with the Kashmiri Pandit community while Indian children knew him as Chacha Nehru (Hindi, lit., "Uncle Nehru").The son of Motilal Nehru, a prominent lawyer and nationalist statesman and Swaroop Rani, Nehru was a graduate of Trinity College, Cambridge and the Inner Temple, where he trained to be a barrister. Upon his return to India, he enrolled at the Allahabad High Court and took an interest in national politics, which eventually replaced his legal practice. A committed nationalist since his teenage years, he became a rising figure in Indian politics during the upheavals of the 1910s. He became the prominent leader of the left-wing factions of the Indian National Congress during the 1920s, and eventually of the entire Congress, with the tacit approval of his mentor, Gandhi. As Congress President in 1929, Nehru called for complete independence from the British Raj and instigated the Congress's decisive shift towards the left.

Nehru and the Congress dominated Indian politics during the 1930s as the country moved towards independence. His idea of a secular nation-state was seemingly validated when the Congress, under his leadership, swept the 1937 provincial elections and formed the government in several provinces; on the other hand, the separatist Muslim League fared much poorer. But these achievements were severely compromised in the aftermath of the Quit India Movement in 1942, which saw the British effectively crush the Congress as a political organisation. Nehru, who had reluctantly heeded Gandhi's call for immediate independence, for he had desired to support the Allied war effort during World War II, came out of a lengthy prison term to a much altered political landscape. The Muslim League under his old Congress colleague and now opponent, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, had come to dominate Muslim politics in India. Negotiations between Congress and Muslim League for power sharing failed and gave way to the independence and bloody partition of India in 1947.

Nehru was elected by the Congress to assume office as independent India's first Prime Minister, although the question of leadership had been settled as far back as 1941, when Gandhi acknowledged Nehru as his political heir and successor. As Prime Minister, he set out to realise his vision of India. The Constitution of India was enacted in 1950, after which he embarked on an ambitious program of economic, social and political reforms. Chiefly, he oversaw India's transition from a colony to a republic, while nurturing a plural, multi-party system. In foreign policy, he took a leading role in the Non-Aligned Movement while projecting India as a regional hegemon in South Asia.

Under Nehru's leadership, the Congress emerged as a catch-all party, dominating national and state-level politics and winning consecutive elections in 1951, 1957, and 1962. He remained popular with the people of India in spite of political troubles in his final years and failure of leadership during the 1962 Sino-Indian War. In India, his birthday is celebrated as Bal Diwas (Children's Day).

Naga National Council

The Naga National Council (NNC) was a political organization of Naga people, active from the late 1940s to the early 1950s. Under the leadership of Angami Zapu Phizo in the 1940s, it unsuccessfully campaigned for the secession of the Naga territory from India and creation for a sovereign Naga state.

Partition of India

The partition of India in 1947 eventually accompanied the creation of two independent dominions, India and Pakistan. The Dominion of India became, as of 1950, the Republic of India (India), and the Dominion of Pakistan became, as of 1956, the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (Pakistan). In 1971, the People's Republic of Bangladesh (Bangladesh) came into being after Bangladesh Liberation War. The partition involved the division of three provinces, Assam, Bengal and Punjab, based on district-wide Hindu or Muslim majorities. The boundary demarcating India and Pakistan came to be known as the Radcliffe Line. It also involved the division of the British Indian Army, the Royal Indian Navy, the Indian Civil Service, the railways, and the central treasury, between the two new dominions. The partition was set forth in the Indian Independence Act 1947 and resulted in the dissolution of the British Raj, as the British government there was called. The two self-governing countries of Pakistan and India legally came into existence at midnight on 14–15 August 1947.The partition displaced over 14 million people along religious lines, creating overwhelming refugee crises in the newly constituted dominions; there was large-scale violence, with estimates of loss of life accompanying or preceding the partition disputed and varying between several hundred thousand and two million. The violent nature of the partition created an atmosphere of hostility and suspicion between India and Pakistan that plagues their relationship to the present.

The term partition of India does not cover the secession of Bangladesh from Pakistan in 1971, nor the earlier separations of Burma (now Myanmar) from the administration of British India. The term also does not cover the political integration of princely states into the two new dominions, nor the disputes of annexation or division arising in the princely states of Hyderabad, Junagadh, and Jammu and Kashmir, though violence along religious lines did break out in some princely states at the time of the partition. It does not cover the incorporation of the enclaves of French India into India during the period 1947–1954, nor the annexation of Goa and other districts of Portuguese India by India in 1961. Other contemporaneous political entities in the region in 1947, Sikkim, Bhutan, Nepal, and the Maldives were unaffected by the partition.

