1944 United States presidential election

The 1944 United States presidential election was the 40th quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 7, 1944. The election took place during World War II. Incumbent Democratic President Franklin D. Roosevelt defeated Republican Thomas E. Dewey to win an unprecedented fourth term.

Roosevelt had become the first president to win a third term with his victory in the 1940 presidential election, and there was little doubt that he would seek a fourth term. Unlike in 1940, Roosevelt faced little opposition within his own party, and he easily won the presidential nomination of the 1944 Democratic National Convention. However, that convention dropped Vice President Henry A. Wallace as Roosevelt's running mate in favor of Senator Harry S. Truman of Missouri. Governor Dewey of New York emerged as the front-runner for the Republican nomination after his victory in the Wisconsin primary, and he defeated conservative Governor John W. Bricker at the 1944 Republican National Convention.

As World War II was going well for the United States and its Allies, Roosevelt remained popular despite his long tenure. Dewey campaigned against the New Deal and for a smaller government, but was ultimately unsuccessful in convincing the country to change course. The election was closer than Roosevelt's other presidential campaigns, but Roosevelt still won by a comfortable margin in the popular vote and by a wide margin in the Electoral College. Rumors of Roosevelt's ill health, though somewhat dispelled by his vigorous campaigning, proved to be prescient; Roosevelt died less than three months into his fourth term and was succeeded by Truman.

1944 United States presidential election

November 7, 1944

All 531 electoral votes of the Electoral College
266 electoral votes needed to win
Turnout55.9%[1] Decrease 6.6 pp
  1944 portrait of FDR (1)(small) ThomasDewey
Nominee Franklin D. Roosevelt Thomas Dewey
Party Democratic Republican
Home state New York New York
Running mate Harry S. Truman John W. Bricker
Electoral vote 432 99
States carried 36 12
Popular vote 25,612,916 22,017,929
Percentage 53.4% 45.9%

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Presidential election results map. Blue denotes those won by Roosevelt/Truman, red denotes states won by Dewey/Bricker. Numbers indicate the number of electoral votes allotted to each state.

President before election

Franklin D. Roosevelt
Democratic

Elected President

Franklin D. Roosevelt
Democratic

Nominations

Democratic Party nomination

Democratic Party Ticket, 1944
Franklin D. Roosevelt Harry S. Truman
for President for Vice President
1944 portrait of FDR (1)(small)
Harry S. Truman
32nd
President of the United States
(1933–1945)
U.S. Senator from Missouri
(1935–1945)
Campaign
RooseveltTruman1944poster
Roosevelt/Truman poster

President Roosevelt was the popular, wartime incumbent and faced little formal opposition. Although many Southern Democrats mistrusted Roosevelt's racial policies, he brought enormous war activities to the region and the end of its marginal status was in sight. No major figure opposed Roosevelt publicly, and he was re-nominated easily when the Democratic Convention met in Chicago. Some pro-segregationist delegates tried to unite behind Virginia senator Harry F. Byrd, but he refused to campaign actively against Roosevelt, and did not get enough delegates to seriously threaten the President's chances.

The obvious physical decline in the president's appearance, as well as rumors of secret health problems, led many delegates and party leaders to strongly oppose Vice President Henry A. Wallace for a second term. Opposition to Wallace came especially from Catholic leaders in big cities and labor unions. Wallace, who had been Roosevelt's vice president since January 1941, was regarded by most conservatives as being too left-wing and personally eccentric to be next in line for the presidency. He had performed so poorly as economic coordinator that Roosevelt had to remove him from that post. Numerous party leaders privately sent word to Roosevelt that they would fight Wallace's re-nomination as vice president and proposed instead Senator Harry S. Truman, a moderate from Missouri. Truman was highly visible as the chairman of a Senate wartime committee investigating fraud and inefficiency in the war program. Roosevelt, who personally liked Wallace and knew little about Truman, reluctantly agreed to accept Truman as his running mate to preserve party unity.[2] Even so, many delegates on the left refused to abandon Wallace, and they cast their votes for him on the first ballot. However, enough large Northern, Midwestern, and Southern states supported Truman to give him victory on the second ballot. The fight over the vice presidential nomination proved to be consequential; Roosevelt died in April 1945, and Truman instead of Wallace became the nation's thirty-third President.[3]

Republican Party

Republican Party Ticket, 1944
Thomas E. Dewey John W. Bricker
for President for Vice President
ThomasDewey
John W. Bricker cph.3b31299
47th
Governor of New York
(1943–1954)
54th
Governor of Ohio
(1939–1945)
Campaign
MacArthur Manila

