1932 San Ciprian hurricane

The 1932 San Ciprian hurricane was a powerful Atlantic tropical cyclone that struck Puerto Rico during the 1932 Atlantic hurricane season. The ninth tropical cyclone, fourth hurricane and third major hurricane of the 1932 season,[1] the San Ciprian Hurricane formed on September 25 east of the Leeward Islands and moved due west where it quickly gained hurricane strength a day later. After peaking as a Category 4 storm, the hurricane crossed the entire length of Puerto Rico at Category 4 strength. The hurricane later struck the Dominican Republic as a Category 1 storm. Weakened by its three landfalls, the storm continued to trek westward as a weak tropical storm before making its fourth and fifth landfalls in Belize and mainland Mexico. The storm then dissipated on October 3.[1]

The San Ciprian Hurricane took an unusual east to west path across Puerto Rico, producing damage across the entire length of the United States territory. The next storm to follow a similar path was Hurricane Georges in 1998.[2] Overall damage in Puerto Rico was catastrophic as the storm left $30 million (1932 USD, equivalent to $0.4 billion in 2016) and 225–257 fatalities. The hurricane also caused moderate damage in the Virgin Islands.[3]

1932 San Ciprian Hurricane
Category 4 major hurricane (SSHWS/NWS)
San Ciprien Hurricane Analysis 27 Sept 1932
Surface weather analysis of the storm on September 27
FormedSeptember 25, 1932
DissipatedOctober 2, 1932
Highest winds1-minute sustained: 145 mph (230 km/h)
Lowest pressure943 mbar (hPa); 27.85 inHg
Fatalities225–257 directly
Damage$30 million (1932 USD)
Areas affectedLeeward Islands, Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Belize, Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico
Part of the 1932 Atlantic hurricane season

Meteorological history

1932 Atlantic hurricane 9 track
Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir–Simpson scale

A possible Cape Verde-type hurricane, the San Ciprian storm was detected by ships as a tropical storm on September 25.[1] A strong high pressure system to the north kept the storm moving due west. It reached hurricane strength hours later as it passed the islands of Antigua and St. Barthelemy at 3 p.m. On September 26, the hurricane passed through the rest of the Leeward Islands as it gained strength.[1][3] During its journey, the hurricane quickly strengthened to Category 4 status and its winds peaked at 145 mph (230 km/h).[4] At 10 p.m., the hurricane made landfall near Ceiba, with the eye passing directly over the Ensenada Honda harbor. After striking Puerto Rico, the storm continued westward where it made its second landfall near Santo Domingo on September 27. The storm weakened as it crossed into Haiti as a tropical storm.[3] After impacting Hispaniola, the storm continued westward where it brushed past Jamaica to the south.[1] On October 1, the tropical storm made landfall in Belize (then known as British Honduras) and crossed over the Yucatan Peninsula before making its final landfall near Veracruz, Mexico. It dissipated on October 3.[3]

Preparations

Hurrpaths
Comparisons between the paths of the 1928 San Felipe Segundo hurricane, the 1998 Hurricane Georges, and the 1932 San Ciprian Hurricane

Forecasters at the United States Weather Bureau issued tropical cyclone watches and warnings for the islands of St. Kitts and Nevis and St. Martin.[5] In Puerto Rico, forecasters began to issue warnings on September 26,[3] and police and municipality leaders were notified of the storm's approach. The Governor of Puerto Rico, James R. Beverley, called an emergency meeting with the territories' police chief, the general of the National Guard, Commissioner of Health, and other officials to discuss the preparation for the storm and what actions must be taken after the storm passes.[6] The warnings prompted residents to board up their windows and take precautions.[7]

In the Dominican Republic, the hurricane's approach triggered fears of a second disaster as that country was still recovering from the destruction by the 1930 Dominican Republic Hurricane two years earlier.[8] The concern prompted residents to close businesses and evacuate; some sought to nearby churches for shelter.[9] In Jamaica, meteorologists forecast the storm to move north of the island after passing over Port-au-Prince, Haiti. The track of the storm prompted the forecasters to issue advisories for oceangoing ships and small watercraft.[10] The countries of Honduras and Belize also took preparations ahead of the storm as people closed shops and other businesses in anticipation of the storm's landfall.[11]

