1928 Democratic National Convention

The 1928 Democratic National Convention was held at Sam Houston Hall in Houston, Texas, June 26–28, 1928. The convention resulted in the nomination of Governor Alfred E. Smith of New York for President and Senator Joseph T. Robinson of Arkansas for Vice President.

The convention was the first held by either party in the South since the Civil War. It was also the first to nominate a Roman Catholic for President, Al Smith. The Texas delegation, led by Governor Dan Moody, was vehemently opposed to Smith. Therefore, when Smith was nominated, they rallied against his anti-prohibition sentiment by fighting for a "dry", prohibitionist platform. Ultimately, the convention pledged "honest enforcement of the Constitution".

Smith became the first Democrat since Reconstruction to lose more than one southern state in the general election, due to his "wet" stance, his opposition to the Ku Klux Klan, and his Catholicism.

1928 Democratic National Convention
1928 presidential election
AlfredSmith (3x4)
AR Joseph Robinson (3x4)
Nominees
Smith and Robinson
Convention
Date(s)June 26–28, 1928
CityHouston, Texas
VenueSam Houston Hall
Candidates
Presidential nomineeAlfred E. Smith of New York
Vice Presidential nomineeJoseph T. Robinson of Arkansas
1928 DNC IMG 8470
Photograph of the convention

Candidates for the nomination before and during the convention

Presidential Balloting, DNC 1928
First ballot before shifts after shifts
Gov. Al Smith 724.67 849.17
Sen. Walter F. George 52.5 52.5
Sen. James A. Reed 48 52
Rep. Cordell Hull 71.83 50.83
Jesse H. Jones 43 43
Judge Richard C. Watts 18 18
Sen. Pat Harrison 20 8.5
Evans Woollen 32 7
Gov. A. Victor Donahey 5 5
Rep. William A. Ayres 20 3
Former Sen. Atlee Pomerene 47 3
Former Sen. Gilbert M. Hitchcock 16 2
Sen. Theodore G. Bilbo - 1

Candidates for the Vice-Presidential nomination

Joseph T. Robinson was chosen as the vice presidential nominee. Among the candidates for nomination were:

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Warn, WA (29 June 1928). "Smith Wins Nomination on First Ballot With 849 2/3 Votes After States Shift to Him; Platform With a Dry Plank Is Adopted". New York Times. Retrieved 8 October 2015.

External links

Preceded by
1924
New York, New York
Democratic National Conventions Succeeded by
1932
Chicago, Illinois
1928 Democratic Party presidential primaries

The 1928 Democratic presidential primaries were the selection process by which voters of the Democratic Party chose its nominee for President of the United States in the 1928 U.S. presidential election. New York Governor Al Smith was selected as the nominee through a series of primary elections and caucuses culminating in the 1928 Democratic National Convention held from June 26 to June 28, 1928, in Houston, Texas.

1928 United States presidential election

The United States presidential election of 1928 was the 36th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 6, 1928. Republican Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover defeated the Democratic nominee, Governor Al Smith of New York. Hoover was the last Republican to win a presidential election until 1952.

After President Calvin Coolidge declined to seek reelection, Hoover emerged as his party's front-runner. As Hoover's intra-party opponents failed to unite around a candidate, Hoover received a large majority of the vote at the 1928 Republican National Convention. The strong state of the economy discouraged some Democrats from running, and Smith was nominated on the first ballot of the 1928 Democratic National Convention. Hoover and Smith had been widely known as potential presidential candidates long before the 1928 campaign, and both were generally regarded as outstanding leaders. Each candidate was a newcomer to the presidential race and presented in his person and record an appeal of unknown potency to the electorate. Each candidate also faced serious discontent within his party membership, and neither had the wholehearted support of his party organization.In the end, the Republicans were identified with the booming economy of the 1920s, whereas Smith, a Roman Catholic, suffered politically from anti-Catholic prejudice, his anti-prohibitionist stance, and his association with the legacy of corruption of Tammany Hall. Hoover won a third straight Republican landslide and made substantial inroads in the traditionally Democratic Solid South, winning several states that had not voted for a Republican since the end of Reconstruction. Hoover's victory made him the first president born west of the Mississippi River, and he is the most recent sitting member of the Cabinet to win a major party's presidential nomination.

Albert Conway

Albert Conway (April 3, 1889 in Brooklyn, Kings County, New York – May 18, 1969 in Brooklyn, New York City) was an American lawyer and politician from New York. He was Chief Judge of the New York Court of Appeals from 1955 to 1959.

Charles R. Eckert

Charles Richard Eckert (January 20, 1868 – October 26, 1959) was a Democratic member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania.

Club Quarters Hotel (Houston)

The Club Quarters Hotel is a 16-story, 61.6 m (202 ft) Beaux-Arts high-rise at 710 Fannin Street in downtown Houston, Texas, USA. The building is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as the Texas State Hotel.