General Douglas MacArthur from Arkansas

WendellWillkie

Businessman Wendell Willkie from New York

As 1944 began, the frontrunners for the Republican nomination appeared to be Wendell Willkie, the party's 1940 nominee, Senator Robert A. Taft from Ohio, the leader of the party's conservatives, New York Governor Thomas E. Dewey, the leader of the party's moderate eastern establishment, General Douglas MacArthur, then serving as an Allied commander in the Pacific theater of the war, and former Minnesota Governor Harold Stassen, then serving as a U.S. naval officer in the Pacific. Taft surprised many by announcing that he was not a candidate as he wanted to remain in the Senate; instead, he voiced his support for a fellow conservative, Governor John W. Bricker of Ohio.[4]

With Taft out of the race some Republican conservatives favored General MacArthur. However, MacArthur's chances were limited by the fact that he was leading Allied forces against Japan, and thus could not campaign for the nomination. His supporters entered his name in the Wisconsin primary nonetheless. The Wisconsin primary proved to be the key contest, as Dewey won by a surprisingly wide margin. He took fourteen delegates to four for Harold Stassen, while MacArthur won the three remaining delegates. Willkie was shut out in the Wisconsin primary; he did not win a single delegate. His unexpectedly poor showing in Wisconsin forced him to withdraw as a candidate for the nomination. However, at the time of his sudden death in early October 1944, Willkie had endorsed neither Dewey nor Roosevelt. At the 1944 Republican National Convention in Chicago, Illinois, Dewey easily overcame Bricker and was nominated for president on the first ballot. Dewey, a moderate to liberal Republican, chose the conservative Bricker as his running mate. Dewey originally preferred fellow liberal California Governor Earl Warren, but agreed on Bricker to preserve party unity (Warren became Dewey's vice presidential candidate in the election of 1948). Bricker was nominated for vice president by acclamation.

General election

The fall campaign

PresidentialCounty1944Colorbrewer
Results by county explicitly indicating the percentage for the winning candidate. Shades of blue are for Roosevelt (Democratic), shades of red are for Dewey (Republican), and shades of green are for "No Candidate" (Texas Regulars).

The Republicans campaigned against the New Deal,[5] seeking a smaller government and less-regulated economy as the end of the war seemed in sight. Nonetheless, Roosevelt's continuing popularity was the main theme of the campaign. To quiet rumors of his poor health, Roosevelt insisted on making a vigorous campaign swing in October and rode in an open car through city streets.

A high point of the campaign occurred when Roosevelt, speaking to a meeting of labor union leaders, gave a speech carried on national radio in which he ridiculed Republican claims that his administration was corrupt and wasteful with tax money.[6] He particularly derided a Republican claim that he had sent a US Navy warship to pick up his Scottish Terrier Fala in Alaska, noting that "Fala was furious" at such rumors.[7] The speech was met with loud laughter and applause from the labor leaders. In response, Dewey gave a blistering partisan speech in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, a few days later on national radio, in which he accused Roosevelt of being "indispensable" to corrupt big-city Democratic organizations and American Communists;[8] he also referred to members of Roosevelt's cabinet as a "motley crew". However, American battlefield successes in Europe and the Pacific during the campaign, such as the liberation of Paris in August 1944 and the successful Battle of Leyte Gulf in the Philippines in October 1944, made Roosevelt unbeatable.

Results

Throughout the campaign, Roosevelt led Dewey in all the polls by varying margins. On election day, the Democratic incumbent scored a fairly comfortable victory over his Republican challenger. Roosevelt took 36 states for 432 electoral votes (266 were needed to win), while Dewey won twelve states and 99 electoral votes. In the popular vote Roosevelt won 25,612,916 (53.4%) votes to Dewey's 22,017,929 (45.9%).

The important question had been which leader,[9] Roosevelt or Dewey, should be chosen for the critical days of peacemaking and reconstruction following the war's conclusion. A majority of the American people concluded that they should not change from one party, and particularly from one leader. They also felt that in view of ever-increasing domestic disagreements it was not safe to do so in "wartime".

Dewey did better against Roosevelt than any of Roosevelt's previous three Republican opponents: Roosevelt's percentage and margin of the total vote were both less than in 1940. Dewey also gained the personal satisfaction of finishing ahead of Roosevelt in his hometown of Hyde Park, New York, and ahead of Truman in his hometown of Independence, Missouri. Dewey would again become the Republican presidential nominee in 1948 and would again lose, though by a slightly smaller margin.

Of the 3,095 counties/independent cities making returns, Roosevelt won in 1,751 (56.58%) while Dewey carried 1,343 (43.39%). The Texas Regular ticket carried one county (0.03%).

