1936 Republican National Convention

The 1936 Republican National Convention was held June 9–12 at the Public Auditorium in Cleveland, Ohio. It nominated Governor Alfred Landon of Kansas for President and Frank Knox of Illinois for Vice President.

The convention supported many New Deal programs, including Social Security. The keynote address was given on June 9 by Frederick Steiwer, U.S. Senator from Oregon[1][2]

Although many candidates sought the Republican nomination, only two, Governor Landon and Senator Borah, were considered to be serious candidates. Although favorite sons County Attorney Earl Warren of California, Governor Warren E. Green of South Dakota, and Stephen A. Day of Ohio won their respective primaries, the 70-year-old Borah, a well-known progressive and "insurgent," carried the Wisconsin, Nebraska, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Oregon primaries, while also performing quite strongly in Knox's Illinois and Green's South Dakota. However, the party machinery almost uniformly backed Landon, a wealthy businessman and centrist, who won primaries in Massachusetts and New Jersey and dominated in the caucuses and at state party conventions.

Other potential candidates included Robert A. Taft, New York Congressman James W. Wadsworth, Jr., Michigan Senator Arthur Vandenberg, Iowa Senator Lester Dickinson, New York Congressman Hamilton Fish III, New Jersey Governor Harold Hoffman, Delaware Governor C. Douglass Buck, Supreme Court Justice Owen Roberts, Michigan auto magnate Henry Ford, aviator Charles Lindbergh, former President Herbert Hoover, Oregon Senator Frederick Steiwer, Senate Minority Leader Charles McNary, former Treasury Secretary Ogden L. Mills and Theodore Roosevelt, Jr., cousin of Democratic incumbent Franklin D. Roosevelt.

At the start of the convention, Landon looked like the likely nominee, but faced opposition from a coalition led by Michigan Senator Arthur Vandenberg, Idaho Senator William E. Borah, and newspaper publisher Frank Knox.[3] However, the stop-Landon movement failed.

1936 Republican presidential primaries
Republican primaries by state results

The tally of the first ballot at the convention was:

Knox was nominated for vice president.

1936 Republican National Convention
1936 presidential election
RP1936
RV1936
Nominees
Landon and Knox
Convention
Date(s)June 9–12, 1936
CityCleveland, Ohio
VenuePublic Auditorium
Keynote speakerFrederick Steiwer
U.S. Senator, Oregon[1][2]
Candidates
Presidential nomineeAlf Landon of Kansas
Vice Presidential nomineeFrank Knox of Illinois
Other candidatesWilliam Borah of Idaho
Results (President)Landon 984, Borah 19

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Ferguson, Harry (June 10, 1936). "New Deal rebels wooed by G.O.P." Pittsburgh Press. United Press. p. 1.
  2. ^ a b "'Return to American system,' keynote advises G.O.P." Pittsburgh Press. United Press. June 10, 1936. p. 7.
  3. ^ Krock, Arthur (10 June 1936). "Keynoter Denounces Roosevelt Policies, Demanding Tax Cuts and Balanced Budget; Landon Men Take Control of Convention". New York Times. Retrieved 9 October 2015.

External links

Preceded by
1932
Chicago
Republican National Conventions Succeeded by
1940
Philadelphia

Coordinates: 41°30′14″N 81°41′35″W / 41.504°N 81.693°W

1936 Democratic National Convention

The 1936 Democratic National Convention was held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania from June 23 to 27, 1936. The convention resulted in the nomination of President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Vice President John N. Garner for reelection.

