1940 Winter Olympics

The 1940 Winter Olympics, which would have been officially known as the V Olympic Winter Games (第五回オリンピック冬季競技大会 Dai Go-kai Orinpikku Tōkikyōgi Taikai), were to have been celebrated from 3 to 12 February 1940 in Sapporo, Japan, but the games were eventually cancelled due to the onset of World War II. Sapporo subsequently hosted the 1972 Winter Olympics.

III Olympic Winter Games
Host cityGarmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany
Opening2 February
Closing11 February
Winter
Garmisch 1936 St. Moritz 1948
Cortina 1944
Summer
Berlin 1936 London 1948
Helsinki 1940

History

Sapporo was selected to be the host of the sixth edition of the Winter Olympics, scheduled 3–12 February 1940, but Japan gave the Games back to the IOC in July 1938, after the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937. The IOC then decided to give the Winter Olympics to St Moritz, Switzerland, which had hosted it in 1928. However, due to controversies between the Swiss organizing team and the IOC, the Games were withdrawn again.

In the spring of 1939, the IOC gave the 1940 Winter Olympics, now scheduled for 2–11 February, to Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, where the previous Games held. Five months later, Germany invaded Poland, on September 1, to ignite World War II and the Winter Games were cancelled in November. Likewise, the 1944 Games, awarded in 1939 to Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy, were cancelled in 1941. St Moritz held the first post-war games in 1948, while Cortina d'Ampezzo hosted in 1956.

Germany has not hosted the Winter Olympics since 1936: on 6 July 2011; Munich lost to Pyeongchang, South Korea to host the 2018 Winter Games.

See also

External links

Preceded by
Garmisch-Partenkirchen
Winter Olympics
Sapporo

Olympic Winter Games (1940)
Succeeded by
Cortina D'Ampezzo
1916 Summer Olympics

The 1916 Summer Olympics (German: Olympische Sommerspiele 1916), officially known as the Games of the VI Olympiad, were scheduled to be held in Berlin, Germany, but were eventually cancelled due to the outbreak of World War I. Berlin was selected as the host city during the 14th IOC Session in Stockholm on 4 July 1912, defeating bids from Alexandria, Amsterdam, Brussels, Budapest and Cleveland. After the 1916 Games were cancelled, Berlin would eventually host the 1936 Summer Olympics, twenty years later.

1940 Olympics

1940 Olympics refers to both:

The 1940 Winter Olympics

The 1940 Summer Olympics

1940 Summer Olympics

The 1940 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XII Olympiad, were originally scheduled to be held from September 21 to October 6, 1940, in Tokyo, Japan. They were rescheduled for Helsinki, Finland, to be held from July 20 to August 4, 1940, but were ultimately cancelled due to the outbreak of World War II. Helsinki eventually hosted the 1952 Summer Olympics and Tokyo the 1964 Summer Olympics.

1940 in sports

1940 in sports describes the year's events in world sport.

Note — many sporting events did not take place because of World War II

1944 Summer Olympics

The 1944 Summer Olympics, which were to be officially known as the Games of the XIII Olympiad, were cancelled due to World War II. It would have been held in London, United Kingdom, which won the bid on the first ballot in a June 1939 IOC election over Rome, Detroit, Lausanne, Athens, Budapest, Helsinki and Montreal. The selection was made at the 38th IOC Session in London in 1939.Because of the cancellation, London went on to host the 1948 Summer Olympics.

In spite of the war, the IOC organized many events to celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of its foundation at its headquarters in Lausanne, Switzerland. Held from 17 June to 19 June 1944, this celebration was referred to as "The Jubilee Celebrations of IOC" by Carl Diem, the originator of the modern tradition of the Olympic torch relay.Polish Prisoners of War (POWs) in the Woldenberg (Dobiegniew) Oflag II-C POW camp were granted permission by their German captors to stage an unofficial POW Olympics during July 23 to August 13, 1944, and an Olympic Flag made with a bed sheet and pieces of coloured scarves was raised. The event has been considered to be a demonstration of the Olympic spirit transcending war.