In New York, only the combined support of the American Labor and Liberal parties (pledged to Roosevelt but otherwise independent of the Democrats so as to keep separate their identity) enabled Roosevelt to win the electoral votes of his home state.

In 1944, the constantly growing Southern protest against Roosevelt's leadership became clearest in Texas, where 135,553 votes were cast against Roosevelt but not for the Republican ticket. The Texas Regular ticket resulted from a split in the Democratic party in its two state conventions, May 23 and September 12, 1944. This ticket represented the Democratic element opposing the re-election of President Roosevelt, and called for the "restoration of states' rights which have been destroyed by the Communist New Deal" and "restoration of the supremacy of the white race".[10] Its electors were uninstructed.

As he had in 1940, Roosevelt won re-election with a lower percentage of both the electoral vote and the popular vote than he had received in the prior elections—the second of only three presidents in US history to do so, preceded by James Madison in 1812 and followed by Barack Obama in 2012. Andrew Jackson in 1832 and Grover Cleveland in 1892 had received more electoral votes but fewer popular votes, while Woodrow Wilson in 1916 had received more popular votes but fewer electoral votes.

Presidential candidate Party Home state Popular vote Electoral
vote
Running mate
Count Percentage Vice-presidential candidate Home state Electoral vote
Franklin D. Roosevelt (Incumbent) Democratic New York 25,612,916 53.39% 432 Harry S. Truman Missouri 432
Thomas E. Dewey Republican New York 22,017,929 45.89% 99 John W. Bricker Ohio 99
(none) Texas Regulars (n/a) 143,238 0.30% 0 (none) (n/a) 0
Norman Thomas Socialist New York 79,017 0.16% 0 Darlington Hoopes Pennsylvania 0
Claude A. Watson Prohibition California 74,758 0.16% 0 Andrew N. Johnson Kentucky 0
Edward A. Teichert Socialist Labor Pennsylvania 45,188 0.09% 0 Arla Arbaugh Ohio 0
Other 11,816 0.02% Other
Total 47,977,063 100% 531 531
Needed to win 266 266

Source (Popular Vote): Leip, David. "1944 Presidential Election Results". Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Retrieved August 1, 2005.Source (Electoral Vote): "Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996". National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved August 1, 2005.

Popular vote
Roosevelt
53.39%
Dewey
45.89%
No Candidate
0.28%
Thomas
0.16%
Others
0.28%
Electoral vote
Roosevelt
81.36%
Dewey
18.64%

Geography of results

1944 Electoral Map
1944nationwidecountymapshadedbyvoteshare

Results by county, shaded according to winning candidate's percentage of the vote

Gallery of maps

PresidentialCounty1944Colorbrewer

Presidential election results by county

DemocraticPresidentialCounty1944Colorbrewer

Democratic presidential election results by county

RepublicanPresidentialCounty1944Colorbrewer

Republican presidential election results by county

OtherPresidentialCounty1944Colorbrewer

"Other" presidential election results by county

Results by state

[11]