1936 Republican Party presidential primaries

The 1936 Republican presidential primaries were the selection process by which voters of the Republican Party chose its nominee for President of the United States in the 1936 U.S. presidential election. The nominee was selected through a series of primary elections and caucuses culminating in the 1936 Republican National Convention held from June 9 to June 12, 1936, in Cleveland, Ohio.Although many candidates sought the Republican nomination, only two, Governor Landon and Senator Borah, were considered to be serious candidates. While favorite sons County Attorney Earl Warren of California, Governor Warren E. Green of South Dakota, and Stephen A. Day of Ohio won their respective primaries, the 70-year-old Borah, a well-known progressive and "insurgent," carried the Wisconsin, Nebraska, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Oregon primaries, while also performing quite strongly in Knox's Illinois and Green's South Dakota. However, the party machinery almost uniformly backed Landon, a wealthy businessman and centrist, who won primaries in Massachusetts and New Jersey and dominated in the caucuses and at state party conventions.

1936 United States presidential election

The United States presidential election of 1936 was the thirty-eighth quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 3, 1936. In the midst of the Great Depression, incumbent Democratic President Franklin D. Roosevelt defeated Republican Governor Alf Landon of Kansas. Roosevelt won the highest share of the popular and electoral vote since the largely uncontested 1820 election. The sweeping victory consolidated the New Deal Coalition in control of the Fifth Party System.Roosevelt and Vice President John Nance Garner were re-nominated without opposition. With the backing of party leaders, Landon defeated progressive Senator William Borah at the 1936 Republican National Convention to win his party's presidential nomination. The populist Union Party nominated Congressman William Lemke for president.

The election took place as the Great Depression entered its eighth year. Roosevelt was still working to push the provisions of his New Deal economic policy through Congress and the courts. However, the New Deal policies he had already enacted, such as Social Security and unemployment benefits, had proven to be highly popular with most Americans. Landon, a political moderate, accepted much of the New Deal but criticized it for waste and inefficiency.

Although some political pundits predicted a close race, Roosevelt went on to win the greatest electoral landslide since the beginning of the current two-party system in the 1850s. Roosevelt took 60.8% of the popular vote, while Landon won 36.5% and Lemke won just under 2%. Roosevelt carried every state except Maine and Vermont, which together cast eight electoral votes. By winning 523 electoral votes, Roosevelt received 98.49% of the electoral vote total, which remains the highest percentage of the electoral vote won by any candidate since 1820. Roosevelt also won the highest share of the popular vote since 1820, though Lyndon B. Johnson would later win a slightly higher share of the popular vote in the 1964 election.

Alf Landon

Alfred Mossman Landon (September 9, 1887 – October 12, 1987) was an American politician from the Republican Party. He served as the twenty-sixth Governor of Kansas from 1933 to 1937. He was the Republican Party's nominee in the 1936 presidential election, but was defeated in a landslide by incumbent President Franklin D. Roosevelt who won the electoral college vote 523 to 8.

Born in West Middlesex, Pennsylvania, Landon spent most of his childhood in Marietta, Ohio before moving to Kansas. After graduating from the University of Kansas, he became an independent oil producer in Lawrence, Kansas. His business made him a millionaire, and he became a leader of the liberal Republicans in Kansas. Landon won election as Governor of Kansas in 1932 and sought to reduce taxes and balance the budget in the midst of the Great Depression. He supported many components of the New Deal but criticized some aspects that he found inefficient.

The 1936 Republican National Convention selected Landon as the Republican Party's presidential nominee. He proved to be an ineffective campaigner and carried just two states in the election. After the election, he left office as governor and did not again seek public office. Later in life, he supported the Marshall Plan and President Lyndon B. Johnson's Great Society programs. He gave the first in a series of lectures, now known as the Landon Lecture Series, at Kansas State University. Landon lived to the age of 100 and died in Topeka, Kansas, in 1987. His daughter, Nancy Kassebaum, represented Kansas in the United States Senate from 1978 to 1997.

Ernest L. Jahncke

Ernest Lee Jahncke (October 13, 1877 – November 16, 1960) was United States Assistant Secretary of the Navy from 1929 to 1933. He was the first, and until the 2002 Winter Olympic bid scandal the only person ever to have been expelled from the International Olympic Committee. He was removed in July 1936 for his outspoken opposition to holding the 1936 Summer Olympics in Nazi Germany.

