The 1936 Democratic National Convention was held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania from June 23 to 27, 1936. The convention resulted in the nomination of President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Vice President John N. Garner for reelection.
|1936 Democratic National Convention|
|1936 presidential election|
Roosevelt and Garner
|Date(s)||June 23–27, 1936|
|Presidential nominee||Franklin D. Roosevelt of |
|Vice Presidential nominee||John N. Garner of Texas|
Prior to 1936, the rule for nominating candidates for President and Vice President required a two-thirds vote of the delegates. However, this rule was abolished at the 1936 Democratic Convention and conventioneers adopted a rule which provided that a majority could nominate. This would allow for candidates to more easily be nominated and would thus produce less balloting. It also began to diminish the South's clout at the convention, making it easier for Democrats to begin adopting civil rights and other liberal ideas into their platforms. The two thirds rule had long given the South a de facto veto on presidential nominees, but Roosevelt pushed for the removal of the policy, in part due to past deadlocks (for example, the 1924 presidential nomination required 103 ballots). With the rule's abolition, Missouri Senator Bennett Champ Clark noted that "the Democratic Party is no longer a sectional party, it has become a great national party." Southern Democrats would continue to decline in power, ultimately leading to the Dixiecrat movement and Nixon's 1968 Southern strategy.
South Carolina Senator Ellison D. Smith walked out of the convention hall once he saw that a black minister, Marshall L. Shepard, was going to deliver the invocation. Smith recalled, "He started praying and I started walking. And from his great plantation in the sky, John C. Calhoun bent down and whispered in my ear – 'You done good, Ed.'"
|Name||Franklin D. Roosevelt|
|Certified Votes||Voice Vote(100.00%)|
President Roosevelt and Vice President Garner were renominated by acclamation without need for a roll-call vote.
In his acceptance speech on June 27 at the adjacent Franklin Field, Roosevelt remarked, "This generation of Americans has a rendezvous with destiny."
|Democratic National Conventions||Succeeded by|
The 1936 Democratic presidential primaries were the selection process by which voters of the Democratic Party chose its nominee for President of the United States in the 1936 U.S. presidential election. Incumbent President Franklin D. Roosevelt was selected as the nominee through a series of primary elections and caucuses culminating in the 1936 Democratic National Convention held from June 23 to June 27, 1936, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.1936 Republican National Convention
The 1936 Republican National Convention was held June 9–12 at the Public Auditorium in Cleveland, Ohio. It nominated Governor Alfred Landon of Kansas for President and Frank Knox of Illinois for Vice President.
The convention supported many New Deal programs, including Social Security. The keynote address was given on June 9 by Frederick Steiwer, U.S. Senator from Oregon
Although many candidates sought the Republican nomination, only two, Governor Landon and Senator Borah, were considered to be serious candidates. Although favorite sons County Attorney Earl Warren of California, Governor Warren E. Green of South Dakota, and Stephen A. Day of Ohio won their respective primaries, the 70-year-old Borah, a well-known progressive and "insurgent," carried the Wisconsin, Nebraska, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Oregon primaries, while also performing quite strongly in Knox's Illinois and Green's South Dakota. However, the party machinery almost uniformly backed Landon, a wealthy businessman and centrist, who won primaries in Massachusetts and New Jersey and dominated in the caucuses and at state party conventions.
Other potential candidates included Robert A. Taft, New York Congressman James W. Wadsworth, Jr., Michigan Senator Arthur Vandenberg, Iowa Senator Lester Dickinson, New York Congressman Hamilton Fish III, New Jersey Governor Harold Hoffman, Delaware Governor C. Douglass Buck, Supreme Court Justice Owen Roberts, Michigan auto magnate Henry Ford, aviator Charles Lindbergh, former President Herbert Hoover, Oregon Senator Frederick Steiwer, Senate Minority Leader Charles McNary, former Treasury Secretary Ogden L. Mills and Theodore Roosevelt, Jr., cousin of Democratic incumbent Franklin D. Roosevelt.
At the start of the convention, Landon looked like the likely nominee, but faced opposition from a coalition led by Michigan Senator Arthur Vandenberg, Idaho Senator William E. Borah, and newspaper publisher Frank Knox. However, the stop-Landon movement failed.