States won by Roosevelt/Truman
States won by Dewey/Bricker
Franklin D. Roosevelt
Democratic
Thomas E. Dewey
Republican
No Candidate
Southern Democrat/
Texas Regulars
Norman Thomas
Socialist
Other Margin State total
State electoral
votes
# % electoral
votes
# % electoral
votes
# % electoral
votes
# % electoral
votes
# % electoral
votes
# % #
Alabama 11 198,918 81.28 11 44,540 18.20 - - - - 190 0.08 - 1,095 0.45 - 154,378 63.08 244,743 AL
Arizona 4 80,926 58.80 4 56,287 40.90 - - - - - - - 421 0.31 - 24,639 17.90 137,634 AZ
Arkansas 9 148,965 69.95 9 63,551 29.84 - - - - 438 0.21 - - - - 85,414 40.11 212,954 AR
California 25 1,988,564 56.48 25 1,512,965 42.97 - - - - 2,515 0.07 - 16,831 0.48 - 475,599 13.51 3,520,875 CA
Colorado 6 234,331 46.40 - 268,731 53.21 6 - - - 1,977 0.39 - - - - -34,400 -6.81 505,039 CO
Connecticut 8 435,146 52.30 8 390,527 46.94 - - - - 5,097 0.61 - 1,220 0.15 - 44,619 5.36 831,990 CT
Delaware 3 68,166 54.38 3 56,747 45.27 - - - - 154 0.12 - 294 0.23 - 11,419 9.11 125,361 DE
Florida 8 339,377 70.32 8 143,215 29.68 - - - - - - - - - - 196,162 40.65 482,592 FL
Georgia 12 268,187 81.74 12 59,880 18.25 - - - - 6 0.00 - 36 0.01 - 208,307 63.49 328,109 GA
Idaho 4 107,399 51.55 4 100,137 48.07 - - - - 282 0.14 - 503 0.24 - 7,262 3.49 208,321 ID
Illinois 28 2,079,479 51.52 28 1,939,314 48.05 - - - - 180 0.00 - 17,088 0.42 - 140,165 3.47 4,036,061 IL
Indiana 13 781,403 46.73 - 875,891 52.38 13 - - - 2,223 0.13 - 12,574 0.75 - -94,488 -5.65 1,672,091 IN
Iowa 10 499,876 47.49 - 547,267 51.99 10 - - - 1,511 0.14 - 3,945 0.37 - -47,391 -4.50 1,052,599 IA
Kansas 8 287,458 39.18 - 442,096 60.25 8 - - - 1,613 0.22 - 2,609 0.36 - -154,638 -21.07 733,776 KS
Kentucky 11 472,589 54.45 11 392,448 45.22 - - - - 535 0.06 - 2,349 0.27 - 80,141 9.23 867,921 KY
Louisiana 10 281,564 80.59 10 67,750 19.39 - - - - - - - 69 0.02 - 213,814 61.20 349,383 LA
Maine 5 140,631 47.45 - 155,434 52.44 5 - - - - - - 335 0.11 - -14,803 -4.99 296,400 ME
Maryland 8 315,490 51.85 8 292,949 48.15 - - - - - - - - - - 22,541 3.70 608,439 MD
Massachusetts 16 1,035,296 52.80 16 921,350 46.99 - - - - - - - 4,019 0.21 - 113,946 5.81 1,960,665 MA
Michigan 19 1,106,899 50.19 19 1,084,423 49.18 - - - - 4,598 0.21 - 9,303 0.42 - 22,476 1.02 2,205,223 MI
Minnesota 11 589,864 52.41 11 527,416 46.86 - - - - 5,073 0.45 - 3,176 0.28 - 62,448 5.55 1,125,529 MN
Mississippi 9 168,479 93.56 9 11,601 6.44 - - - - - - - - - - 156,878 87.12 180,080 MS
Missouri 15 807,804 51.37 15 761,524 48.43 - - - - 1,751 0.11 - 1,395 0.09 - 46,280 2.94 1,572,474 MO
Montana 4 112,556 54.28 4 93,163 44.93 - - - - 1,296 0.63 - 340 0.16 - 19,393 9.35 207,355 MT
Nebraska 6 233,246 41.42 - 329,880 58.58 6 - - - - - - - - - -96,634 -17.16 563,126 NE
Nevada 3 29,623 54.62 3 24,611 45.38 - - - - - - - - - - 5,012 9.24 54,234 NV
New Hampshire 4 119,663 52.11 4 109,916 47.87 - - - - 46 0.02 - - - - 9,747 4.24 229,625 NH
New Jersey 16 987,874 50.31 16 961,335 48.95 - - - - 3,358 0.17 - 11,194 0.57 - 26,539 1.35 1,963,761 NJ
New Mexico 4 81,389 53.47 4 70,688 46.44 - - - - - - - 148 0.10 - 10,701 7.03 152,225 NM
New York 47 3,304,238 52.31 47 2,987,647 47.30 - - - - 10,553 0.17 - 14,352 0.23 - 316,591 5.01 6,316,790 NY
North Carolina 14 527,399 66.71 14 263,155 33.29 - - - - - - - - - - 264,244 33.43 790,554 NC
North Dakota 4 100,144 45.48 - 118,535 53.84 4 - - - 943 0.43 - 549 0.25 - -18,391 -8.35 220,171 ND
Ohio 25 1,570,763 49.82 - 1,582,293 50.18 25 - - - - - - - - - -11,530 -0.37 3,153,056 OH
Oklahoma 10 401,549 55.57 10 319,424 44.20 - - - - - - - 1,663 0.23 - 82,125 11.36 722,636 OK
Oregon 6 248,635 51.78 6 225,365 46.94 - - - - 3,785 0.79 - 2,362 0.49 - 23,270 4.85 480,147 OR
Pennsylvania 35 1,940,479 51.14 35 1,835,054 48.36 - - - - 11,721 0.31 - 7,539 0.20 - 105,425 2.78 3,794,793 PA
Rhode Island 4 175,356 58.59 4 123,487 41.26 - - - - - - - 433 0.14 - 51,869 17.33 299,276 RI
South Carolina 8 90,601 87.64 8 4,610 4.46 - 7,799 7.54 - - - - 365 0.35 - 82,802 80.10 103,375 SC
South Dakota 4 96,711 41.67 - 135,365 58.33 4 - - - - - - - - - -38,654 -16.66 232,076 SD
Tennessee 12 308,707 60.45 12 200,311 39.22 - - - - 792 0.16 - 882 0.17 - 108,396 21.23 510,692 TN
Texas 23 821,605 71.42 23 191,425 16.64 - 135,439 11.77 - 594 0.05 - 1,268 0.11 - 630,180 54.78 1,150,331 TX
Utah 4 150,088 60.44 4 97,891 39.42 - - - - 340 0.14 - - - - 52,197 21.02 248,319 UT
Vermont 3 53,820 42.93 - 71,527 57.06 3 - - - - - - 14 0.01 - -17,707 -14.12 125,361 VT
Virginia 11 242,276 62.36 11 145,243 37.39 - - - - 417 0.11 - 549 0.14 - 97,033 24.98 388,485 VA
Washington 8 486,774 56.84 8 361,689 42.24 - - - - 3,824 0.45 - 4,041 0.47 - 125,085 14.61 856,328 WA
West Virginia 8 392,777 54.89 8 322,819 45.11 - - - - - - - - - - 69,958 9.78 715,596 WV
Wisconsin 12 650,413 48.57 - 674,532 50.37 12 - - - 13,205 0.99 - 1,002 0.07 - -24,119 -1.80 1,339,152 WI
Wyoming 3 49,419 48.77 - 51,921 51.23 3 - - - - - - - - - -2,502 -2.47 101,340 WY
Totals: 531 25,612,916 53.39 432 22,017,929 45.89 99 143,238 0.30 - 79,017 0.16 - 123,963 0.26 - 3,594,987 7.49 47,977,063 US