Cordell Hull

Cordell Hull (October 2, 1871 – July 23, 1955) was an American politician from Tennessee best known as the longest-serving U.S. Secretary of State, holding the position for 11 years (1933–1944) in the administration of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt during most of World War II. Hull received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1945 for his role in establishing the United Nations, and was referred to by President Roosevelt as the "Father of the United Nations".Born in Olympus, Tennessee, he pursued a legal career after graduating from the Cumberland School of Law. He won election to the Tennessee House of Representatives and served in Cuba during the Spanish–American War. He represented Tennessee in the United States House of Representatives from 1907 to 1921 and from 1923 to 1931. As a member of the House Ways and Means Committee, Hull helped pass the Revenue Act of 1913 and the Revenue Act of 1916, which implemented the federal income tax and the federal estate tax. He served as Chairman of the Democratic National Committee from 1921 to 1924 and was a presidential candidate at the 1928 Democratic National Convention.

Hull won election to the Senate in 1930, but resigned from the Senate in 1933 to become Secretary of State. Roosevelt and Hull pursued the Good Neighbor policy, which sought to avoid U.S. intervention in Latin American affairs. In the aftermath of Mexican agrarian reforms, he developed the Hull Doctrine as a way to compensate foreign investors in the aftermath of nationalization. In November 1941, he presented the Hull note to Japan, demanding Japanese withdrawal from French Indochina and China. In 1943, Hull and his staff drafted the document that became the United Nations Charter. Hull resigned as Secretary of State due to poor health in 1944.

Hull served eleven terms in the United States House of Representatives (1907–1921 and 1923–1931) and authored the federal income tax laws of 1913 and 1916 and the inheritance tax of 1916. After an electoral defeat in 1920, Hull served as chairman of the Democratic National Committee. He was returned to the House in 1922 and was then elected to the Senate in 1930, but resigned upon being named Secretary of State in 1933. Hull recorded thirty years of combined service in the House and the Senate.

In 1933, Hull was appointed Secretary of State by President Franklin D. Roosevelt; he served 11 years until he retired from public office. Hull became the underlying force and architect in the creation of the United Nations, drafting, along with his staff, the United Nations Charter in mid-1943. He resigned as Secretary of State on November 30, 1944 because of failing health.

In 1945, Cordell Hull was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for "co-initiating the United Nations".

Hull died after suffering several strokes and heart attacks in 1955 in Washington, D.C., and is buried in the vault of the Chapel of St. Joseph of Arimathea in the Washington National Cathedral, which is an Episcopal church.

There is now a Cordell Hull Museum located near his birthplace in Byrdstown, Tennessee, which houses his papers and other memorabilia.

Ellen Sullivan Woodward

Ellen Sullivan Woodward was a federal civil servant and state legislator. She served as director of work relief programs for women organized as part of the Roosevelt administration's New Deal in the 1930s.

The daughter of William Van Amberg Sullivan, an attorney who later served as a congressman from Mississippi and United States senator, and Belle Murray Sullivan, she was born in Oxford, Mississippi. She was educated in Oxford and in Washington, D.C..In 1906, she married Albert Y. Woodward, an attorney; the couple had one son. Her husband served in the Mississippi House of Representatives. When he died in 1925, she was elected to serve the remainder of his term, becoming the second woman to serve as a representative for the state.Woodward did not run for reelection. She became director of civic development for the Mississippi State Board of Development, serving as executive director for the board from 1929 to 1933. She was also a delegate to the 1928 Democratic National Convention.She was director of the Women’s Division of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) from 1933 to 1935; director of the Women’s and Professional Projects of the Works Progress Administration (WPA) from 1935 to 1938; and a member of the three-member Social Security Board from 1938 to 1946. She served in advisory roles to the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) and the United Nations Economic and Social Council.In 1947 the Women's College of the University of North Carolina awarded Woodward an honorary degree in recognition of her dedication to public welfare in Mississippi, social security in the nation, and domestic and international relief efforts.In 1946, Woodward was named director of a division in the newly created Federal Security Agency; she retired in December 1953. She died in Washington at the age of 84.

Emily Barnelia Woodward

Emily Barnelia Woodward (May 2, 1885 – March 23, 1970) was an American journalist and advocate. She served as the editor for the Vienna News and later became its sole owner. Later in life, she became actively involved in advocating in several areas relating to reforms in Georgia. Woodward was posthumously inducted into the Georgia Newspaper Hall of Fame and the Georgia Women of Achievement.

Grover Sellers

Grover Sellers (November 20, 1892 - August 27, 1980) was Attorney General of Texas from 1944 - 1946.

