1928

1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1928th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 928th year of the 2nd millennium, the 28th year of the 20th century, and the 9th year of the 1920s decade.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1928 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1928
MCMXXVIII
Ab urbe condita2681
Armenian calendar1377
ԹՎ ՌՅՀԷ
Assyrian calendar6678
Bahá'í calendar84–85
Balinese saka calendar1849–1850
Bengali calendar1335
Berber calendar2878
British Regnal year18 Geo. 5 – 19 Geo. 5
Buddhist calendar2472
Burmese calendar1290
Byzantine calendar7436–7437
Chinese calendar丁卯(Fire Rabbit)
4624 or 4564
    — to —
戊辰年 (Earth Dragon)
4625 or 4565
Coptic calendar1644–1645
Discordian calendar3094
Ethiopian calendar1920–1921
Hebrew calendar5688–5689
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1984–1985
 - Shaka Samvat1849–1850
 - Kali Yuga5028–5029
Holocene calendar11928
Igbo calendar928–929
Iranian calendar1306–1307
Islamic calendar1346–1347
Japanese calendarShōwa 3
(昭和3年)
Javanese calendar1858–1859
Juche calendar17
Julian calendarGregorian minus 13 days
Korean calendar4261
Minguo calendarROC 17
民國17年
Nanakshahi calendar460
Thai solar calendar2470–2471
Tibetan calendar阴火兔年
(female Fire-Rabbit)
2054 or 1673 or 901
    — to —
阳土龙年
(male Earth-Dragon)
2055 or 1674 or 902

Events

January

February

March

April

May

Flag of South Africa (1928–1994)
South African flag
  • May 31 – South Africa adopts a new national flag, based upon the Van Riebeeck flag or Prinsevlag (originally the Dutch flag), to replace the Red Ensign.

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

Date unknown

Births

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

Date unknown

Deaths

January–March

April–June

July–September

October–December

Nobel Prizes

Nobel medal

In fiction

References

  1. ^ Griffith, Fred. (January 1928). "The Significance of Pneumococcal Types". Journal of Hygiene. Cambridge University Press. 27 (2): 113–159. doi:10.1017/S0022172400031879. JSTOR 4626734. PMC 2167760. PMID 20474956.
  2. ^ Downie, A. W. (1972). "Pneumococcal transformation – a backward view: Fourth Griffith Memorial Lecture" (PDF). Journal of General Microbiology. 73 (1): 1–11. doi:10.1099/00221287-73-1-1. PMID 4143929. Retrieved 2011-11-30.
  3. ^ "250,000 Slaves in Sierra Leone, Africa, Freed". Chicago Daily Tribune. January 3, 1928. p. 3.
  4. ^ "Anak Krakatoa". Today in Science History. Todayinsci. Retrieved 2012-01-30.
  5. ^ Leavitt, Amie Jane (2011). Anatomy of a Volcanic Eruption. Capstone Press.
  6. ^ "Transatlantic Television in 1928". Baird Television. Retrieved 2015-09-29. Extract from The New York Times 1928-02-09.
  7. ^ Shahar, Meir (2008). The Shaolin Monastery: History, Religion, and the Chinese Martial Arts. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. p. 27. ISBN 978-0-8248-3349-7.
  8. ^ Not much is known about the West Plains Dance Hall explosion. Much of this event has been lost in time, and since forensic science was still developing, the cause was never discovered.
  9. ^ OED (1933, 1978 vol. 1, pp. xxv, xxvl).
  10. ^ Cherundolo, Gina; Porter, Carly (2010-03-11). "Is Winter Finally Over?". AccuWeather.com. Retrieved 2012-01-30.
  11. ^ Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0.
  12. ^ "Coca-Cola Park : History". 2013-01-03. Archived from the original on 2013-01-03. Retrieved 2017-12-22.
  13. ^ The Hutchinson Factfinder. Helicon. 1999. ISBN 1-85986-000-1.
  14. ^ Chapman, Matthew (2010). The Snail and the Ginger Beer: the story of Donoghue v Stevenson. London: Wildy, Simmons & Hill. ISBN 0-85490-049-7.
  15. ^ "Philo Taylor Farnsworth (1906–1971)". The Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco. Archived from the original on June 22, 2011. Retrieved 2011-06-22.
  16. ^ Farnsworth, Elma G. (1989). Distant Vision: Romance & Discovery on an Invisible Frontier. Salt Lake City: PemberleyKent. p. 108. ISBN 0-9623276-0-3.
  17. ^ "Culture shock will highlight penicillin discovery" (PDF) (Press release). London: Royal Society of Chemistry. 2003-09-02. Retrieved 2011-11-30.
  18. ^ Ricklefs (1982). A History of Modern Indonesia (reprint ed.). Macmillan Southeast Asian. p. 177. ISBN 0-333-24380-3.
  19. ^ Funston, John, ed. (2001). Government & Politics in Southeast Asia. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 75. ISBN 9789812301345.
1928 Okeechobee hurricane

The Okeechobee hurricane of 1928, also known as the San Felipe Segundo hurricane, was one of the deadliest hurricanes in the recorded history of the North Atlantic basin; it was the fourth tropical cyclone, third hurricane, and only major hurricane of that year's season. It developed off the west coast of Africa on September 6 as a tropical depression, but it strengthened into a tropical storm later that day, shortly before passing south of the Cape Verde islands. Further intensification was slow and halted late on September 7. About 48 hours later, the storm strengthened and became a Category 1 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale. Still moving westward, the system reached Category 4 intensity before striking Guadeloupe on September 12, where it brought great destruction and resulted in 1,200 deaths. The islands of Martinique, Montserrat, and Nevis also reported damage and fatalities, but not nearly as severe as in Guadeloupe.