Impact

The impact of the San Ciprian Hurricane was the worst Puerto Rico (including San Juan) has seen since the 1928 Okeechobee Hurricane.[7] Damage from the 1932 hurricane also occurred in areas that escaped damage from the 1928 storm. Damage from the 1932 hurricane affected 49 municipalities in Puerto Rico.[6]

Virgin Islands

Weather stations in St. Croix and St. Thomas reported 60 mph (97 km/h) winds and barometric pressures ranging from 1000 to 1001 mbar (29.52 to 29.55 inHg).[3] The storm caused moderate damage in the Virgin Islands as heavy seas sank or heavily damaged small boats and ships in St. Thomas.[7] The New York Times reported that the hurricane killed 15 people in the Virgin Islands.[12]

Puerto Rico

In Puerto Rico, the hurricane produced heavy rainfall and two ships reported barometric pressures of 938 to 948 mbar (27.70 to 27.99 inHg). A weather station reported winds of 66 mph (106 km/h) and increasing velocities before the station was blown down by the storm.[3] As the hurricane passed Puerto Rico, a weather station in San Juan reported a barometric pressure reading of 980 mbar (28.93 inHg) during the height of the storm.[7]

Offshore, the rough seas brought by the hurricane caused heavy damage to shipping as the storm surge caused two boats to run aground near Ceiba. In San Juan, two more boats sustained severe damage. The storm surge and high winds also damaged or destroyed several warehouses.[3] Elsewhere in Puerto Rico, the damage was even more severe as the hurricane's high winds destroyed many homes in outlying villages killing 109 people. The highest death toll came from the town of Rio Piedras which was directly in the path of the hurricane and many of the homes were in poor condition to withstand the hurricane's winds.[13] Damage to roads, power lines, and roads[6] disrupted communications and access to the interior portion of Puerto Rico.[14] Heavy rainfall from the hurricane caused significant flooding that left many homes and buildings under 1.5 feet (0.4 meter) of water.[15]

Agricultural damage from the hurricane was severe as the storm damaged or destroyed much of the citrus, sugar, coffee, tobacco, and honey harvests. Overall crop damage totaled up to $20 million (1932 USD). In addition, over 400,000 livestock perished in the storm leaving $470,837 dollars (1932 USD) in lost value. Overall, the hurricane killed 257 people, 4,280 more injured[6] and 70-500 thousand homeless. Total storm damage amounted to $30 million (1932 USD, equivalent to $0.4 billion in 2016[16])[3]

Caribbean Sea and Mexico

In the Dominican Republic, a weather station in San Pedro de Macoris reported winds of 90 mph (145 km/h) while another weather station in Santo Domingo reported winds of 50 mph (80 km/h).[3] Damage in the Dominican Republic was limited to crops and there were no fatalities.[17] The storm then continued on to affect Haiti, Belize and Mexico as a weak tropical storm. Damage in those countries if any was unknown.[1]

Aftermath

In the Virgin Islands, officials and the Red Cross provided $25,000 dollars (1932 USD) in relief aid.[18] In Puerto Rico, soon after the disaster, the United States National Guard was sent to help injured and homeless residents in the storm affected areas. The American Red Cross also helped in distributing food, medical equipment. On September 27, Secretary Woodfin L. Butte surveyed the damage from an airplane to determine which towns sustained most damage from the hurricane. On the same day a local officials set up several relief committees to help continue the relief effort, these committees raised $74,998 (1932 USD) in relief aid.[6] President Herbert Hoover sent his condolences to Governor Beverley after the storm.[19] WKAQ, Puerto Rico's radio station began broadcasting radio addresses by Governor Beverley encouraging residents to continue the hurricane cleanup and relief effort. In the overall relief effort, $164,000 dollars (1932 USD) in hurricane relief aid was spent.[6]