1944 Winter Olympics

The 1944 Winter Olympics, which would have been officially known as the V Olympic Winter Games (after the cancellation of 1940's V Olympic Winter Games) (Italian: V Giochi olimpici invernali), were to have been celebrated in February 1944 in Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy. Cortina d'Ampezzo had been awarded the games in June 1939, but with the onset of World War II, the 1944 Winter Olympics were cancelled in 1941.

The V Olympic Winter Games eventually took place in St. Moritz, Switzerland, in 1948; Cortina d'Ampezzo eventually hosted the 1956 Winter Olympics.

1998 Winter Olympics

The 1998 Winter Olympics, officially the XVIII Olympic Winter Games (French: Les XVIIIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver) (Japanese: 第十八回オリンピック冬季競技大会, Dai Jūhachi-kai Orinpikku Tōkikyōgi Taikai), and commonly known as Nagano 1998, was a winter multi-sport event celebrated from 7 to 22 February 1998 in Nagano, Japan. The city of Nagano had previously been a candidate to host the 1940 Winter Olympics (which were later cancelled), as well as the 1972 Winter Olympics, but each time Nagano was eliminated at the national level by Sapporo.

The games hosted 2,176 athletes from 72 nations competing in 7 sports and 68 events. The number of athletes and participating nations were a record at the time. The Games saw the introduction of women's ice hockey, curling and snowboarding. National Hockey League players were allowed to participate in the men's ice hockey for the first time. Five countries, Azerbaijan, Kenya, Macedonia, Uruguay, and Venezuela made their debut at the Winter Olympics.

The athlete who won the most medals at these games was the Russian cross-country skier Larisa Lazutina who won five medals, including three gold. The Norwegian cross-country skier Bjørn Dæhlie won four medals, including three gold, which took his total Olympic medal total to 12, including eight gold, which is a record for Winter Olympics. In ice hockey, professionals from the North American National Hockey League participated for the first time. Despite their participation, the Czech men's ice hockey team won the gold medal. In Ski Jumping, Kazuyoshi Funaki won two gold for host Japan. The American Figure skater Tara Lipinski became the youngest champion in Olympic history at the age of 15 years and 255 days. Germany dominated the medal table with 29 medals, including 12 gold. Germany was followed by Norway and Russia, who won 25 and 18 medals respectively. Canada, which finished fourth in the medal table with 15 medals, including six gold, had its most successful Winter Olympics up until that point.

The host was selected on June 15, 1991, over Salt Lake City, Östersund, Jaca and Aosta. They were the third Olympic Games and second Winter Olympics to be held in Japan, after the 1964 Summer Olympics in Tokyo and the 1972 Winter Olympics in Sapporo. Nagano is so far the southernmost city to host a Winter Olympics, next to Squaw Valley, host of the 1960 Winter Olympics. The games were succeeded by the 1998 Winter Paralympics from 5 to 14 March. These were the final Winter Olympic Games under the IOC Presidency of Juan Antonio Samaranch.

The hosting of the games improved transportation networks with the construction of the high-speed Shinkansen, the Nagano Shinkansen, now the Hokuriku Shinkansen, between Takasaki and Nagano. In addition, upgrades and new highways were built, including the Nagano Expressway and the Jōshin-etsu Expressway.

Clinton Comets

The Clinton Comets were an American ice hockey team in Clinton, New York.

Founded in 1927–28 as the Clinton Hockey Club and nicknamed the Comets in 1949, the team played primarily at the Clinton Arena from 1949 until 1973. The team was originally started by Ed Stanley who acted as manager to build a team from local high school students and helped to provide finances for the team to buy equipment and take road trips. He quickly was able to build a very successful team which in the 1933–1934 season played in the National Amateur Championship at Madison Square Garden against the Hershey Bears. Stanley, along with Albert I. Prettyman who brought college hockey to nearby Hamilton College went on to be the only two people from the same town or city on the 1940 Olympic hockey committee. The 1940 Winter Olympics were scheduled for Sapporo, Japan but were canceled because of the start of World War II, as well as the hopes of Comets players Wilfred Goering and Art Scoones who were trying out for the Olympic team.