Close states

Margin of victory less than 1% (25 electoral votes):

  1. Ohio, 0.37%

Margin of victory less than 5% (165 electoral votes):

  1. Michigan, 1.02%
  2. New Jersey, 1.35%
  3. Wisconsin, 1.80%
  4. Wyoming, 2.47%
  5. Pennsylvania, 2.78%
  6. Missouri, 2.94%
  7. Illinois, 3.47%
  8. Idaho, 3.49%
  9. Maryland, 3.70%
  10. New Hampshire, 4.24%
  11. Iowa, 4.50%
  12. Oregon, 4.85%
  13. Maine, 4.99%

Margin of victory between 5% and 10% (138 electoral votes):

  1. New York, 5.01% (tipping point state)
  2. Connecticut, 5.36%
  3. Minnesota, 5.55%
  4. Indiana, 5.65%
  5. Massachusetts, 5.81%
  6. Colorado, 6.81%
  7. New Mexico, 7.03%
  8. North Dakota, 8.35%
  9. Delaware, 9.11%
  10. Kentucky, 9.23%
  11. Nevada, 9.24%
  12. Montana, 9.35%
  13. West Virginia, 9.78%

Miscellanea

  • The passing of the 22nd Amendment of the United States Constitution in 1951 renders this election the only occasion in United States history in which a candidate has been allowed to run for a fourth term as president.
  • The 1944 election was the first one where one of the candidates (Dewey) was born in the 20th century.
  • 1944 was, until 2016, the most recent election in which both major party candidates hailed from the same state, as Roosevelt and Dewey were from New York. In the 2016 presidential election, both major candidates in that election, Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump, coincidentally also identified New York as their home state.
  • Except Lyndon B. Johnson's landslide reelection in 1964, no post-1944 Democratic candidate has managed to equal or surpass Roosevelt's margin in popular or electoral votes in this election, which was the closest of all his four campaigns.
  • The 1944 election was the last election in which any candidate received over ninety percent of the vote in any state (FDR won 94 percent of votes cast in Mississippi). The Democratic candidate did receive more than ninety percent of the vote in The District of Columbia in 2008, 2012 and 2016.
  • The 1944 election was the first since Grover Cleveland's re-election in 1892 in which the bellwether state of Ohio backed a losing candidate.
  • This was the first election since 1900 when Idaho and Wyoming did not vote the same as each other, and the last to date.
  • The 1944 presidential election was the last election in which the Democratic party candidate won every single state that constituted the Confederacy.
  • This was the last time that the Democrats won New Hampshire and Oregon until 1964 and the last time that the Democrats won Connecticut, Delaware, Maryland, Michigan, New Jersey, New York and Pennsylvania until 1960.
  • 1944 is the last occasion the Democratic Party has carried Cache, Washington and Box Elder Counties in Utah, Indian River, Lake, Sarasota and Manatee Counties in Florida or Augusta and Orange Counties in Virginia.[12]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Voter Turnout in Presidential Elections". The American Presidency Project. UC Santa Barbara.
  2. ^ Alonzo L. Hamby, Man of the People: A Life of Harry S. Truman (1995) ch 17
  3. ^ Weintraub, Stanley. Final Victory: FDR's Extraordinary World War II Presidential Campaign, pp. 29-59 ISBN 0306821133
  4. ^ Taft, Robert Alphonso and Wunderlin, Clarence E.; The Papers of Robert A. Taft: 1939-1944, p. 397 ISBN 0873386795
  5. ^ Jordan, David M.; FDR, Dewey, and the Election of 1944, pp. 119 ISBN 0253356830
  6. ^ Nash, Gerald D.; Franklin Delano Roosevelt, p. 66 ISBN 0133305147
  7. ^ Weintraub; Final Victory, pp. 144-149 ISBN 0306821133
  8. ^ Jordan; FDR, Dewey and the Election of 1944, p. 266
  9. ^ Jordan; FDR, Dewey and the Election of 1944; pp. 111, 214
  10. ^ Cunningham, Sean; Cowboy Conservatism and the Rise of the Modern Right; p. 26 ISBN 081317371X
  11. ^ "1944 Presidential General Election Data - National". Retrieved April 14, 2013.
  12. ^ Sullivan, Robert David; ‘How the Red and Blue Map Evolved Over the Past Century’; America Magazine in The National Catholic Review; June 29, 2016