Houston Music Hall

Houston Music Hall was a 2,200 seat music venue located in Houston, Texas. The Music Hall opened in November 1937, at the same time as the Sam Houston Coliseum, which were built conjointly as the brainchild of Jesse H. Jones, and designed by Alfred C. Finn, his frequent collaborator. The project was financed by the Works Progress Administration at a cost of $1.3 million, and replaced Sam Houston Hall, which was a wooden structure that had been erected on the site for the 1928 Democratic National Convention and torn down in 1936.The hall was demolished in 1998. The former site of the building was redeveloped into the Hobby Center for the Performing Arts, which opened its doors in 2003.

James A. Hamilton

James Albert Hamilton (January 24, 1876 New York City – May 7, 1950) was an American politician from New York.

Jesse H. Jones

Jesse Holman Jones (April 5, 1874 – June 1, 1956) was a Democratic politician and entrepreneur from Houston, Texas. He served as United States Secretary of Commerce from 1940 to 1945.

Jones managed a Tennessee tobacco factory at age fourteen, and at nineteen, he was put in charge of his uncle's lumberyards. Five years later, after his uncle, M. T. Jones, died, Jones moved to Houston to manage his uncle's estate and opened a lumberyard company, which grew quickly. During this period, Jesse opened his own business, the South Texas Lumber Company. He also began to expand into real estate, commercial building, and banking. His commercial building activities in Houston included mid-rise and skyscraper office buildings, hotels and apartments, and movie theaters. He constructed the Foster Building, home to the Houston Chronicle, in exchange for a fifty percent share in the newspaper, which he acquired control of in 1926.

Jones's participation in civic life and politics began with the Port of Houston and the Houston Ship Channel. He led a group of local bankers in buying public finance bonds and was later appointed to serve as the Chair of the Houston Harbor Board. He led a local fundraising effort on behalf of the American Red Cross in support of servicemen in World War I. President Wilson tapped Jones to head a division of American Red Cross, a duty he fulfilled between 1917 and 1919. In 1928, he initiated and organized Houston's bid for the 1928 Democratic National Convention.

His most important role was on the board of the Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC), (1932–1939), a federal agency originally created in the Herbert Hoover administration that played a major role in combating the Great Depression and financing industrial expansion during World War II. President Roosevelt elevated Jones to the Chairmanship of the RFC in 1933. Jones was in charge of spending US$50 billion, especially in financing railways and building munitions factories. He served as the United States Secretary of Commerce from 1940–1945, a post he held concurrently with his chairmanship of the RFC. After leaving Washington, Jesse and Mary Jones focused on philanthropy, working through the Houston Endowment, a non-profit corporation they founded in 1937.

John M. Callahan

John M. Callahan was Chairman of the Democratic Party of Wisconsin.

Pomerene House

The Pomerene House is the residence of Atlee Pomerene, United States Senator from Ohio in the early 20th Century. President Calvin Coolidge appointed Senator Pomerene as one of two individuals to investigate the Teapot Dome scandal of the Harding Administration. He was one of the two primary sponsors of the Webb-Pomerene Act of 1918, regulating American investments overseas. During the 1928 Democratic National Convention, his name was placed before the convention as a potential presidential candidate.The house was built in 1879 in an Italianate style. It is rectangular with a brick façade over a wood frame. The north face is symmetrical with the front door centered under an arched transom.

Ralph F. Lozier

Ralph Fulton Lozier (January 28, 1866 – May 28, 1945) was a U.S. Representative from Missouri.

Born near Hardin, Missouri, Lozier attended the public schools. He graduated from Carrollton High School in 1883 and engaged in teaching for several years before studying law.

He was admitted to the bar in 1886 and commenced practice in Carrollton. He was also interested in agricultural pursuits and the raising of livestock. He served as city attorney of Carrollton, Missouri from 1915 to 1944 and was a delegate to the 1928 Democratic National Convention.

Lozier was elected as a Democrat to the 68th and to the five succeeding Congresses, serving from March 4, 1923 to January 3, 1935). He served as chairman of the Committee on the Census (72nd and 73rd Congresses). He was an unsuccessful candidate for renomination in 1934.

He served as judge of the circuit court of the 7th Judicial Circuit of Missouri in 1936. He resumed the practice of law with offices in Carrollton and Washington, D.C. and also engaged in agricultural pursuits in Carroll County, Missouri. He died in Kansas City, Missouri in 1945 and is interred in Oak Hill Cemetery in Carrollton.

Sam Houston Coliseum

Sam Houston Coliseum was an indoor arena located in Houston, Texas. It was located at 801 Bagby Street near downtown. The Coliseum and Music Hall complex replaced the Sam Houston Hall, which was a wooden structure that had been erected on the site for the 1928 Democratic National Convention and torn down in 1936. The Public Works Administration contributed $1,329,508 to the project designed by architect Alfred C. Finn. Groundbreaking ceremonies were held on November 4, 1936. The arena opened in November 1937 (demolished 1998) and had a capacity of 9,200. It was built in conjunction with the Houston Music Hall, which was adjacent to the Coliseum.

