1940 United States Census

The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, and information about wages. This census introduced sampling techniques; one in 20 people were asked additional questions on the census form. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939. This was the first census in which every state (48) had a population greater than 100,000.

Sixteenth Census
of the United States
Seal of the United States Census Bureau
U.S. Census Bureau Seal
1940 census form large
Population Schedule
General information
CountryUnited States
Date takenApril 1, 1940
Total population132,164,569
Percent changeIncrease 7.3%
Most populous stateNew York
Least populous stateNevada

Census questions

The 1940 census collected the following information:[1]

  • address
  • home owned or rented
    • if owned, value
    • if rented, monthly rent
  • whether on a farm
  • name
  • relationship to head of household
  • sex
  • race
  • age
  • marital status
  • school attendance
  • educational attainment
  • birthplace
  • if foreign born, citizenship
  • location of residence five years ago and whether on a farm
  • employment status
  • if at work, whether in private or non-emergency government work, or in public emergency work (WPA, CCC, NYA, etc.)
    • if in private or non-emergency government work, hours worked in week
    • if seeking work or on public emergency work, duration of unemployment
  • occupation, industry and class of worker
  • weeks worked last year
  • wage and salary income last year

In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage, fertility, and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.

Data availability

1940 US Census Poster
1940 US Census poster

Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; after which the original sheets were destroyed.[2]

As required by Title 13 of the U.S. Code, access to personally identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years.[3] Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is freely available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Also, aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System.

On April 2, 2012[4]—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration.[5][6] The records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release; several organizations are compiling indices, in some cases through crowdsourcing.[7]

State rankings

1940 U.S. State Population Rankings
Rank State Population Region
1 New York 13,479,142 North East
2 Pennsylvania 9,900,180 North East
3 Illinois 7,897,241 Midwest
4 Ohio 6,907,612 Midwest
5 California 6,907,387 West
6 Texas 6,414,824 South
7 Michigan 5,256,106 Midwest
8 Massachusetts 4,316,721 North East
9 New Jersey 4,160,165 North East
10 Missouri 3,784,664 Midwest
11 North Carolina 3,571,623 South
12 Indiana 3,427,796 Midwest
13 Wisconsin 3,137,587 Midwest
14 Georgia 3,123,723 South
15 Tennessee 2,915,841 South
16 Kentucky 2,845,627 South
17 Alabama 2,832,961 South
18 Minnesota 2,792,300 Midwest
19 Virginia 2,677,773 South
20 Iowa 2,538,268 Midwest
21 Louisiana 2,363,880 South
22 Oklahoma 2,336,434 South
23 Mississippi 2,183,796 South
24 West Virginia 1,961,974 South
25 Arkansas 1,949,387 South
26 South Carolina 1,899,804 South
27 Florida 1,897,414 South
28 Maryland 1,821,244 South
29 Kansas 1,801,028 Midwest
30 Washington 1,736,191 West
31 Connecticut 1,709,242 North East
32 Nebraska 1,315,834 Midwest
33 Colorado 1,123,296 West
34 Oregon 1,089,684 West
35 Maine 847,226 North East
36 Rhode Island 713,346 North East
x District of Columbia 663,091 South
37 South Dakota 642,961 Midwest
38 North Dakota 641,935 Midwest
39 Montana 559,456 West
40 Utah 550,310 West
41 New Mexico 531,818 West
42 Idaho 524,873 West
43 Arizona 499,261 West
44 New Hampshire 491,524 North East
x Hawaii 423,330 West
45 Vermont 359,231 North East
46 Delaware 266,505 South
47 Wyoming 250,742 West
48 Nevada 110,247 West
x Alaska 72,524 West
-- Total 131,012,722