From 1954 until 1973, the Comets participated in the Eastern Hockey League, dominating for ten of their nineteen seasons. Most notably, under head coach Pat Kelly, the Comets posted a 315–208–64 (wins-losses-ties) record over eight seasons. During that period, in the 1967–68 season, the Comets produced an awe-inspiring 57–5–10 record. The Comets won the EHL playoffs in 1958–59, 1963–64, 1967–68, 1968–69 and 1969–70.

Later, when the team began playing games in the Utica Memorial Auditorium, it changed its name to the Mohawk Valley Comets and played in the North American Hockey League.

Emmy Putzinger

Emmy Putzinger (8 February 1921 – 2001) was an Austrian figure skater who competed in ladies singles. She finished seventh at the 1936 Winter Olympic Games and won the bronze medal at the European Figure Skating Championships in 1937 and 1938.

Garmisch-Partenkirchen

Garmisch-Partenkirchen (German pronunciation: [ˈɡaʁmɪʃ paʁtn̩ˈkɪʁçn̩]; Southern Bavarian: Garmasch-Partakurch) is a ski town in Bavaria, southern Germany. It is the seat of government of the district of Garmisch-Partenkirchen (abbreviated GAP), in the Oberbayern region, which borders Austria. Nearby is Germany's highest mountain, Zugspitze, at 2,962 m (9,718 ft.).

The town is known as the site of the 1936 Winter Olympic Games.

Germany at the Olympics

Athletes from Germany have taken part in most of the Olympic Games since the first modern Games in 1896. Germany has hosted three Olympic Games, in 1936 both the Winter and Summer Games, and the 1972 Summer Olympics. In addition, Germany had been selected to host the 1916 Summer Olympics as well as the 1940 Winter Olympics, both of which had to be cancelled due to World Wars. After these wars, Germans were banned from participating in 1920, 1924 and 1948. While the country was divided, each of the two German states boycotted the Summer Games: in 1980 West Germany was one of 66 nations which did not go to Moscow in protest at the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan and in 1984 East Germany joined the Soviet Union (and several others) in the boycott of the Summer Games in Los Angeles.

Including the Winter Games of 2018, German athletes have won 1681 medals: 547 gold, 567 silver and 567 bronze. The IOC currently splits these results among four codes, even though only the German Democratic Republic (GDR) from 1968 to 1988 had sent a separate team to compete against the team of the German NOC that represented Germany (GER) since 1896.

Hedy Stenuf

Hedy Stenuf Byram (July 18, 1922 – November 7, 2010) was an Austrian figure skater who later competed for France and the United States. Representing the United States, she became a two-time World medalist.

List of IOC meetings

This is the list of International Olympic Committee (IOC) meetings.

Olympia-Kunsteisstadion

The Olympia-Kunsteisstadion is a skating stadium located in Garmisch-Partenkirchen.

It was built according to plans of architect Hanns Ostler in only 106 days for the figure skating and ice hockey at the 1936 Winter Olympics. It was opened on 16 December 1934. It contained an ice rink 30 meters by 60 meters for these games. It was a partially covered stadium. The stadium was able to hold 10,000 people.

The Olympia-Kunsteistadion was rebuilt in 1939/1940 for the planned 1940 Winter Olympics which were canceled due to World War II.

After the war it was reopened in 1948. the stadium received a complete roof in 1964. From 1990 to 1994 it was rebuilt again and is now the Olympic-Eissport-Zentrum of Garmisch-Partenkirchen.

Robin Lee

Robin Huntington Lee (December 2, 1919 in Saint Paul, Minnesota – October 8, 1997 in Minneapolis) was an American figure skater. He was the 1935-1939 U.S. national champion. At age 12, he became the youngest skater to win the junior national title. At the 1935 United States Figure Skating Championships, at the age of 15, he became the first and, as of 2008, the only skater to defeat a seven time national champion in the United States.