Ernest Lynn Waldorf

Ernest Lynn Waldorf (May 14, 1876 – July 27, 1943) was an American bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church, elected in 1920.He was born on a farm in the South Valley, Otsego County, New York. Waldorf united with the Central New York Annual Conference of the M.E. Church in 1900. Prior to his election to the episcopacy, Waldorf served as a pastor, and as a chaplain in the 74th Regt. of the National Guard in Buffalo, New York, 1911-15.

His son was football coach Pappy Waldorf.

While a bishop in Kansas City, Missouri, in the 1920s, he championed a proposed Lincoln and Lee University that would be built on the battlefield of the Battle of Westport (biggest battle west of the Mississippi River). The university would be named for Abraham Lincoln and Robert E. Lee and be built around a proposed national memorial to fallen Civil War soldiers. The school would eventually form the basis of what is the University of Missouri-Kansas City (and is not affiliated with the church).

He offered invocations at the 1928 Republican National Convention (fourth day, June 15, 1928) and the 1936 Republican National Convention (second day, June 10, 1936).He died after a few months illness, on July 27, 1943, in the Noble Foundation Hospital, Alexandria Bay, New York. He was buried in Oakwood Cemetery in Syracuse, New York.

Frank Knox

William Franklin Knox (January 1, 1874 – April 28, 1944) was an American politician, newspaper editor and publisher. He was also the Republican vice presidential candidate in 1936, and Secretary of the Navy under Franklin D. Roosevelt during most of World War II. Knox was mentioned by name in Adolf Hitler's speech of December 11, 1941, in which Hitler asked for a German declaration of war against the United States.

Born in Boston, he attended Alma College and served with the Rough Riders during the Spanish–American War. After the war, he became a newspaper editor in Grand Rapids, Michigan and a prominent supporter of the Republican Party. He advocated U.S. entrance into World War I and served as an artillery officer in France. The 1936 Republican National Convention nominated a ticket of Alf Landon and Knox, and they were defeated by Roosevelt and John Nance Garner in the 1936 election.

After World War II broke out, Knox supported aid to the Allies. In 1940, Roosevelt appointed him as Secretary of the Navy in hopes of building bipartisan support. He presided over a naval buildup and pushed for the internment of Japanese Americans. Knox served as Secretary of the Navy until his death in 1944.

Fred L. Porter

Fred LeRoy Porter (November 12, 1877 – September 5, 1938) was an American farmer and politician from New York.

Frederick Steiwer

Frederick Steiwer (October 13, 1883 – February 3, 1939) was an American politician and lawyer in the state of Oregon.A native of the state, he was county district attorney and member of the Oregon State Senate from eastern Oregon and a veteran of World War I. A Republican, he was elected to the United States Senate and served from 1927 to 1938. Twice a candidate for the Republican nomination to the Presidency, he delivered the keynote address during the 1936 Republican National Convention.

Gustave W. Buchen

Gustave William Buchen (September 25, 1886 – December 3, 1951) was an American politician, educator, and lawyer.

Born in the town of Lyndon in Sheboygan County, Wisconsin, Buchen received his bachelor's degree from the University of Wisconsin–Madison, in 1909, and his law degree from the University of Wisconsin Law School, in 1912. From 1909 to 1911, he taught rhetoric and oratory at University of Oregon and public speaking at the University of Wisconsin–Madison in 1911 and 1912. He practiced law in Sheboygan, Wisconsin. He served as a member of the Wisconsin State Senate from 1942 to 1951 when he died while still in office. He was a delegate to the 1936 Republican National Convention. His son Philip also practiced law, and became White House Counsel during the presidency of Gerald Ford.

Howard C. Lawrence

Howard Cyrus Lawrence (August 14, 1890 – May 20, 1961) was an American politician from the U.S. state of Michigan.