City rankings

Rank City State Population[8] Region (2016)[9]
01 New York New York 7,454,995 Northeast
02 Chicago Illinois 3,396,808 Midwest
03 Philadelphia Pennsylvania 1,931,334 Northeast
04 Detroit Michigan 1,623,452 Midwest
05 Los Angeles California 1,504,277 West
06 Cleveland Ohio 878,336 Midwest
07 Baltimore Maryland 859,100 South
08 St. Louis Missouri 816,048 Midwest
09 Boston Massachusetts 770,816 Northeast
10 Pittsburgh Pennsylvania 671,659 Northeast
11 Washington District of Columbia 663,091 South
12 San Francisco California 634,536 West
13 Milwaukee Wisconsin 587,472 Midwest
14 Buffalo New York 575,901 Northeast
15 New Orleans Louisiana 494,537 South
16 Minneapolis Minnesota 492,370 Midwest
17 Cincinnati Ohio 455,610 Midwest
18 Newark New Jersey 429,760 Northeast
19 Kansas City Missouri 399,178 Midwest
20 Indianapolis Indiana 386,972 Midwest
21 Houston Texas 384,514 South
22 Seattle Washington 368,302 West
23 Rochester New York 324,975 Northeast
24 Denver Colorado 322,412 West
25 Louisville Kentucky 319,077 South
26 Columbus Ohio 306,087 Midwest
27 Portland Oregon 305,394 West
28 Atlanta Georgia 302,288 South
29 Oakland California 302,163 West
30 Jersey City New Jersey 301,173 Northeast
31 Dallas Texas 294,734 South
32 Memphis Tennessee 292,942 South
33 Saint Paul Minnesota 287,736 Midwest
34 Toledo Ohio 282,349 Midwest
35 Birmingham Alabama 267,583 South
36 San Antonio Texas 253,854 South
37 Providence Rhode Island 253,504 Northeast
38 Akron Ohio 244,791 Midwest
39 Omaha Nebraska 223,844 Midwest
40 Dayton Ohio 210,718 Midwest
41 Syracuse New York 205,967 Northeast
42 Oklahoma City Oklahoma 204,424 South
43 San Diego California 203,341 West
44 Worcester Massachusetts 193,694 Northeast
45 Richmond Virginia 193,042 South
46 Fort Worth Texas 177,662 South
47 Jacksonville Florida 173,065 South
48 Miami Florida 172,172 South
49 Youngstown Ohio 167,720 Midwest
50 Nashville Tennessee 167,402 South
51 Hartford Connecticut 166,267 Northeast
52 Grand Rapids Michigan 164,292 Midwest
53 Long Beach California 164,271 West
54 New Haven Connecticut 160,605 Northeast
55 Des Moines Iowa 159,819 Midwest
56 Flint Michigan 151,543 Midwest
57 Salt Lake City Utah 149,934 West
58 Springfield Massachusetts 149,554 Northeast
59 Bridgeport Connecticut 147,121 Northeast
60 Norfolk Virginia 144,332 South
61 Yonkers New York 142,598 Northeast
62 Tulsa Oklahoma 142,157 South
63 Scranton Pennsylvania 140,404 Northeast
64 Paterson New Jersey 139,656 Northeast
65 Albany New York 130,577 Northeast
66 Chattanooga Tennessee 128,163 South
67 Trenton New Jersey 124,697 Northeast
68 Spokane Washington 122,001 West
69 Kansas City Kansas 121,458 Midwest
70 Fort Wayne Indiana 118,410 Midwest
71 Camden New Jersey 117,536 Northeast
72 Erie Pennsylvania 116,955 Northeast
73 Fall River Massachusetts 115,428 Northeast
74 Wichita Kansas 114,966 Midwest
75 Wilmington Delaware 112,504 South
76 Gary Indiana 111,719 Midwest
77 Knoxville Tennessee 111,580 South
78 Cambridge Massachusetts 110,879 Northeast
79 Reading Pennsylvania 110,568 Northeast
80 New Bedford Massachusetts 110,341 Northeast
81 Elizabeth New Jersey 109,912 Northeast
82 Tacoma Washington 109,408 West
83 Canton Ohio 108,401 Midwest
84 Tampa Florida 108,391 South
85 Sacramento California 105,958 West
86 Peoria Illinois 105,087 Midwest
87 Somerville Massachusetts 102,177 Northeast
88 Lowell Massachusetts 101,389 Northeast
89 South Bend Indiana 101,268 Midwest
90 Duluth Minnesota 101,065 Midwest
91 Charlotte North Carolina 100,899 South
92 Utica New York 100,518 Northeast
93 Waterbury Connecticut 99,314 Northeast
94 Shreveport Louisiana 98,167 South
95 Lynn Massachusetts 98,123 Northeast
96 Evansville Indiana 97,062 Midwest
97 Allentown Pennsylvania 96,904 Northeast
98 El Paso Texas 96,810 South
99 Savannah Georgia 95,996 South
100 Little Rock Arkansas 88,039 South