Name

The hurricane earned its name by striking Puerto Rico on September 26, the Roman Catholic feast day devoted to Saint Cyprian (San Ciprián in Spanish), the magician of Antioch. This was a common practice prior to the introduction of standardized hurricane names – for example, the 1867 San Narciso hurricane, the 1899 San Ciriaco hurricane, and the 1928 San Felipe hurricane were also named after the feast day on which they occurred.[20]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f Unisys (1932). "1932 Unisys Archive". Archived from the original on 2007-03-11. Retrieved 2007-04-12.
  2. ^ Shawn P. Bennett and Rafael Mojica (1998). "Hurricane Georges Preliminary Storm Report". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Archived from the original on 2008-10-14. Retrieved 2007-04-12.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j W.J. Humphreys (1932). "1932 Monthly Weather Review" (PDF). NOAA. Retrieved 2007-04-12.
  4. ^ NOAA (2007). "HURDAT re-analysis of 1932 San Ciprian Hurricane". Retrieved 2007-04-13.
  5. ^ The Circleville Herald (1932). "Warns of Storms". Retrieved 2007-04-17.
  6. ^ a b c d e f James R. Beverley (1933). "Thirty-Third Annual Report of the Governor of Puerto Rico 1933". Retrieved 2007-04-17.
  7. ^ a b c d Syracuse Herald (1932). "Puerto Rico is Ravaged by Hurricane". Archived from the original on 2017-09-21. Retrieved 2007-04-17.
  8. ^ Syracuse Herald (1932). "San Domingo and Haiti in the storms path". Archived from the original on 2017-09-21. Retrieved 2007-04-18.
  9. ^ United Press (1932). "Long Trail of death and damage left by the storm". The Vidette-Messenger. Retrieved 2007-04-18.
  10. ^ The Daily Gleaner (1932). "Jamaica in the danger zone". Retrieved 2007-04-19.
  11. ^ Associated Press (1932). "Honduras shops close as hurricane nears". The Syracuse Herald. Retrieved 2007-04-19.
  12. ^ New York Times (1932-09-28). "SAN JUAN DAMAGED BADLY". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-04-25.
  13. ^ Associated Press (1932). "San Juan is Lashed Hard During Night". The Daily Times News. Retrieved 2007-03-23.
  14. ^ United Press (1932). "Puerto Rico Swept By Extremely Forceful storm". Times Evening Herald. Retrieved 2007-04-23.
  15. ^ The Port Arthur News (1932). "Gulf Storm Looses Fury". Retrieved 2007-04-25.
  16. ^ Thomas, Ryland; Williamson, Samuel H. (2018). "What Was the U.S. GDP Then?". MeasuringWorth. Retrieved January 5, 2018. United States Gross Domestic Product deflator figures follow the Measuring Worth series.
  17. ^ Associated Press (1932). "Storm Heading for Island of Jamaica". The Lowell Sun. Retrieved 2007-03-25.
  18. ^ Associated Press (1932). "Newspaper Report on the Hurricane". Galveston Daily News. Retrieved 2007-04-25.
  19. ^ United Press (1932). "Relief Asked For 1000 Hurt In Hurricane". San Mateo Times. Archived from the original on 2017-09-28. Retrieved 2007-04-25.
  20. ^ "San Ciriaco Hurricane". East Carolina University, RENCI Engagement Center.
1899 San Ciriaco hurricane

1899 San Ciriaco hurricane, also known as the 1899 Puerto Rico Hurricane or The Great Bahamas Hurricane of 1899, was the longest-lived Atlantic hurricane on record, and the second-longest-lived tropical cyclone globally on record (in terms of tropical duration) after Hurricane John in the Pacific. The third tropical cyclone and first major hurricane of the season, this storm was first observed southwest of Cape Verde on August 3. It slowly strengthened while heading steadily west-northwestward across the Atlantic Ocean and reached hurricane status by late on August 5. During the following 48 hours, it deepened further, reaching Category 4 on the modern day Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale (SSHWS) before crossing the Leeward Islands on August 7. Later that day, the storm peaked winds of 150 mph (240 km/h). The storm weakened slightly before making landfall in Guayama, Puerto Rico with winds of 140 mph (220 km/h) on August 8. Several hours later, it emerged into the southwestern Atlantic as a Category 3 hurricane. The system paralleled the north coast of Dominican Republic and then crossed the Bahamas, striking several islands. Thereafter, it began heading northward on August 14, while centered east of Florida. Early on the following day, the storm re-curved northeastward and appeared to be heading out to sea. However, by August 17, it turned back to the northwest and made landfall near Hatteras, North Carolina early on the following day. No stronger hurricane has made landfall on the Outer Banks since the San Ciriaco hurricane.