The tally of the first ballot at the convention was:
Alfred Landon 984
William Borah 19Knox was nominated for vice president.1938 United States Senate election in South Carolina
The 1938 South Carolina United States Senate election was held on November 8, 1938 to select the U.S. Senator from the state of South Carolina. Incumbent Democratic Senator Ellison D. Smith defeated Governor Olin D. Johnston in the Democratic primary. The general election was contested, but a victory by Smith was never in doubt.A Time for Choosing
"A Time for Choosing", also known as "The Speech", was a speech presented during the 1964 U.S. presidential election campaign by future president Ronald Reagan on behalf of Republican candidate Barry Goldwater. The speech launched Reagan into national prominence.Byron N. Scott
Byron Nicholson Scott (March 21, 1903 – December 21, 1991) was an American lawyer and politician. The Democrat Scott served as the second United States Representative for California's 18th congressional district for two terms, from 1935 to 1939.Electoral history of Franklin D. Roosevelt
Electoral history of Franklin D. Roosevelt, 32nd President of the United States (1933–1945); 44th Governor of New York (1929–1932).Howard Llewellyn Swisher
Howard Llewellyn Swisher (September 21, 1870 – August 27, 1945) was an American businessperson, real estate developer, orchardist, editor, writer, and historian. As a prominent businessman, he established several companies responsible for the development of businesses and real estate in Morgantown, West Virginia.
Swisher was born in 1870 near Levels, West Virginia. He became a schoolteacher there at the age of 18, then graduated from Fairmont State Normal School (present-day Fairmont State University) and West Virginia University. He then remained in Morgantown, where he established a bookstore and stationery shop. Following the success of his bookstore, Swisher organized the Main Street Building Company, the Howard L. Swisher Company, and the Morgantown Building Association, each of which constructed a large number of residences in the city. He was also the inaugural secretary-treasurer of the West Virginia Real Estate Dealers' Association.
Swisher was secretary of the Royalty Oil Company, which owned mining rights for approximately 16,000 acres (65 km2) of prospective oil lands throughout the United States. In addition, he also held prominent leadership and management roles in the Valley Wood Working Company, the Monongahela Valley Posting and Distributing Plant, the Federal Savings and Trust Company, and the West Virginia Tri-Products Company. In Hampshire County, Swisher maintained fruit growing interests and served as the president of the South Branch Merchandising Company. He was an active member of the West Virginia Democratic Party and was selected as a delegate from West Virginia to the 1936 Democratic National Convention.
In 1897, Swisher co-authored History of Hampshire County, West Virginia: From Its Earliest Settlement to the Present with West Virginia historian Hu Maxwell. The book was the first comprehensive history of Hampshire County ever compiled. He composed a collection of poetry and short stories, Briar Blossoms, in 1899, and was the editor of The Ghourki, a literary journal of poetry, short stories, and aphorisms. In 1908, Swisher published Book of Harangues, a selection of passages from The Ghourki.James P. Aylward
James Patrick Aylward (September 10, 1885 – July 22, 1982) was a Missouri attorney, Democratic party leader, and a political associate of President Harry S. Truman.Joachim O. Fernández
Joachim Octave Fernández, Sr. (August 14, 1896 – August 8, 1978), was a member of the U. S. House of Representatives for Louisiana's 1st congressional district. Like all other members of his state's congressional delegation at the time of his tenure, Fernández was a Democrat.John C. Lehr
John Camillus Lehr (November 18, 1878 – February 17, 1958) was a politician from the U.S. state of Michigan.
Lehr was born in Monroe, Michigan and attended St. Mary's private school and graduated from Monroe High School in 1897. He graduated from the law department of the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor in 1900. He was admitted to the bar the same year and commenced practice in Monroe. He moved to Port Huron in 1905 and continued the practice of law there. He later returned to Monroe in 1916 and served as city attorney from 1918 to 1922 and 1928 to 1930. He was a member of the board of education of Monroe 1926 to 1936 and served as its vice president from 1930 to 1936.
In 1932, Lehr defeated seven-term Republican Earl C. Michener to be elected as a Democrat from Michigan's 2nd congressional district to the 73rd United States Congress, serving from March 4, 1933 to January 3, 1935. He was defeated by Michener in 1934.
Lehr was a delegate to the 1936 Democratic National Convention and was a member of the Monroe Port Commission from 1936 to 1942. On July 2, 1936, he was appointed by President Franklin D. Roosevelt to be United States Attorney for the Eastern District of Michigan and served in that position until September 2, 1947. He resigned to devote his time as head of a fraternal beneficiary association in Detroit (The Maccabees), and was succeeded by his chief assistant Thomas P. Thornton.John C. Lehr died in Monroe and was interred there in St. Joseph Cemetery.John J. O'Connor (politician)
John Joseph O'Connor (November 23, 1885 – January 26, 1960) was an American politician from New York.John P. Kirk
John Patrick Kirk (September 20, 1867, Ypsilanti, Michigan – August 22, 1952, Ypsilanti) was a Michigan politician in the early 1900s.