Further reading

  • Cantril, Hadley and Mildred Strunk, eds.; Public Opinion, 1935–1946 (1951), massive compilation of many public opinion polls from USA
  • Gallup, George Horace, ed. The Gallup Poll; Public Opinion, 1935–1971 3 vol (1972) esp vol 1; summarizes results of each poll as reported to newspapers
  • Hamby, Alonzo L. Man of the People: A Life of Harry S. Truman (1995) ch 17
  • Jordan, David M. (2011). FDR, Dewey, and the Election of 1944. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press.
  • Savage, Sean J. "The 1936-1944 Campaigns," in William D. Pederson, ed. A Companion to Franklin D. Roosevelt (2011) pp 96–113 online
  • Smith, Richard Norton. Thomas E. Dewey and His Times (1984), the standard scholarly biography

External links

1944 United States presidential election in Arizona

The 1944 United States presidential election in Arizona took place on November 7, 1944, as part of the 1944 United States presidential election. Arizona voters chose four representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Arizona was won by incumbent President Franklin D. Roosevelt (D–New York), running with Senator Harry S. Truman, with 58.80 percent of the popular vote, against Governor Thomas Dewey (R–New York), running with Governor John W. Bricker, with 40.90 percent of the popular vote.

1944 United States presidential election in California

In the 1944 United States presidential election, California voted for the Democratic incumbent, Franklin Roosevelt, in a landslide over the Republican challenger, New York Governor Thomas E. Dewey.

1944 United States presidential election in Illinois

The 1944 United States presidential election in Illinois took place on November 7, 1944, as part of the 1944 United States presidential election. Illinois voters chose twenty-eight representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Illinois was won by incumbent President Franklin D. Roosevelt (D–New York), running with Senator Harry S. Truman, with 51.52% of the popular vote, against Governor Thomas E. Dewey (R–New York), running with Governor John W. Bricker, with 48.05% of the popular vote.

1944 United States presidential election in Kentucky

The 1944 United States presidential election in Kentucky took place on November 7, 1944, as part of the 1944 United States presidential election. Kentucky voters chose eleven representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Kentucky was won by incumbent President Franklin D. Roosevelt (D–New York), running with Senator Harry S. Truman, with 54.45% of the popular vote, against Governor Thomas E. Dewey (R–New York), running with Governor John W. Bricker, with 45.22% of the popular vote.

1944 United States presidential election in Louisiana

The 1944 United States presidential election in Louisiana took place on November 7, 1944, as part of the 1944 United States presidential election. Louisiana voters chose ten representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president. Louisiana was won by incumbent president Franklin D. Roosevelt over New York Governor Thomas E. Dewey by a large margin of 61.20 percentage points.As of the 2016 presidential election, this is the last occasion when Bossier Parish has voted for a Democratic Presidential candidate. Plaquemines Parish and Lincoln Parish have both voted for a Democratic Presidential candidate only once since – for Bill Clinton in 1996 – whilst Caddo Parish and Claiborne Parish would never vote Democratic again until Clinton in 1992.

1944 United States presidential election in Massachusetts

The 1944 United States presidential election in Massachusetts took place on November 7, 1944, as part of the 1944 United States presidential election, which was held throughout all contemporary 48 states. Voters chose sixteen representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Massachusetts voted for the Democratic nominee, incumbent President Franklin D. Roosevelt of New York, over the Republican nominee, Governor Thomas E. Dewey of New York. Roosevelt ran with Senator Harry S. Truman of Missouri, while Dewey’s running mate was Governor John W. Bricker of Ohio.

