1936 Naval Revolt

The 1936 naval revolt (Portuguese: Revolta dos Marinheiros de 1936) or Mutiny on the Tagus ships (Motim dos Barcos do Tejo) was a mutiny in Portugal that occurred on 8 September 1936 aboard the aviso Afonso de Albuquerque and destroyer Dão. It was organized by the Revolutionary Organization of the Fleet (Organização Revolucionária da Armada, ORA), a left-wing group with links to the Portuguese Communist Party. The mutineers intended to demand António de Oliveira Salazar's resignation and were apparently inspired by the ongoing Spanish Civil War.[1]

1936 Portuguese naval revolt
1936 Naval Revolt Soldiers Portugal

Mutineers are arrested by government police forces.
Date8 September 1936
Location
Result

Decisive Estado Novo victory

  • Revolt crushed
Belligerents
Portugal Estado Novo Organização Revolucionária da Armada
Commanders and leaders
Portugal António de Oliveira Salazar Manuel Guedes 
Strength
Shore defences
1 submarine
1 aviso
1 destroyer
Casualties and losses
Unknown Both ships beached
12 sailors killed
20 sailors wounded
238 sailors arrested

Mutiny

The Portuguese fleet lay at anchor in the estuary of the Tagus River on 8 September 1936. The rebels planned to seize control of both the ships and the coastal forts. At 03:00 their ships were to begin their departure, following each other out at 15 minute intervals.[1] No word was received from the fort garrisons, so the rebels' plan would only work if they could embark before shore batteries came into action. However, a wireless operator tipped off the Portuguese Admiralty to the plan at around 01:00. A boat was immediately dispatched to survey the situation of the fleet.[1]

NRP Afonso de Albuquerque
The aviso NRP Afonso de Albuquerque, pictured in 1935

Upon seeing the Admiralty launch, most of the Portuguese sailors realized their plot had been discovered and chose not to revolt. By then the crews of the Afonso de Albuquerque and Dão had already mutinied, forcing their officers below deck at gunpoint. The sailors on the Afonso attempted to lure the Admiralty officers aboard, but the launch fled and the crew opened fire with machine guns. It took almost an hour before the alarm was raised ashore. When the forts were finally alerted, they could not target the mutineers' ships due to a heavy mist. The rebels were hesitant to leave without further orders from their leaders, and did not attempt a breakout until daylight.[1] The Portuguese naval minister ordered coastal artillery to fire on any vessel attempting to leave the harbour.[2]

At 07:30 the Afonso and Dão raised steam and proceeded down the river at about 8 knots (15 km/h; 9.2 mph). By then the mist had cleared and the shore batteries opened fire. The Afonso responded but was soon struck. A loyal submarine opened fire on her with a machine gun.[2] Her bridge was destroyed in the engagement and her engines were crippled. The Dão, caught in the cross-fire between two forts, was also hit and both ships ran aground. The crews raised white flags to signal their surrender.[3] Government forces boarded the Afonso and arrested its crew. In an attempt to conceal their actions, several sailors stripped off their uniforms and attempted to swim ashore. Loyal Portuguese troops raked them with machine gun fire. The rebels were rounded up near Belém Tower and taken prisoner.[1] The leader of the revolt, a sailor from the Dão, committed suicide.[2]

Aftermath

The Portuguese Ministry of Maritime Affairs reported that 12 sailors were killed and 20 wounded.[2] 238 were arrested and deported to a penal colony on Santiago, Portuguese Cape Verde.[4] The Ministry dismissed both crews in their entirety, reinstating sailors only if they were able to prove they resisted the mutiny. An investigation was also opened into discipline aboard the aviso Bartolomeu Dias.

According to historian Glyn Stone, the revolt was "easily suppressed and remained an isolated incident" and did not pose a threat to António de Oliveira Salazar.[5] The government framed the mutiny as a Communist plot to surrender the Portuguese ships to the Spanish Republican Navy.[1][3] On 10 September, Salazar introduced a law forcing all public servants to swear allegiance to the principles of the regime and an anti-communist paramilitary force, the Legião Portuguesa, was formed a week later. The mutiny also strengthened Portuguese support for Francisco Franco's side in the Spanish Civil War.[6]

The revolt was the last military challenge to Portugal's Estado Novo until 1974.

The mutiny forms of the backdrop for the 1984 novel The Year of the Death of Ricardo Reis by José Saramago.[4]

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f The Sydney Morning Herald, Friday 2 October 1936, p. 17
  2. ^ a b c d "Portuguese Naval Revolt". The Advertiser. Adelaide, South Australia. Associated Press. 10 September 1936. p. 24. Retrieved 12 July 2016.
  3. ^ a b Ferreira & Marshall 2010, p. 24.
  4. ^ a b Sapega 2008, p. 74.
  5. ^ Stone 1994, p. 13.
  6. ^ Stone 1994, pp. 13–14.

Bibliography

External links

1936

1936 (MCMXXXVI)

was a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1936th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 936th year of the 2nd millennium, the 36th year of the 20th century, and the 7th year of the 1930s decade.

1936 in Portugal

Events in the year 1936 in Portugal.

António de Oliveira Salazar

António de Oliveira Salazar (; Portuguese: [ɐ̃ˈtɔniu dɨ oliˈvɐjɾɐ sɐlɐˈzaɾ]; 28 April 1889 – 27 July 1970) was a Portuguese statesman who served as Prime Minister of Portugal from 1932 to 1968. He was responsible for the Estado Novo ("New State"), the corporatist authoritarian government that ruled Portugal until 1974.