He was born on September 20, 1867, the son of Bernard Kirk (d. 1899) and Ann (Murphy) Kirk, immigrants from Ireland. He married Mary Shaff on June 20, 1898. Kirk graduated from the University of Michigan Law School in 1888 and became a lawyer, was Washtenaw County prosecuting attorney from 1897 to 1900. He was commissioned as a major in the Army during the Spanish–American War; his name is inscribed on Ypsilanti's Spanish–American War Memorial, as the highest-ranking officer. Kirk subsequently became a general.
He was a member of Michigan House of Representatives from Washtenaw County's 2nd district from 1903 to 1904, when he became an unsuccessful candidate for the United States House of Representatives for Michigan's 2nd congressional district in the 1904 general elections. He was elected mayor of Ypsilanti in 1908, defeating George D. Lockwood, and served from 1908–1910. He was nominated as the Democratic candidate for Lieutenant Governor of Michigan in 1916, but lost. He was an unsuccessful candidate for circuit judge in Michigan 22nd Circuit in 1917. He was a delegate from Michigan to the 1936 Democratic National Convention, at which Franklin Delano Roosevelt was renominated for President. In his later career, Kirk was a bank president in Ypsilanti, where he died in 1952. He is buried in St. John Cemetery in Ypsilanti.
John Kirk and his wife had 4 children. His only son, Bernard Kirk, was an All-American football player who played for both Notre Dame University and the University of Michigan.Marshall L. Shepard
Marshall Lorenzo Shepard, Sr. (July 10, 1899 – February 21, 1967) was an American Christian clergyman and politician. Affiliated with the Democratic Party, his political career was focused in the city of Philadelphia.
Born to an African American family in North Carolina, he came to Philadelphia to serve as pastor of Mount Olivet Tabernacle Baptist Church, a black Baptist congregation. He worked as pastor there for forty years and gained a national reputation as a preacher, rising to prominence within the denomination. Shepard also became involved in Democratic politics in Philadelphia. He was elected to three terms in the Pennsylvania General Assembly and three terms on the Philadelphia City Council, where he served until his death in 1967.Oak Grove Cemetery (Fall River, Massachusetts)
Oak Grove Cemetery is a historic cemetery located at 765 Prospect Street in Fall River, Massachusetts. It was established in 1855 and greatly improved upon in the years that followed. It features Gothic Revival elements, including an elaborate entrance arch constructed of locally quarried Fall River granite. The cemetery originally contained 47 acres, but has since been expanded to roughly 100 acres. The cemetery is the city's most significant, built in the planned rural-garden style of Mount Auburn Cemetery in Cambridge, Massachusetts. It was designed and laid out by local architect Josiah Brown, who is also known for his designs of early mills including the Union, Border City, and others.Oak Grove Cemetery is the final resting place of many of the city's elite, including prominent mill owners and merchants. It also contains the city's Civil War Monument, donated by Richard Borden.
The cemetery was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1983. It is still owned and operated by the City of Fall River.Rendezvous with Destiny
Rendezvous with Destiny may refer to:
Rendezvous with Destiny (TV series), a 2007 Algerian television series
A 1936 presidential nomination acceptance speech by Franklin D. Roosevelt — see 1936 Democratic National Convention
A 1952 book titled Rendezvous With Destiny: A History of Modern American Reform — see Eric F. Goldman
A 1964 television program that included a speech by Ronald Reagan in support of Barry Goldwater — see A Time for Choosing
U.S. Army 101st Airborne Division MottoRobert L. Mouton
Robert Louis Mouton (October 20, 1892 – November 26, 1956) was a U.S. Representative from Louisiana.
Born in Duchamp in St. Martin Parish, Louisiana, Mouton moved with his parents to Lafayette, where he attended public schools. He graduated from the University of Louisiana at Lafayette, then known as Southwestern Louisiana Institute. He was employed as a clerk in a bank in 1911 and 1912. He served as member of the faculty of St. Charles College in Grand Coteau from 1912 to 1914. He engaged in the insurance business and also operated a night school at Lafayette in 1915 and 1916. He served as aide to the general receiver of customs on the island of Haiti, in 1916 and as collector of customs at Gonaives, Haiti, from March 1917 to April 1919. During World War I, Mouton enlisted in the United States Marine Corps, serving as an interpreter and intelligence officer attached to the first squadron of the first marine aviation outfit overseas from May 1918 to January 1919.
After the war, he returned to Lafayette and engaged in horticultural pursuits. He served as mayor of Lafayette from 1919–1927 and 1931–1935. Mouton was postmaster from May 1929 until his resignation in November 1930. He served as member of the United States Marine Corps Reserve, with rank of captain. He was a delegate to the 1936 Democratic National Convention.