  1. ^ "Library Bibliography Bulletin 88, New York State Census Records, 1790-1925". New York State Library. October 1981. p. 45 (p. 51 of PDF). Retrieved December 15, 2008.
  2. ^ The Ancestry Insider (May 16, 2012). "1940 Census Update for 16 May 2012: Bad News". www.ancestryinsider.blogspot.com. Retrieved May 17, 2012.
  3. ^ "Historical Background". US Census Bureau. Archived from the original on June 12, 2009. Retrieved July 2, 2009.
  4. ^ "1940 Census". Archived from the original on January 3, 2007. Retrieved November 26, 2006.
  5. ^ Weinstein, Allen (April 2008). "Access to genealogy data at NARA grows" (PDF). NARA Staff Bulletin. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved July 2, 2009.
  6. ^ Weinstein, Allen (Summer 2008). "Finding Out Who You Are: First Stop, National Archives". Prologue magazine, vol. 40, no. 2. Washington DC: National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved July 2, 2009.
  7. ^ Daley, Bill (March 27, 2012). "Unlocking a new door to the 1940s – 1940 census details to be released to public". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved March 20, 2012.
  8. ^ Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places in the United States: 1790 to 1990, U.S. Census Bureau, 1998
  9. ^ "Regions and Divisions". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on December 3, 2016. Retrieved September 9, 2016.

External links

1940 in Michigan

Events from the year 1940 in Michigan.

1942 United States House of Representatives elections in Virginia

The 1942 United States House of Representatives elections in Virginia were held on November 3, 1942 to determine who will represent the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States House of Representatives. Virginia had nine seats in the House, apportioned according to the 1940 United States Census. Representatives are elected for two-year terms.

1942 United States elections

The 1942 United States elections were held on November 3, 1942, and elected the members of the 75th United States Congress. In Democratic President Franklin D. Roosevelt's unprecedented third mid-term election, the Republican Party picked up seats in both chambers. In the House of Representatives, the Democratic lost forty-five seats, mostly to Republicans. The House elections took place after the 1940 United States Census and the subsequent Congressional re-apportionment. The Democrats also lost eight seats to the Republicans in the U.S. Senate. An Independent also lost his seat to a Republican in the Senate. Despite Republican gains, the Democratic Party retained control of both chambers.The election was a victory for the conservative coalition, which passed the Smith-Connally Act and abolished the National Resources Planning Board over the objections of Roosevelt.As the election came in the middle of World War II, voter turnout was just 33.9%. As of 2018, no biennial U.S. election since then has seen a lower voter turnout.

1944 United States House of Representatives elections in Virginia

The 1944 United States House of Representatives elections in Virginia were held on November 7, 1944 to determine who will represent the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States House of Representatives. Virginia had nine seats in the House, apportioned according to the 1940 United States Census. Representatives are elected for two-year terms.

1946 United States House of Representatives elections in Virginia

The 1946 United States House of Representatives elections in Virginia were held on November 5, 1946 to determine who will represent the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States House of Representatives. Virginia had nine seats in the House, apportioned according to the 1940 United States Census. Representatives are elected for two-year terms.

1946 in Michigan

Events from the year 1946 in Michigan.