The storm weakened after moving inland and fell to Category 1 intensity by 1200 UTC on August 18. Later that day, the storm re-emerged into the Atlantic. Now heading northeastward, it continued weakening, but maintained Category 1 intensity. By late on August 20, the storm curved eastward over the northwestern Atlantic. It also began losing tropical characteristics and transitioned into an extratropical cyclone at 0000 UTC on August 22, while located about 325 miles (525 km) south of Sable Island. However, after four days, the system regenerated into a tropical storm while located about 695 miles (1,120 km) west-southwest of Flores Island in the Azores on August 26. It moved slowly north-northwestward, until curving to the east on August 29. Between August 26 and September 1, the storm did not differentiate in intensity, but began re-strengthening while turning southeastward on September 2. Early on the following day, the storm again reached hurricane intensity. It curved northeastward and passed through the Azores on September 3, shortly before transitioning into an extratropical cyclone.

In Guadeloupe, the storm unroofed and flooded many houses. Communications were significantly disrupted in the interior portions of the island. Impact was severe in Montserrat, with nearly every building destroyed and 100 deaths reported. About 200 small houses were destroyed on Saint Kitts, with estates suffering considerable damage, while nearly all estates were destroyed on Saint Croix. Eleven deaths were reported on the island. In Puerto Rico, the system brought strong winds and heavy rainfall, which caused extensive flooding. Approximately 250,000 people were left without food and shelter. Additionally, telephone, telegraph, and electrical services were completely lost. Overall, damage totaled approximately $20 million, with over half were losses inflicted on crops, particularly coffee.

At the time, it was the costliest and worst tropical cyclone in Puerto Rico. It was estimated that the storm caused 3,369 fatalities on the island territory. In the Bahamas, strong winds and waves sank 50 small crafts, most of them at Andros. Severe damage was reported in Nassau, with over 100 buildings destroyed and many damaged, including the Government House. A few houses were also destroyed in Bimini. The death toll in the Bahamas was at least 125. In North Carolina, storm surge and rough sea destroyed fishing piers and bridges, as well as sank about 10 vessels. Because Hatteras Island was almost entirely inundated with 4 to 10 feet (1.2 to 3.0 m) of water, many homes were damaged, with much destruction at Diamond City. There were at least 20 deaths in the state of North Carolina. In the Azores, the storm also caused one fatality and significant damage on some islands.

1928 Okeechobee hurricane

The Okeechobee hurricane of 1928, also known as the San Felipe Segundo hurricane, was one of the deadliest hurricanes in the recorded history of the North Atlantic basin; it was the fourth tropical cyclone, third hurricane, and only major hurricane of that year's season. It developed off the west coast of Africa on September 6 as a tropical depression, but it strengthened into a tropical storm later that day, shortly before passing south of the Cape Verde islands. Further intensification was slow and halted late on September 7. About 48 hours later, the storm strengthened and became a Category 1 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale. Still moving westward, the system reached Category 4 intensity before striking Guadeloupe on September 12, where it brought great destruction and resulted in 1,200 deaths. The islands of Martinique, Montserrat, and Nevis also reported damage and fatalities, but not nearly so severe as in Guadeloupe.