In 1946, permanent ice chillers were installed in the floor to accommodate an ice hockey rink for Houston's first pro ice hockey team – the Houston Skippers of the USHL. The Skippers changed their name the following season to the Houston Huskies and called the Coliseum home until their demise in 1949.

On October 14, 1956, Elvis Presley's concert at the Coliseum ended abruptly, as he and his band were taken away by police escort, just before the end of the show as a mob of about 1,000 teenagers rushed the stage, their instruments being destroyed as a result.

On November 21, 1963, President John F. Kennedy gave a speech in the Houston Coliseum, on what would be the last night of his life.

On August 19, 1965, The Beatles performed at the Coliseum.

On July 10, 1968, The Doors performed at the Coliseum with the opening band Moving Sidewalks, featuring Billy Gibbons who would go on to form ZZ Top less than a year later.

Jimi Hendrix played at the venue on June 6, 1970, three months before he died.

Prior to Hofheinz Pavilion being built (on the campus of the University of Houston), the Houston Cougars played home games at the coliseum.The venue also played host to the Houston Apollos, of the CPHL, from 1965–1969, Houston Mavericks, of the American Basketball Association, from 1967–1969, the Houston Aeros, of the WHA, from 1972–1975 and the Houston Apollos, of the CHL, from 1979–1981. The Aeros moved to The Houston Summit, which opened in November 1975 and played their final 3 seasons there.

The Houston Mavericks, a charter member of the American Basketball Association, played their home games in the Coliseum. However, the Houston franchise was plagued by mismanagement and low attendance. In 1969, the team relocated and became the Carolina Cougars. The Mavericks drew less than 500 fans for most games. Their final game in Houston drew 89 fans.By the 1970s, the arena was starting to show its age. Its fate was effectively sealed in 1971, when the NBA's San Diego Rockets moved to Houston and insisted on building a new arena—what became the Summit—as a replacement. When the Rockets arrived, they would not even consider playing in the Coliseum while the Summit was being built, deeming it inadequate even for temporary use and instead playing their first few seasons at Hofheinz Pavilion.

The First National Women's Conference, a milestone for the modern women's movement, was held at the Coliseum in November 1977.

Ozzy Osbourne with Randy Rhoads played at the venue on June 7, 1981 and February 17, 1982.

The Black Crowes played a free concert at the venue on February 6, 1993. The free show was due to security problems that forced the cancellation of a show during a previous Houston visit. The show was broadcast nationally on radio across North America and also was videotaped for the video "Bad Luck Blue Eyes Goodbye". The audio version was released on EPs, dubbed "High in Houston". This would be the last concert performed at the Coliseum before being demolished.

The Coliseum was also home to Houston Wrestling, run by legendary wrestling promoter, Paul Boesch. Jack Brisco defeated Harley Race to win the National Wrestling Alliance (NWA) world heavyweight professional wrestling championship at the Coliseum on July 20, 1973. It was an event promoted by Boesch.

Sam Houston Coliseum was demolished in 1998. The former site of the Sam Houston Coliseum was redeveloped into the Hobby Center for the Performing Arts, which opened in 2003.

Sam Houston Hall

The Sam Houston Hall was a building in Houston, Texas. It was located at 801 Bagby Street in the Fourth Ward, though now considered a part of downtown. It was designed as a temporary structure for the 1928 Democratic National Convention. It served as the venue for the Houston Livestock Show and Rodeo from 1932 to 1936, after which it was demolished.

Samuel Ross Hay

Samuel Ross Hay (1865 – 1944) was an American Bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, elected in 1922.

Born 15 October 1865 in Decaturville, Decatur County, Tennessee, he was the son of the Rev. William and Martha (England) Hay. His grandfather was an influential local preacher.

The Hays moved to Texas about 1881. Samuel attended Centenary College, Southwestern University, and Southern College, Lakeland, Florida. He was licensed to preach in 1886, joining the North Texas Annual Conference of the M.E. Church, South in 1887. Prior to his election to the Episcopacy, Hay was a pastor and a presiding elder.

He was elected Bishop 16 May 1922 and placed in charge of all American Southern Methodist Episcopal Mission work in China. Returning to the United States in 1924, he resided in several episcopal areas in the south and west of the country and assisted in the development of the Methodist Church in Mexico.

On June 26, 1928, he offered the opening invocation at the 1928 Democratic National Convention in Houston.

Hay died on 4 February 1944 in Houston, Texas.

Wilbur W. Marsh

Wilbur W. Marsh (July 14, 1862 - December 23, 1929), was treasurer of the Democratic National Committee.

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