1948 United States House of Representatives elections in Virginia

The 1948 United States House of Representatives elections in Virginia were held on November 2, 1948 to determine who will represent the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States House of Representatives. Virginia had nine seats in the House, apportioned according to the 1940 United States Census. Representatives are elected for two-year terms.

1949 in Michigan

Events from the year 1949 in Michigan.

1950 United States House of Representatives elections in Virginia

The 1950 United States House of Representatives elections in Virginia were held on November 7, 1950 to determine who will represent the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States House of Representatives. Virginia had nine seats in the House, apportioned according to the 1940 United States Census. Representatives are elected for two-year terms.

Carolyn Jones

Carolyn Sue Jones (April 28, 1930 – August 3, 1983) was an American actress of television and film. Jones began her film career in the early 1950s, and by the end of the decade had achieved recognition with a nomination for an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for The Bachelor Party (1957) and a Golden Globe Award as one of the most promising actresses of 1959. Her film career continued for another 20 years. In 1964, she began playing the role of Morticia Addams (as well as her sister Ophelia and the feminine counterpart of Thing, Lady Fingers), in the original black and white television series The Addams Family.

Denison, Texas

Denison is a city in Grayson County, Texas, United States. It is 75 miles (121 km) north of Dallas. The population was 22,682 at the 2010 census. Denison is part of the Texoma region and is one of two principal cities in the Sherman–Denison Metropolitan Statistical Area. Denison is known as the birthplace of Dwight D. Eisenhower, the 34th President of the United States.

Elko, New York

Elko was a town in Cattaraugus County, New York, that existed from 1890 to 1965. It was forcibly evacuated in 1965 due to the construction of the Kinzua Dam on the Allegheny River in Warren County, Pennsylvania, one of the largest dams in the United States east of the Mississippi. The dam was authorized by the United States Congress as a flood control measure in the Flood Control Acts of 1936 and 1938, and was built by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers beginning in 1960. Other benefits from the dam include drought control, hydroelectric power production, and recreation.As of the 1940 United States Census, the most recent for which census data for the town is available online, 125 people were resident in Elko.

Eugene Davis (doctor)

Eugene Davis (December 26, 1870 – January 14, 1946) was an American surgeon and college football player and coach. He served as the head football coach at Virginia Agricultural and Mechanical College and Polytechnic Institute (VPI)—now known as Virginia Tech—for one season in 1900. Davis's team played only one home game that season, beating St. Albans by a score of 21–0. The rest of the schedule was played away. VPI won a rematch St. Albans, 16–6, beat North Carolina A&M, 18–2, played North Carolina to a scoreless tie in Chapel Hill, lost to the Virginia, 17–5, defeated Clemson in Charlotte, North Carolina, 12–5, and lost to their biggest rival at the time, VMI, 5–0.Davis was born in Charlottesville in 1870 to D. C. T. and Mary Davis. Davis was a member of Phi Delta Theta. Around 1898, Davis was elected president of the general athletic association at the University of Virginia, described in an 1899 publication as "the highest honor within the gift of student body". He married Marguerite Sanders in 1910 in Wytheville. He also served as the first health commissioner of Charleston, West Virginia from 1906 to 1909. After practicing medicine in Pennsylvania, West Virginia and his home state of Virginia, Davis served in World War I as a surgeon and medic. He was honorably discharged.He moved from Memphis, Tennessee, where he managed a Veterans' Administration hospital, to Fort Lyon Colorado in December 1931. In 1933, Davis was managing a Veterans Administration facility in Fort Lyon, Colorado. He had previously managed a Veterans' Administration hospital, also in Fort Lyons. At the time of the 1940 United States Census, Davis and his family was living in Oak Park, Illinois, working at a "government hospital".Davis died at a New Orleans hospital in 1946.

George Rich (American football)

George Ellsworth Rich (December 14, 1904 – July 16, 1989) was an American football player and coach. He played for the Michigan Wolverines football team from 1926 to 1928 and was the captain and starting quarterback of the 1928 Michigan Wolverines football team. He was the head coach of the Denison Big Red football team from 1931 to 1934.