Around midday on September 13, the storm strengthened into a Category 5 hurricane and peaked with sustained winds of 160 mph (257 km/h). About six hours later, the system made landfall in Puerto Rico; it remained the only recorded Category 5 hurricane to strike the island until Hurricane Maria in 2017. Very strong winds resulted in severe damage in Puerto Rico; 24,728 homes were destroyed and 192,444 were damaged throughout the island, leaving over 500,000 people homeless. Heavy rainfall also led to extreme damage to vegetation and agriculture. On Puerto Rico alone, there were 312 deaths and about $50 million USD ($730 million today) in damage. While crossing the island and emerging into the Atlantic, the storm weakened slightly, falling to Category 4 intensity. It began crossing through the Bahamas on September 16, where it resulted in 18 fatalities.

The storm made landfall near West Palm Beach, Florida early on September 17, with winds of 145 mph (233 km/h). In the city, more than 1,711 homes were destroyed; the effects were most severe around Lake Okeechobee. The storm surge caused water to pour out of the southern edge of the lake, flooding hundreds of square miles to depths as great as 20 feet (6.1 m). Numerous houses and buildings were swept away in the cities of Belle Glade, Canal Point, Chosen, Pahokee, and South Bay, Florida. At least 2,500 people drowned, while damage was estimated at $25 million. The system weakened significantly while crossing Florida, falling to Category 1 intensity late on September 17. It curved north-northeast and briefly emerged into the Atlantic on September 18, but soon made another landfall near Edisto Island, South Carolina with winds of 85 mph (137 km/h). Early on the following day, the system weakened to a tropical storm and became an extratropical cyclone over North Carolina hours later. Overall, it caused $100 million in damage and at least 4,112 deaths.

Calendar of saints

The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organizing a liturgical year by associating each day with one or more saints and referring to the day as the feast day or feast of said saint. The word "feast" in this context does not mean "a large meal, typically a celebratory one", but instead "an annual religious celebration, a day dedicated to a particular saint".The system arose from the early Christian custom of commemorating each martyr annually on the date of his or her death, or birth into heaven, a date therefore referred to in Latin as the martyr's dies natalis ("day of birth"). In the Eastern Orthodox Church, a calendar of saints is called a Menologion. "Menologion" may also mean a set of icons on which saints are depicted in the order of the dates of their feasts, often made in two panels.

Ciprian

Ciprian is a given name. Notable people with the name include:

Cyprian, bishop of Carthage

Ciprian Brata (born 1991), Romanian footballer

Ciprian Danciu (born 1977), Romanian football player and the manager of FC Baia Mare