Lee represented the United States at the 1936 Winter Olympics, where he placed 12th. He was selected to compete at the 1940 Winter Olympics, which were canceled due to World War II. During the War, Lee served in the U.S. Navy. After the War, Lee skated professionally in ice shows and worked as a coach.Lee was inducted into the U.S. Figure Skating Hall of Fame in 1995. He attended Erasmus Hall High School.The Robin Lee Midwest Open is a USFS sanctioned competition held each year in the summer by Lee's home club, the Figure Skating Club of Minneapolis, named in his honor.

Speed skating at the Winter Olympics

Speed skating has been featured as a sport in the Winter Olympics since the first winter games in 1924. Women's events were added to the Olympic program for the first time in 1960.

St. Moritz

St. Moritz (also German: Sankt Moritz, Romansh: San Murezzan , Italian: San Maurizio, French: Saint-Moritz) is a high Alpine resort town in the Engadine in Switzerland, at an elevation of about 1,800 metres (5,910 ft) above sea level. It is Upper Engadine's major village and a municipality in the district of Maloja in the Swiss canton of Graubünden.

St. Moritz lies on the southern slopes of the Albula Alps below the Piz Nair (3,056 m or 10,026 ft) overlooking the flat and wide glaciated valley of the Upper Engadine and eponymous lake: Lake St. Moritz. It hosted the Winter Olympics in 1928 and 1948.

Suzy Chaffee

Suzanne Stevia "Suzy" Chaffee (born November 29, 1946) is a former Olympic alpine ski racer and actress. Following her racing career, she modeled in New York with Ford Models and then became the pre-eminent freestyle ballet skier of the early 1970s. She is perhaps best known by the nickname, Suzy Chapstick, from the 1970s, when she was a spokesperson for ChapStick lip balm.

Chaffee's mother, who taught her to ski at the age of 3, would have been an alternative for the US ski team at the 1940 Winter Olympics. At age 19, Chaffee tried out for, and won a spot on, the first US Ski Team while a freshman at the University of Denver. She finished fourth in the downhill at the 1966 World Championships. Despite a season-ending crash in 1967 at Vail in the World Cup Series, she ended the season as the 10th ranked in Women's downhill skier, and the 16th ranked Women's All-Around skier. Chaffee was named captain of the US Women's team and was one of the favorites in the downhill at the 1968 Winter Olympics in Grenoble, France. She finished 28th in the downhill, blaming her poor showing on using the wrong wax, but she made a global impression with her skin-tight silver racing suit. She retired from ski racing after the 1968 Olympics. She was also a three-time world freestyle skiing champion (1971–73). She was inducted into the National Ski Hall of Fame in 1988.As a social activist, Chaffee championed Title IX legislation (equal opportunity for women in school sports). She was the first woman to serve on the board of the U.S. Olympic Committee, and has been a member of the President's Council on Physical Fitness under four U.S. presidents. She was a co-founder in 1996 of the Native Voices Foundation, an organization that seeks to develop Olympians from among Native American tribes.Chaffee's elder brother Rick Chaffee is also an Olympic alpine skier. She credited rumors that she was having an affair with Ted Kennedy as helping passage of the Amateur Sports Act of 1978. "The gossip got the bill through," she told Sports Illustrated.In 1979, the Supersisters trading card set was produced and distributed; one of the cards featured Chaffee's name and picture.Besides her long-running television ad campaign for ChapStick in the 1970s, she also endorsed Revlon cosmetics, Dannon yogurt, and Seagram spirits. She appeared in films such as Ski Lift To Death and Fire and Ice.In 2008, she ran for a seat on the Sedona, Arizona, City Council, but lost.

Venues of the 1972 Winter Olympics

For the 1972 Winter Olympics in Sapporo, Japan, a total of twelve sports venues were used. A thirteenth venue which was a reserved luge course was constructed, but never used in actual competition. Construction on all but of the venues used took place between 1968 and early 1971 in time for the test events. The Tsuskisamu Indoor Skating Rink was not completed until late 1971 or early 1972 because the number of teams scheduled to compete at the 1972 Games was not known. At the actual luge venue used, a malfunctioning starting gate during the first run led to the results being cancelled and rerun being ordered. The results of this event led to the only tie in Olympic luge history. The ski jumps at Miyanomori and Okurayama served as host venues for the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships thirty-five years later.

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