Mouton was elected as a Democrat to the Seventy-fifth and Seventy-sixth Congresses (January 3, 1937 – January 3, 1941). He was an unsuccessful candidate for renomination in 1940, having lost the party primary to James Domengeaux. He then resumed his horticultural and real estate interests. He died in New Orleans on November 26, 1956. He was interred at St. John's Catholic Cemetery, Lafayette.Rush Wimberly
Joseph Rush Wimberly, I (December 30, 1873 – March 11, 1943), was at the turn of the 20th century successively a member of both houses of the Louisiana State Legislature from Arcadia, the seat of Bienville Parish in North Louisiana. He served two terms in the Louisiana House of Representatives from 1900 to 1908. and a single term in the Louisiana State Senate from 1908 to 1912, representing Bienville and neighboring Claiborne parishes. Wimberly served on the Education committees of both houses during his 12-year tenure.Wimberly was the youngest of eleven children of the former Francis Nix and John L. Wimberly, a planter and a native of Georgia who migrated westward to Louisiana in 1840. Rush Wimberly graduated from Arcadia High School, an entity of the Bienville Parish School Board. Having privately thereafter studied the law, he was admitted to the bar in 1894. After his legislative years, Wimberly moved to Shreveport in Caddo Parish in northwestern Louisiana, where he formed the law firm, Wimberly, Reeves and Dorman. He returned to Arcadia and for ten years was the parish attorney for Bienville Parish and for a number of years the parish public school superintendent.Wimberly was an alternate delegate to the 1936 Democratic National Convention, which met in Philadelphia to renominate the Roosevelt-Garner ticket.In 1897, Wimberly married the former Annie May Poland (1877-1960), and the couple had three children. The oldest, Lorris M. Wimberly, served in the state House, including several stints as Speaker. Lorris Wimberly was a political ally of his fellow Democrat, Governor Earl Kemp Long. The other Wimberly children were J. Rush Wimberly, Jr. (1906-1982), an attorney, and Edrie W. Albrecht (1902-1983), the wife of Henry Gustave Albrecht (1899-1945) of Arcadia.Wimberly and most of his family are interred at the Arcadia Cemetery.Tessie Mobley
Tessie Mobley (December 4, 1906 – December 19, 1990) was an American operatic soprano.
Mobley was the daughter of Benjamin E. and Tennie Worsham Mobley, and was raised near Ardmore, Oklahoma; her father was white, while her mother was of Chickasaw descent. One of her sisters was Marie Muchmore, who would go on to witness, and film, the assassination of John F. Kennedy. One-quarter Chickasaw, she grew up in both cultures, and was especially close to her maternal grandmother, who spoke no English and taught her to do beadwork and to identify herbs and other edible things in nature. She also learned how to break horses and shoot a rifle, and became a member of the women's rifle team at the University of Oklahoma. Mobley initially studied piano as a child before transitioning into voice lessons. Her interest in opera developed in high school. She continued her study of music at the University of Georgia and at Christian College in Columbia, Missouri. She married Louis Brave, an Osage actor, in 1926, divorcing him in 1931.In 1929, Mobley auditioned for the Indian Ceremonials at the Hollywood Bowl. She was discovered by Charles Wakefield Cadman, who launched her career. At this time she adopted the name "Lushanya", meaning "songbird", and she was henceforth frequently known as the "Songbird of the Chickasaws". Invited by a promoter to appear in Germany, she received scholarships to study opera at the Berlin University of the Arts and the Accademia Nazionale di Santa Cecilia in Rome in the early 1930s. In 1935 she appeared in the annual performance of The Song of Hiawatha by Samuel Coleridge-Taylor at the Royal Albert Hall in London, singing the role of Minnehaha. She continued to sing solo roles in Los Angeles and Chicago, notably taking on the title role of Aida with the Chicago Opera Company in Trieste, the first person of native American descent to perform the part. Another signature piece was Cadman's opera Shanewis. Mobley was the first American Indian to sing at La Scala. She performed at the 1936 Democratic National Convention in Philadelphia. The following year she sang at the coronation of George VI of the United Kingdom. She also traveled overseas to entertain American soldiers during World War II. Mobley later married Ramón Vinay, retiring to manage his career. She died in Fort Worth, and is buried in her hometown of Ardmore.As Lushanya Vinay, Mobley was inducted into the Oklahoma Hall of Fame in 1964. She was inducted into the Chickasaw Nation Hall of Fame in 2009, an honor accepted in her stead by her niece, Aurelia Guy Phillips.William S. Flynn
William Smith Flynn (August 14, 1885 – April 13, 1966) of Providence, Rhode Island was the 54th Governor of Rhode Island from 1923 to 1925. He was a progressive Democrat.