J. Frederick Burns

J. Frederick Burns was an American politician from Maine. A Republican from Houlton, Maine, Burns served in the Maine Senate from 1934 to 1940. From 1936 to 1938, Burns was the Senate President.Burns was a Republican delegate to the 1936 Republican National Convention from Maine's 3rd congressional district.

Joe E. Dunne

Joe E. Dunne (November 20, 1881 – 1963) was an American politician from Oregon.

John Adams Jr. (Nebraska politician)

John Adams Jr. (August 14, 1906 – April 19, 1999) was an American lawyer and Republican politician and a member of the unicameral Nebraska Legislature. He was born in Columbia, South Carolina and lived in Omaha, Nebraska after 1923. He served in the last session of the Nebraska House of Representatives and was the only black member of the first session of the Nebraska unicameral in 1937 where he served until 1941. He was named by the Omaha World Herald as one of the Legislature's 16 most able members. While a legislator, he introduced what became the states first public housing law and supported other welfare legislation. He also served as an honorary sergeant at arms at the 1936 Republican National Convention and as a Judge Advocate at Camp Knight in Oakland, California during World War II.

Philip Nelson (Wisconsin politician)

Philip E. Nelson (September 1, 1891) was a Republican member of the Wisconsin State Senate from 1931 to 1943. Nelson represented the 11th District. He resided in Maple, Wisconsin, and was a delegate to the 1936 Republican National Convention. Born in Curtiss, Wisconsin, he went to Williams Business School in Oshkosh, Wisconsin. He was an accountant, managed cheese factories, and owned a general store. He served in the United States Army during World War I. He served on the Douglas County, Wisconsin Board of Supervisors. Previously, he had served two terms in the Wisconsin State Assembly.

Ruth Stockton

Ruth Small Stockton (June 6, 1916 – October 21, 1990) represented Jefferson County for 24 years as a Republican state representative in the Colorado General Assembly. Stockton was the Senate Majority Caucus leader (1967-1968) and the first woman to serve as the state's president pro tempore (1979-1980). She was inducted into the Colorado Women's Hall of Fame in 1985.She attended Vassar College but dropped out during the depression to work at Macy's, though she returned later to complete classes at Columbia University. Her father, Arthur Small, was worked for the Republican National Committee. While at the 1936 Republican National Convention, she met her future husband, Truman Stockton, who was then the president of the Young Republicans and a Colorado delegate.Stockton waited until her daughter went to college to run for office. She was first elected to the Colorado House of Representatives in 1961 and, after subsequent reelections to the house, won a seat in the Colorado Senate, where she represented Lakewood from 1965 until 1984. Stockton was the Senate Majority Caucus leader (1967-1968) and the first woman to serve as the state's president pro tempore (1979-1980). During over two decades in office, she chaired the Appropriations, Senate Services, and Health, Environment, Welfare, and Institutions committees, in addition to chair the Joint Budget Committee, which she was the first woman to do. Stockton was a moderate Republican and supported the Equal Rights Amendment and women's abortion rights.

Samuel W. Reynolds

Samuel Williams Reynolds (August 11, 1890 – March 20, 1988) was a Republican United States Senator from Nebraska.

Walter J. Cookson

Walter J. Cookson (April 17, 1876 – June 11, 1936), Republican politician, was mayor of Worcester, Massachusetts in 1936. Cookson was elected mayor after serving several years on the School Committee. Only a few months after his election, he collapsed and died of a heart attack in his Cleveland hotel room while attending the 1936 Republican National Convention. Cookson Field, an 18-acre (73,000 m2) park near Worcester's College of the Holy Cross is named in his honor.

William J. Maier

William J. Maier (September 13, 1876 in Seneca Falls, Seneca County, New York – December 1941) was an American politician from New York. He served seven terms in the New York State Assembly, and was briefly in 1922 New York State Comptroller.

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