Roosevelt carried the state with 52.80 percent of the vote to Dewey’s 46.99 percent, a Democratic victory margin of 5.81 percent.

As Roosevelt was re-elected nationally to his fourth and final term, Massachusetts weighed in as about two percent more Republican than the national average.

Once a typical Yankee Republican bastion in the wake of the Civil War, Massachusetts had been a Democratic-leaning state since 1928, when a coalition of Irish Catholic and other ethnic immigrant voters primarily based in urban areas turned Massachusetts and neighboring Rhode Island into New England’s only reliably Democratic states. Massachusetts voted for Al Smith in 1928, and for Franklin Roosevelt in his three election campaigns preceding 1944. Roosevelt’s 1944 victory thus marked the fifth straight win for the Democratic Party in Massachusetts, although Roosevelt’s victory margin was slightly reduced from 1940.

Roosevelt and Dewey would split the state’s fourteen counties, winning seven counties each. However Roosevelt won the most heavily populated parts of the state including the cities of Boston, Worcester, and Springfield, while most of Dewey’s wins were small or island counties.

1944 United States presidential election in Michigan

The 1944 United States presidential election in Michigan took place on November 7, 1944, as part of the 1944 United States presidential election. Michigan voters chose nineteen representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Michigan voted narrowly for Democratic nominee, incumbent Franklin D. Roosevelt over Republican Governor of New York Thomas Dewey, carrying 50.19% of the vote to Dewey's 49.18%. The election was close, with Detroit, Flint and most of the Upper Peninsula going to Roosevelt and most of the rest of the state going to Dewey.

1944 United States presidential election in Minnesota

The 1944 United States presidential election in Minnesota took place on November 7, 1944, in Minnesota as part of the 1944 United States presidential election.

The Democratic candidate, incumbent President Franklin D. Roosevelt won the state over New York governor Thomas E. Dewey by a margin of 62,448 votes, or 5.55%. Nationally, Roosevelt was re-elected to an unprecedented fourth term as president, with 432 electoral votes and a comfortable 7.5% lead over Dewey in the popular vote. However, Roosevelt would not serve the entirety of his fourth term, as he died within a half-year after winning his final election.

Roosevelt was the only president of the United States who was elected to more than two quadrennial terms. The 22nd Amendment, ratified on February 27, 1951, ensures that Roosevelt will continue to hold this record indefinitely, as the said amendment prohibits any person from serving more than two and a half terms as president.

1944 United States presidential election in Missouri

The 1944 United States presidential election in Missouri took place on November 7, 1944, as part of the 1944 United States presidential election. Missouri voters chose fifteen representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Missouri was won by incumbent President Franklin D. Roosevelt (D–New York), running with Senator Harry S. Truman, with 51.37% of the popular vote, against Governor Thomas E. Dewey (R–New York), running with Governor John Bricker, with 48.43% of the popular vote.

1944 United States presidential election in Nebraska

The 1944 United States presidential election in Nebraska took place on November 7, 1944, as part of the 1944 United States presidential election. Nebraska voters chose six representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Nebraska was won by Governor Thomas E. Dewey (R–New York), running with Governor John Bricker, with 58.58% of the popular vote, against incumbent President Franklin D. Roosevelt (D–New York), running with Senator Harry S. Truman, with 41.42% of the popular vote.With 58.58% of the popular vote, Nebraska would prove to be Dewey's second strongest state after Kansas.

1944 United States presidential election in New York

The 1944 United States presidential election in New York took place on November 7, 1944. All contemporary 48 states were part of the 1944 United States presidential election. New York voters chose 47 electors to the Electoral College, which selected the president and vice president.

New York was won by incumbent Democratic President Franklin D. Roosevelt, who was running against local Republican Governor Thomas E. Dewey. Roosevelt ran with U.S. Senator from Missouri Harry S. Truman, and Dewey ran with Ohio Governor, an opponent during the 1944 Republican primaries, John W. Bricker as Vice President.

New York weighed in for this election as 2% more Republican than the national average.

The presidential election of 1944 was a very partisan for New York, with more than 99.6% of the electorate casting votes for either the Democratic Party or the Republican. In typical form for the time, the highly populated centers of New York City, Albany, Buffalo, and Rochester voted primarily Democratic, while the majority of smaller counties in New York turned out for Dewey as the Republican candidate. Much of Roosevelt's margin of victory was provided by his dominance in New York City. Roosevelt took over 60% of the vote in Manhattan, Brooklyn, and the Bronx and decisively won New York City as a whole, although the boroughs of Queens and Staten Island remained Republican as they had voted in 1940.