Pashtunistan

Pashtūnistān (Pashto: پښتونستان‎; also called Pakhtūnistān, or Pathānistān, meaning the "land of Pashtuns") is the geographic historical region inhabited by the indigenous Pashtun people of modern-day Afghanistan and Pakistan, wherein Pashtun culture, language, and national identity have been based. Alternative names historically used for the region include "Pashtūnkhwā" (پښتونخوا), "Rōh" (روه), and "Afghānistān" (افغانستان), since at least the 3rd century CE onward. Pashtunistan borders Punjab to the east, Persian and Turkic speaking regions to the west and north, Kashmir to the northeast, and Balochistan to the south.

For administrative division in 1893, Mortimer Durand drew the Durand Line through Pashtunistan, fixing the limits of the spheres of influence between King Abdur Rahman Khan and British India. This porous line that runs through the centre of the Pashtun region forms the modern border between Afghanistan and Pakistan. Roughly, the Pashtun homeland stretches from areas south of the Amu River in Afghanistan to west of the Indus River in Pakistan, mainly consisting of southwestern, eastern and some northern and western districts of Afghanistan, and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and northern Balochistan in Pakistan.

The two Pashtun warrior-poets Bayazid Pir Roshan and Khushal Khan Khattak assembled Pashtun armies to fight against the Mughal Empire in the 16th and 17th centuries, respectively. In those times, the eastern parts of Pashtunistan were ruled by the Mughals, while the western parts were ruled by the Persian Safavids. The Pashtun region first gained an autonomous status in 1709 when Mirwais Hotak successfully revolted against the Safavids in Loy Kandahar. The Pashtuns again achieved unity under the leadership of Ahmad Shah Durrani, founder of the Durrani dynasty, when he established the Afghan Empire in 1747. In the 19th century, however, the Afghan Empire lost large parts of its eastern territory to the Sikh and British Empires. Famous Pashtun independence activists against the rule of the British Raj include Bacha Khan, Abdul Samad Khan Achakzai, and Mirzali Khan (Faqir of Ipi). Voters in the North West Frontier Province voted overwhelmingly in favour of joining Pakistan in a July 1947 referendum. However, Bacha Khan, Khudai Khidmatgars, and the Indian National Congress had boycotted the referendum and some have argued that a segment of the population voted was barred from voting.After the July 1947 referendum, Mirzali Khan and his followers refused to recognize Pakistan, and continued their war from their base at Gurwek, Waziristan, against the new state's government. Growing participation of Pashtuns in the Pakistani Government resulted in the erosion of the support for the secessionist Pashtunistan movement in the Province by the end of the 1960s.

Revolutionary Communist Party of India

The Revolutionary Communist Party of India (abbreviated RCPI) is a small political party in India. The party was founded as the Communist League by Saumyendranath Tagore in 1934, breaking away from the Communist Party of India (CPI). RCPI led armed uprisings after the independence of India, but later shifted to parliamentary politics. The party is active in the West Bengal and Assam. The party was represented in the West Bengal Second United Front Cabinet (1969) as well as in various state government during the Left Front rule in the state (1977–2011). In Assam the party won four Legislative Assembly seats in 1978, but its political influence has since declined.

Sundaram Ramakrishnan (social activist)

Sundaram Ramakrishnan or S. Ramakrishnan (22 July 1922 – 14 February 2003) was an Indian freedom fighter and social activist. He was widely known for his leadership to spread the values of Indian Culture globally as the director-general of the Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan and has been awarded both the Padma Shri and Padma Bhushan by the Government of India for his service to the nation.

Ramakrishnan was born in Pushpagiri, Thrissur in Madras Presidency (now Kerala). During his school days, Ramakrishnan was heavily influenced by Mahatma Gandhi and Chandrashekarendra Saraswati, the then Paramacharya of Kanchi Kamakoti Peetham after they visited Malabar district during the Vaikom and Guruvayur Satyagraha to eradicate untouchability at Hindu temples. In 1939, he came to Bombay in search of employment and joined the individual Satyagraha movement a year later that was launched by Gandhiji and took an active part in the Constructive Program . He was imprisoned at Yerawada Central Jail, Pune during the Quit India Movement in 1942 .

Closely associated with leaders of the Indian independence movement, he later went on to serve as the personal secretary of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel after Patel's release from Ahmednagar Fort Jail on 15 June 1945 and during the 1946 Cabinet Mission to India upto a few months after he assumed the office of Deputy Prime Minister and settled down in Delhi.

Not wanting to continue Government service after Indian Independence, Sardar Patel introduced Ramakrishnan to K. M. Munshi who founded Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan which he later decided to join as the secretary in 1947 .

He was especially devoted to the cause of Hindu-Muslim unity and was chosen as a member of the National Integration Council in 1991 . The Bhavan's S. Ramakrishnan Memorial Public School at Akamala, Wadakanchery is named in his memory.

Syed Ali Zaheer

Syed Ali Zaheer (1927-2014) سیّد علّی ظہیر an Indian politician and a minister in the first cabinet formed by Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru.

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