Ciprian Deac (born 1986), Romanian professional footballer

Ciprian Dianu (born 1977), Romanian football player

Ciprian Dinu (born 1982), Romanian footballer

Ciprian Foias (born 1933), Romanian-American mathematician

Ciprian Manolescu (born 1978), Romanian mathematician

Ciprian Marica (born 1985), Romanian footballer

Ciprian Milea (born 1984), Romanian football player

Ciprian Petre (born 1980), Romanian football player

Ciprian Popa (born 1980), Romanian sprint canoeist who has competed since 2005

Ciprian Porumbescu (1853–1883), Romanian composer

Ciprian Prodan (born 1979), Romanian footballer

Ciprian Suciu (born 1987), Romanian football player

Ciprian Tănasă (born 1981), Romanian football player

Ciprian Tătărușanu (born 1986), Romanian footballer

Ciprian Vasilache (born 1983), Romanian football midfielder

George Ciprian (1883–1968), Romanian actor and playwright

Early life of L. Ron Hubbard

L. Ron Hubbard was the inventor of Dianetics and founder of Scientology. Born in Tilden, Nebraska in March 1911, Hubbard grew up with his family in Helena, Montana. He was unusually well-traveled for a young man of his time due to his father's frequent relocations in connection with his service in the United States Navy. He lived in a number of locations in the United States and traveled to Guam, the Philippines, China, and Japan. He enrolled at George Washington University in 1930 to study civil engineering, but dropped out in his second year. While at GWU, he organized an expedition to the Caribbean for fellow students which looms large in his official biography but was a flop according to contemporary accounts. He subsequently spent time in Puerto Rico panning for gold, before returning to the United States, marrying his pregnant girlfriend, and embarking on a career as a "penny-a-word" writer.The Church of Scientology depicts Hubbard in hagiographic terms and draws on his legacy as its ultimate source of doctrine and legitimacy. The Danish historian of religions Dorthe Refslund Christensen notes that many aspects of the official version of Hubbard's early life parallel more conventional religious narratives, notably the life of Jesus. Many details of Hubbard's early life remain disputed; critics of Scientology cast doubt on whether he had the educational and personal background claimed by the Church. According to James R. Lewis and Olav Hammer, in Scientology, this hagiographic “construction of Hubbard as a religious ideal implies the construction of Scientology’s texts as humanity’s most important treasure and vice versa.” Religious tradition in Scientology is based on two essential things, Hubbard’s individuality and texts written by him.

Great Hurricane of 1780

The Great Hurricane of 1780, also known as Huracán San Calixto, the Great Hurricane of the Antilles, and the 1780 Disaster, is the deadliest Atlantic hurricane on record. Between 20,000 and 24,000 people died throughout the Lesser Antilles when the storm passed through them from October 10–16. Specifics on the hurricane's track and strength are unknown because the official Atlantic hurricane database goes back only to 1851.The hurricane struck Barbados likely as a Category 5 hurricane, with at least one estimate of wind speeds as high as 200 mph (320 km/h) (greater than any in recorded Atlantic basin history) before moving past Martinique, Saint Lucia, and Sint Eustatius and causing thousands of deaths on those islands. Coming in the midst of the American Revolution, the storm caused heavy losses to the British fleet contesting for control of the area, largely weakening British control over the Atlantic. The hurricane later passed near Puerto Rico and over the eastern portion of Hispaniola, causing heavy damage near the coastlines. It ultimately turned to the northeast and was last observed on October 20 southeast of Atlantic Canada.

The death toll from the Great Hurricane alone exceeds that of many entire decades of Atlantic hurricanes. Estimates are marginally higher than for Hurricane Mitch, the second-deadliest Atlantic storm, for which figures are likely more accurate. The hurricane was part of the disastrous 1780 Atlantic hurricane season, with two other deadly storms occurring in October.

Hurricane Betsy (1956)

Hurricane Betsy, known as Hurricane Santa Clara in Puerto Rico, was the first North Atlantic hurricane to make landfall in Puerto Rico in 24 years. The third tropical cyclone of the 1956 Atlantic hurricane season, Betsy developed from a tropical wave on August 9 to the east of the Lesser Antilles. It rapidly developed into a 120 mph (195 km/h) major hurricane before striking Guadeloupe. There, Betsy heavily damaged 1000 houses and left severe crop destruction, and there were 18 deaths in the territory. As Betsy continued into the northeastern Caribbean, it capsized a ship, killing its crew of two.

On August 12, Betsy struck southeastern Puerto Rico and quickly crossed the island. Damage was heaviest where it moved ashore and in the territory's central portion, and throughout Puerto Rico there were 15,023 houses that were destroyed by Betsy. Multiple locations reported heavy crop damage, including Camuy which reported a complete loss of the corn crop. Hurricane Betsy was the first hurricane to be observed from the San Juan radar, and also resulted in the first hurricane warning on the island to be released on television. The hurricane left $40 million in damage and 16 deaths, which prompted a federally declared disaster area. Locally the hurricane was known as the Santa Clara Hurricane. After exiting Puerto Rico, Betsy brushed the Bahamas before turning northeastward, becoming extratropical on August 18. The remnants dissipated two days later to the south of Newfoundland.

Hurricane Maria

Hurricane Maria was a Category 5 hurricane that devastated Dominica and Puerto Rico in September 2017. It is regarded as the worst natural disaster on record to affect those islands and is also the deadliest Atlantic hurricane since Mitch in 1998. The tenth-most intense Atlantic hurricane on record and the most intense tropical cyclone worldwide in 2017, Maria was the thirteenth named storm, eighth consecutive hurricane, fourth major hurricane, second Category 5 hurricane, and deadliest storm of the hyperactive 2017 Atlantic hurricane season. At its peak, the hurricane caused catastrophic damage and numerous fatalities across the northeastern Caribbean, compounding recovery efforts in the areas of the Leeward Islands already struck by Hurricane Irma. Total losses from the hurricane are estimated at upwards of $91.61 billion (2017 USD), mostly in Puerto Rico, ranking it as the third-costliest tropical cyclone on record.

