1935 Yazidi revolt

The 1935 Yazidi revolt took place in Iraq in October 1935.[1] The Iraqi government, under Yasin al-Hashimi, crushed a revolt by the Yazidi people of Jabal Sinjar against the imposition of conscription.[1][2] The Iraqi army, led by Bakr Sidqi, reportedly killed over 200 Yazidi and imposed martial law throughout the region.[1] Parallel revolts opposing conscription also broke out that year in the northern (Kurdish populated) and mid-Euphrates (majorly Shia populated) regions of Iraq.

The Yazidis of Jabal Sinjar constituted the majority of Iraqi Yazidi population - the third largest non-Muslim minority within the kingdom, and the largest ethno-religious group in the province of Mosul.[2] In 1939, the region of Jabal Sinjar was once again put under military control, together with the Shekhan District.[2]

1935 Yazidi revolt
DateOctober 1935
Location
Result Revolts suppressed
Territorial
changes
Jabal Sinjar put under military control
Belligerents
Iraq Kingdom of Iraq Iraqi Yazidi tribes
Commanders and leaders

Iraq Yasin al-Hashimi

Iraq Bakr Sidqi
Casualties and losses
200 villagers killed[1]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d dtic.mil
  2. ^ a b c Fuccaro, Nelinda. "Ethnicity, State Formation, and Conscription in Postcolonial Iraq: The Case of the Yazidi Kurds of Jabal Sinjar". International Journal of Middle East Studies Vol. 29, No. 4 (Nov., 1997), pp. 559-580. JSTOR.
1926 Simko Shikak revolt

1926 Simko Shikak revolt refers to a short-timed Kurdish uprising against the Pahlavi dynasty of Iran in 1926, led by Kurdish chieftain Simko Shikak from Shikak tribe.

1935–36 Iraqi Shia revolts

1935 Rumaytha and Diwaniyya revolt or the 1935–1936 Iraqi Shia revolts consisted of a series of Shia tribal uprisings in the mid-Euphrates region against the Sunni dominated authority of the Kingdom of Iraq. In each revolt, the response of the Iraqi government was to use military force to crush the rebellions with little mercy. The administrative task of this forceful disciplining of the Shi'a tribes fell to General Bakr Sidqi – the same man responsible for the brutal massacre of Assyrians in 1933. Parallel revolts, opposing conscription, also broke out that year in northern Iraq (Kurdish populated) and Jabal Sinjar (mostly Yazidi populated) regions.

The Shia tribes of the mid-Euphrates region (as well as the Kurds in the North Iraq) saw themselves increasingly under-represented in the Sunni-dominated Iraqi government, which further deteriorated with the exclusion of key Shia sheikhs from the Iraqi parliament in 1934 elections. As a result, unrest broke out in the mid-Euphrates in January 1935. Following unsuccessful attempts by Shia leaders to achieve relief of certain grievances in return for reconciliation, the rebellion spread to the region of Diwaniyya, led by two powerful sheikhs. The rebellion, however, was pacified within a single week, as internal Iraqi politics allowed the resignation of the Iraqi government.

Following the arrest of one of the more prominent clerical followers of Ayatollah Khashif al-Ghita in May, Shia uprisings again spread in the mid-Euphrates. Martial law was declared in Diwaniyya by Bakr Sidqi and the full power of the Iraqi airforce and army was deployed against the Shia tribesmen. By the end of May they were defeated and the revolt over. However, this didn't end the uprisings, as other incidents followed from time to time. Hundreds of Shia tribesmen were killed over the course of these events.The 1935 Shia uprisings posed no direct threat to the central Iraqi rule, since the tribes were too fragmented. Nevertheless, in 1936 the Shia tribes rose up again, killing 90 Iraqi troops and downing two aircraft. Sidqi's troops quickly prevailed, exacting a harsh punishment in destroying homes, imprisoning civilians and conducting public hangings of scores of men.

1986 Egyptian conscripts riot

On February 25, 1986, around 25,000 Egyptian conscripts of the Central Security Forces (CSF), Egyptian paramilitary force, staged violent protests in and around Cairo. The riot came as a reaction to the rumour that their three-year compulsory service would be prolonged by one additional year without any additional benefits or rank promotion.

The incited conscripts targeted tourist areas and destroyed two hotels. The regime of Mubarak relied on the Egyptian Army to crush the mutiny, thus when the poorly paid and poorly armed CSF mutinied, the Army was sent in to restore order. The Army deployed tanks and armoured personnel carriers and commando snipers to hunt down the rebelling conscripts, most of whom were unarmed or armed only with shields, batons, and assault rifles. In Upper Egypt and near Giza, the Army Aviation and the Air Force used helicopters and fighter jets to attack the rebelling conscripts, causing a large number of deaths. At least 4 to 5 helicopters, and 3 fighter jets, were used in the operation. The Air Force officer in command of the operation was Ahmed Shafik, as commander of all MiG-21 fleets in the Central Military Zone.

The riot lasted for 3 days and a total of 107 people died, mostly CSF conscripts, according to official reports. Over 20,000 conscripts were dismissed from service with no benefits, and the agitators received correctional punishment after being tried before State Security Court for arson, violent riots, and insubordination according to penal code. Some reports related that mutiny to a conspiracy against the Minister of Interior in charge by then (Gen. Ahmed Roshdy) due to his policies. After the suppression the government promised to overhaul the force by raising its entry standards, increasing payment and bettering living conditions in their camps.

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