Kenmore, New York

Kenmore is a village in Erie County, New York, United States. The population was 15,423 at the 2010 census. It is part of the Buffalo–Niagara Falls metropolitan area.

Kenmore is in the south part of the town of Tonawanda, and together with the town it is often referred to as "Ken-Ton". It is bordered to the south by the city of Buffalo. The village is in the northwest part of Erie County.

The village has received accolades: In 2009, the American Planning Association named Kenmore "One of the Top 10 Great Neighborhoods" in the United States. The village is also one of the country's 100 most densely populated incorporated places. And in 2011, Buffalo Business First named Kenmore the highest-rated community in Western New York. Kenmore holds 1,328th place among 3,764 municipalities throughout the United States.

L. Jay Caldwell

L. Jay Caldwell (June 19, 1871 – 1950) was an American football player and coach. He was the fourth head football coach at Colgate University and he held that position for two seasons, first in 1893 and then returning for 1895. His overall coaching record at Colgate was 7–2–2. He was born in Ephratah, New York in 1871. He married May Thorne on July 20, 1904 in Jamaica, New York.Caldwell later taught mathematics at a high school in Amsterdam, New York. In 1913, he was teaching at an Orange, New Jersey high school.

By the 1940 United States Census, Caldwell and his wife were retired and living in Shrewsbury, Massachusetts. He died there in 1950.

Morris Lottinger Jr.

Morris Albert Lottinger Jr. (born c. 1937), is a retired judge who previously served from 1971 to 1975 as a Democratic member of the Louisiana House of Representatives from his native Houma in Terrebonne Parish in South Louisiana.Lottinger is one of three children born to the former Effie J. Hellier (1908-1993) and the attorney Morris Lottinger Sr.(1902-1978 His paternal grandparents were the former Lucille Theriot and Victor Lottinger (died July 1939). In the 1940 United States Census, then listed as two years of age, Lottinger was residing with his parents and his older sister Elizabeth in the home of his maternal grandfather, Harry W. Hellier (born c. 1880) and his uncle, Harry F. Hellier Lottinger received his bachelor's degree from Nicholls State University in Thibodaux in Lafourche Parish. He completed Louisiana State University Law Center and was admitted to the bar in 1965. He is a member of Phi Delta Phi, the international legal honor society.In the House, Lottinger joined with colleague Elward Thomas Brady Jr., also of Houma, in an effort to adopt boater-safety regulations proposed by the United States Coast Guard, but many constituents objected to the U.S. government dictating policy regarding their boats. Years later, those same safety guidelines were adopted.In 1976, Representative Lottinger was named "Conservationist of the Year" among the elected official category by the Louisiana Wildlife Federation.Lottinger left the state House after five years to become a judge of the Louisiana First Circuit Court of Appeal, which includes his Terrebonne Parish. He retired from the judgeship as chief judge on July 15, 1998. Like his father, he was hence both a state representative and a judge. The senior Lottinger was also House Speaker for the last two years of his legislative service.

Robert W. Peterson (politician)

Robert W. Peterson (January 18, 1929 – April 18, 2013) was an American politician serving as a public servant and politician from North Dakota. A member of the Republican Party, he served as the North Dakota State Auditor from 1973 to 1996. Prior to his tenure as Auditor, he served in the North Dakota House of Representatives from 1967 to 1972. His son, Robert R. Peterson, was his successor as State Auditor; he began serving in 1997.

Ron Woodroof

Ronald Dickson Woodroof (February 3, 1950 – September 12, 1992) was an American man who created what would become known as the Dallas Buyer's Club in March 1988, one of several such AIDS buyers clubs that sprang up at the time. After contracting the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the 1980s, he created the group as part of his efforts to find and distribute drugs to treat HIV at a time when the disease was poorly understood.He sued the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) over a ban on peptide T, a drug he was using. Woodroof's final years became the basis of the 2013 film Dallas Buyers Club.

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