Originating from a tropical wave, Maria became a tropical storm on September 16, east of the Lesser Antilles. Highly favorable environmental conditions allowed the storm to undergo explosive intensification as it approached the island arc. The hurricane reached Category 5 strength on September 18 just before making landfall on Dominica, becoming the first Category 5 hurricane on record to strike the island. After weakening slightly due to crossing Dominica, Maria achieved its peak intensity over the eastern Caribbean with maximum sustained winds of 175 mph (280 km/h) and a pressure of 908 mbar (hPa; 26.81 inHg). On September 20, an eyewall replacement cycle took place, weakening Maria to a high-end Category 4 hurricane by the time it struck Puerto Rico. Interaction with land further weakened the hurricane, though it regained some strength as it moved northeast of the Bahamas. Moving slowly to the north, Maria gradually degraded and weakened to a tropical storm on September 28. Embedded in the westerlies, Maria accelerated toward the east and later east-northeast over the open Atlantic, becoming extratropical on September 30 and dissipating by October 3.

Maria wrought catastrophic damage to the entirety of Dominica, which suffered an island-wide communication blackout. Much of the housing stock and infrastructure were left beyond repair, while the island's lush vegetation was practically eradicated. The islands of Guadeloupe and Martinique endured widespread flooding, damaged roofs, and uprooted trees. Puerto Rico also suffered catastrophic damage and a major humanitarian crisis; most of the island's population suffered from flooding and a lack of resources, compounded by the slow relief process. The storm caused the worst electrical blackout in US history, and in June 2018, thousands of homes and businesses were still without power. Maria was the third consecutive major hurricane to threaten the Leeward Islands in two weeks, after Irma had made landfall in several of the islands two weeks prior and Hurricane Jose passed dangerously close shortly afterward, bringing tropical storm force winds to Barbuda.

On August 28, 2018 (nearly a year after the hurricane), Puerto Rico revised its official tally of 64 killed in the hurricane up to 2,975, making the total 3,057: an estimated 2,975 in Puerto Rico, 65 in Dominica, 5 in the Dominican Republic, 4 in the contiguous United States, 3 in Haiti, 2 in Guadeloupe, and 3 in the United States Virgin Islands. Maria is the deadliest hurricane in Dominica since the 1834 Padre Ruíz hurricane and the deadliest in Puerto Rico since the 1899 San Ciriaco hurricane. The death toll in Puerto Rico was initially reported as 64 by Puerto Rican authorities but revised after several studies estimated between 1,400 and 5,740 deaths were attributable to the storm. The official estimate of 2,975 is based on a study commissioned by the governor of Puerto Rico, where researchers at George Washington University developed statistical models of excess mortality attributable to Maria, including both direct and indirect fatalities. Researchers attribute the discrepancy with the initial death count to "lack of awareness of appropriate death certification practices after a natural disaster" among physicians reporting deaths to vital statistic agencies.

L. Ron Hubbard

Lafayette Ronald Hubbard ( HUB-ərd; March 13, 1911 – January 24, 1986) was an American author of science fiction and fantasy stories, and the founder of the Church of Scientology. In 1950, Hubbard authored Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health and established a series of organizations to promote Dianetics. In 1952, Hubbard lost the rights to Dianetics in bankruptcy proceedings, and he subsequently founded Scientology. Thereafter Hubbard oversaw the growth of the Church of Scientology into a worldwide organization. Hubbard was cited by Smithsonian magazine as one of the 100 most significant Americans of all time.Born in Tilden, Nebraska in 1911, Hubbard spent much of his childhood in Helena, Montana. After his father was posted to the U.S. naval base on Guam, Hubbard traveled to Asia and the South Pacific in the late 1920s. In 1930, Hubbard enrolled at George Washington University to study civil engineering, but dropped out in his second year. He began his career as a prolific writer of pulp fiction stories and married Margaret "Polly" Grubb, who shared his interest in aviation.