A trained economist, Salazar entered public life with the support of President Óscar Carmona after the Portuguese coup d'état of 28 May 1926, initially as finance minister and later as prime minister. Opposed to democracy, communism, socialism, anarchism and liberalism, Salazar's rule was conservative and nationalist in nature. Salazar distanced himself from fascism and Nazism, which he criticized as a "pagan Caesarism" that recognised neither legal nor moral limits.

Salazar promoted Catholicism, but argued that the role of the Church was social, not political, and negotiated the Concordat of 1940. One of the mottos of the Salazar regime was "Deus, Pátria e Família" (meaning "God, Fatherland, and Family").With the Estado Novo enabling him to exercise vast political powers, Salazar used censorship and a secret police to quell opposition, especially that related to the Communist movement. He supported Francisco Franco in the Spanish Civil War and played a key role in keeping Portugal and Spain neutral during World War II while still providing aid and assistance to the Allies. Despite not being a democracy, Portugal under his rule took part in the founding of important international organizations. Portugal was one of the 12 founding members of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) in 1949, joined the European Payments Union in 1950, and was one of the founding members of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) in 1960, and a founding member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development in 1961. Under his rule Portugal also joined the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade in 1962, and began the Portuguese Colonial War. The doctrine of Pluricontinentalism was the basis of his territorial policy, a conception of the Portuguese Empire as a unified state that spanned multiple continents.

The Estado Novo collapsed during the Carnation Revolution of 1974, four years after Salazar's death. Evaluations of his regime have varied, with supporters praising its outcomes and critics denouncing its methods. However, there is a general consensus that Salazar was one of the most influential figures in Portuguese history. In recent decades, "new sources and methods are being employed by Portuguese historians in an attempt to come to grips with the dictatorship which lasted 48 years."

List of prime ministers of Portugal

The prime minister of the Portuguese Republic (Portuguese: primeiro-ministro da República Portuguesa) is the head of the country's Government. He or she coordinates the actions of all ministers, represents the Government as a whole, reports his actions and is accountable to the Assembly of the Republic, and keeps the president of the Republic informed.

There is no limit to the number of mandates as prime minister. He or she is appointed by the president of the Republic, after the legislative elections and after an audience with every leader of a party represented at the Assembly. It is usual for the leader of the party which receives a plurality of votes in the elections to be named prime minister.

The official residence of the prime minister is a mansion next to São Bento Palace, which, in confusion, is also often called "São Bento Palace", although many prime ministers did not live in the palace during their full mandate.

List of shipwrecks in 1936

The list of shipwrecks in 1936 includes all ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during 1936.

Mutiny

Mutiny is a criminal conspiracy among a group of people (typically members of the military or the crew of any ship, even if they are civilians) to openly oppose, change, or overthrow a lawful authority to which they are subject. The term is commonly used for a rebellion among members of the military against their superior officers, but it can also occasionally refer to any type of rebellion against authority figures or governances.

During the Age of Discovery, mutiny particularly meant open rebellion against a ship's captain. This occurred, for example, during Ferdinand Magellan's journeys around the world resulting in the killing of one mutineer, the execution of another, and the marooning of others; on Henry Hudson's Discovery resulting in Hudson and others being set adrift in a boat; and the notorious mutiny on the Bounty.

NRP Bartolomeu Dias (1934)

NRP Bartolomeu Dias was a sloop of the Portuguese Navy. The ship was the second of the Afonso de Albuquerque-class sloop, which also included the lead ship of the class, the NRP Afonso de Albuquerque. These ships were classified, by the Portuguese Navy, as avisos coloniais de 1ª classe (colonial aviso 1st class) and were designed for colonial service in the Overseas territories of Portugal.

Following the failed 1936 Naval Revolt, an investigation was opened into discipline aboard the ship.

PIDE

The PIDE or International and State Defense Police (Portuguese: Polícia Internacional e de Defesa do Estado) was a Portuguese security agency that existed during the Estado Novo regime of António de Oliveira Salazar. Formally, the main roles of the PIDE were the border, immigration and emigration control and internal and external State security. However, it became more known by its secret police activities.

The agency that would later become the PIDE was established by the Decree-Law 22992 of August 1933, as the Surveillance and State Defense Police or PVDE. It resulted from the merger of two former agencies, the Portuguese International Police and the Political and Social Defense Police. The PVDE was transformed into the PIDE in 1945. PIDE was itself transformed into the Directorate-General of Security or DGS in 1968. After the 25 April 1974 Carnation Revolution, DGS was disbanded in Portugal, but continued to exist transitionally in the Portuguese overseas territories as the Military Information Police or PIM, being finally completely disbanded in 1975.

Although the acronym PIDE was only formally used from 1945 to 1969, the set of successive secret polices that existed during the 40 years of the Estado Novo regime are commonly referred to as the PIDE. Historically, this set of police agencies is also often referred as PIDE/DGS, from the acronyms of its two last designations. It is referred in this last way in article 293 of the Portuguese Constitution, which states the criminalization and judgment of its former officers.

During its existence, the organization was known for its actions during the Spanish Civil War, its role as a political police, its counter-espionage activities during World War II and its counter-insurgency operations in the Portuguese Colonial War.

Shipwrecks
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