The immensely popular Roosevelt won the election in New York by a solid 5 point margin, despite it also being Dewey's home state. Dewey campaigned hard against President Roosevelt's New Deal, claiming that it suffocated job growth in the country, while Roosevelt's campaign focused on maintaining the New Deal, and putting an end to the war with Japan and Germany as quickly as possible. Governor Dewey's stance on the New Deal put him and his campaign in sharp contradiction with the majority voters across the country (including states such as New York, which had suffered through years of >15% unemployment during the Great Depression), and who largely attributed the economic recovery to Roosevelt's leadership, and heightened federal regulation and spending.

The 1944 presidential election was the last time until 2016 in which both major party candidates declared New York as their home state.

1944 United States presidential election in Pennsylvania

The 1944 United States presidential election in Pennsylvania took place on November 7, 1944. Voters chose 35 representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Pennsylvania voted to give Democratic nominee, President Franklin D. Roosevelt a record fourth term, over the Republican nominee, New York Governor Thomas E. Dewey. Roosevelt won Pennsylvania by a slim margin of 2.78 percentage points.

1944 United States presidential election in Tennessee

The 1944 United States presidential election in Tennessee took place on November 7, 1944, as part of the 1944 United States presidential election. Tennessee voters chose twelve representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Tennessee was won by incumbent President Franklin D. Roosevelt (D–New York), running with Senator Harry S. Truman, with 60.45% of the popular vote, against Governor Thomas E. Dewey (R–New York), running with Governor John Bricker, with 39.22% of the popular vote.

1944 United States presidential election in Texas

The 1944 United States presidential election in Texas took place on November 7, 1944, as part of the 1944 United States presidential election. Texas voters chose 23 electors who voted for president and vice president. Texas was won by then president Franklin D. Roosevelt over Thomas Dewey by a landslide margin of 54.78% with the 3rd party Texas Regulars winning 11% of the vote and Washington County the only county in the nation to go for a third party that election.

1944 United States presidential election in Virginia

The 1944 United States presidential election in Virginia took place on November 7, 1944, throughout the 48 contiguous states. Voters chose eleven representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Virginia voted for the Democratic nominee, incumbent President Franklin D. Roosevelt, over the Republican nominee, New York Governor Thomas E. Dewey. Roosevelt ultimately won the national election with 53.39 percent of the vote.

This is currently the last election in Virginia where the Democratic candidate won by a double-digit margin. It is also the last occasion the following county-equivalents have voted for a Democratic Presidential nominee: Augusta County, Mathews County, Northumberland County, Richmond County and Roanoke County. The independent city of Staunton would not vote Democratic again until Barack Obama in 2008. This would also be the last time until 2016 that Virginia was more Democratic than the national average.

1944 United States presidential election in Washington (state)

The 1944 United States presidential election in Washington took place on November 7, 1944, as part of the 1944 United States presidential election. Washington voters chose eight representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Washington was won by incumbent President Franklin D. Roosevelt (D–New York), running with Missouri Senator Harry S. Truman, with 56.84 percent of the popular vote, against Governor Thomas E. Dewey (R–New York), running with Ohio Governor John Bricker, with 42.24 percent of the popular vote.

1944 United States presidential election in West Virginia

The 1944 United States presidential election in West Virginia took place on November 7, 1944, as part of the 1944 United States presidential election. West Virginia voters chose eight representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

West Virginia was won by President Franklin D. Roosevelt (D–New York), running with Senator Harry S. Truman, with 54.89 percent of the popular vote, against the 41st Governor of New York Thomas E. Dewey (R–New York), running with the 54th Governor of Ohio, John W. Bricker, with 45.11 percent of the popular vote.

1944 United States presidential election in Wisconsin

The 1944 United States presidential election in Wisconsin was held on November 7, 1944. Wisconsin voters chose twelve electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Republican Party candidate Thomas E. Dewey won the state with 50% of the popular vote, winning Wisconsin's twelve electoral votes.

1944 United States presidential election in Wyoming

The 1944 United States presidential election in Wyoming took place on November 7, 1944, as part of the 1944 United States presidential election. Wyoming voters chose three representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Wyoming was won by 47th Governor of New York Thomas E. Dewey (R–New York), running with United States Senator and the 54th Governor of Ohio John W. Bricker, with 51.23 percent of the popular vote against President Franklin D. Roosevelt (D–New York), running with United States Senator Harry S. Truman, with 48.77 percent of the popular vote.Dewey became the first Republican nominee to win Wyoming since Herbert Hoover in 1928, sixteen years earlier.

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