Hubbard served briefly in the Marine Corps Reserve and was an officer in the Navy during World War II. He briefly commanded two ships, but was removed from command both times. The last few months of his active service were spent in a hospital, being treated for a duodenal ulcer.During the late 1960s and early 1970s, he spent much of his time at sea on his personal fleet of ships as "Commodore" of the Sea Organization, an elite, paramilitary group of Scientologists. Some ex-members and scholars have described the Sea Org as a totalitarian organization marked by intensive surveillance and a lack of freedom. His expedition came to an end when Britain, Greece, Spain, Portugal, and Venezuela all closed their ports to his fleet.

Hubbard returned to the United States in 1975 and went into seclusion in the California desert. In 1978, a trial court in France convicted Hubbard of fraud in absentia. In 1983 Hubbard was named as an unindicted co-conspirator in an international information infiltration and theft project called "Operation Snow White". He spent the remaining years of his life in a luxury motor home on his California property, attended to by a small group of Scientology officials including his physician. In 1986, L. Ron Hubbard died at age 74.The Church of Scientology describes Hubbard in hagiographic terms, and he portrayed himself as a pioneering explorer, world traveler, and nuclear physicist with expertise in a wide range of disciplines, including photography, art, poetry, and philosophy. Though many of Hubbard's autobiographical statements have been found to be fictitious, the Church rejects any suggestion that its account of Hubbard's life is not historical fact. In Scientology publications, he is referred to as "Founder" and "Source" of Scientology and Dianetics.

His critics have characterized Hubbard as a mentally-unstable chronic liar.

List of British Virgin Islands hurricanes

The list of British Virgin Islands hurricanes includes all tropical cyclones which have struck the British Virgin Islands which caused at least hurricane force winds (74 mph (64 kn; 119 km/h) or greater) to affect at least some part of the Territory. Hurricanes which passed close to the Territory but which only caused wind speeds of tropical storm force or below are not included.

Every known hurricane to strike the Territory except one (Hurricane Lenny, 1999) or possibly two (hurricane of 1916) have been Cape Verde hurricanes. As a result, even though hurricane season technically runs from 1 June through 30 November, virtually all of the hurricane strikes occur in the month of September.For the period that reasonably reliable records exist, hurricanes strike the Territory on average approximately once every 8 years, although that includes strikes which only affected the northernmost (and lightly populated) island of Anegada.

In the twentieth century the British Virgin Islands experienced 13 hurricanes, but they came largely in two clusters. The Territory experienced five hurricanes from 1916 to 1932 (inclusive), and then only one during the next 57 years. But then between 1989 and 1999 (inclusive) seven hurricanes struck the Territory (including six in the space of four years from 1995-1999). That was then followed by another 11 year hiatus without any hurricane strikes.

Twice in recent times the Territory has experienced a rapid double-strike: in 1995 Hurricane Luis was followed nine days later by Hurricane Marilyn, and in 2017 Hurricane Irma was followed fourteen days later by Hurricane Maria.

List of Category 4 Atlantic hurricanes

Category 4 hurricanes are tropical cyclones that reach Category 4 intensity on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale. Category 4 hurricanes that later attained Category 5 strength are not included in this list. The Atlantic basin includes the open waters of the Atlantic Ocean, the Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. Category 4 is the second-highest hurricane classification category on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale, and storms that are of this intensity maintain maximum sustained winds of 113–136 knots (130–156 mph, 209–251 km/h). Based on the Atlantic hurricane database, 94 hurricanes have attained Category 4 hurricane status since 1851, the start of modern meteorological record keeping. Category 4 storms are considered extreme hurricanes. Hurricane Ike, which was a Category 4 storm, brought on a 24 ft storm surge, the third greatest storm surge ever recorded (after Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Camille, respectively).

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