Around midday on September 13, the storm strengthened into a Category 5 hurricane and peaked with sustained winds of 160 mph (257 km/h). About six hours later, the system made landfall in Puerto Rico; it remains the only tropical cyclone on record to strike the island at Category 5 intensity, as of 2019. Very strong winds resulted in severe damage in Puerto Rico; 24,728 homes were destroyed and 192,444 were damaged throughout the island, leaving over 500,000 people homeless. Heavy rainfall also led to extreme damage to vegetation and agriculture. On Puerto Rico alone, there were 312 deaths and about $50 million USD ($730 million today) in damage. While crossing the island and emerging into the Atlantic, the storm weakened slightly, falling to Category 4 intensity. It began crossing through the Bahamas on September 16, where it resulted in 18 fatalities.

The storm made landfall near West Palm Beach, Florida early on September 17, with winds of 145 mph (233 km/h). In the city, more than 1,711 homes were destroyed; the effects were most severe around Lake Okeechobee. The storm surge caused water to pour out of the southern edge of the lake, flooding hundreds of square miles to depths as great as 20 feet (6.1 m). Numerous houses and buildings were swept away in the cities of Belle Glade, Canal Point, Chosen, Pahokee, and South Bay, Florida. At least 2,500 people drowned, while damage was estimated at $25 million. The system weakened significantly while crossing Florida, falling to Category 1 intensity late on September 17. It curved north-northeast and briefly emerged into the Atlantic on September 18, but soon made another landfall near Edisto Island, South Carolina with winds of 85 mph (137 km/h). Early on the following day, the system weakened to a tropical storm and became an extratropical cyclone over North Carolina hours later. Overall, the hurricane caused $100 million in damage and killed at least 4,112 people.

1928 Summer Olympics

The 1928 Summer Olympics (Dutch: Olympische Zomerspelen 1928), officially known as the Games of the IX Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event that was celebrated from 28 July to 12 August 1928 in Amsterdam, Netherlands. The city of Amsterdam had previously bid for the 1920 and 1924 Olympic Games, but was obliged to give way to war-torn Antwerp in Belgium for the 1920 Games and Pierre de Coubertin's Paris for the 1924 Games.

The only other candidate city for the 1928 Olympics was Los Angeles, which would eventually be selected to host the Olympics four years later. In preparation for the 1932 Summer Olympics, the United States Olympic Committee reviewed the costs and revenue of the 1928 Games. The committee reported a total cost of US$1.183 million with receipts of US$1.165 million, giving a negligible loss of US$18,000, which was a considerable improvement over the 1924 Games.

1928 United States House of Representatives elections

The 1928 United States House of Representatives elections was an election for the United States House of Representatives in 1928 which coincided with the election of President Herbert Hoover.

The strength of the U.S. economy resulted in Hoover's Republican Party victory in the election, helping them to scoop up 32 House seats, almost all from the opposition Democratic Party, thus increasing their majority. The big business-supported wing of the Republican Party continued to cement control. Republican gains proved even larger than anticipated during this election cycle, as an internal party feud over the Prohibition issue weakened Democratic standing. Losses of several rural, Protestant Democratic seats can be somewhat linked to anti-Catholic sentiments directed toward the party's presidential candidate, Al Smith.

1928 United States Senate elections

The United States Senate elections of 1928 were elections that coincided with the presidential election of Republican Herbert Hoover. The strong economy helped the Republicans to gain seven seats from the Democrats.

Senate Majority leader, Republican Charles Curtis of Kansas, was not up for election this cycle, but he was elected U.S. Vice President. He resigned March 3, 1929, so his seat was vacant at the beginning of the next Congress (March 4, 1929) until April 1, 1929, when a Republican was appointed to continue the term.

1928 United States presidential election

The United States presidential election of 1928 was the 36th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 6, 1928. Republican Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover defeated the Democratic nominee, Governor Al Smith of New York. Hoover was the last Republican to win a presidential election until 1952.

After President Calvin Coolidge declined to seek reelection, Hoover emerged as his party's front-runner. As Hoover's intra-party opponents failed to unite around a candidate, Hoover received a large majority of the vote at the 1928 Republican National Convention. The strong state of the economy discouraged some Democrats from running, and Smith was nominated on the first ballot of the 1928 Democratic National Convention. Hoover and Smith had been widely known as potential presidential candidates long before the 1928 campaign, and both were generally regarded as outstanding leaders. Each candidate was a newcomer to the presidential race and presented in his person and record an appeal of unknown potency to the electorate. Each candidate also faced serious discontent within his party membership, and neither had the wholehearted support of his party organization.In the end, the Republicans were identified with the booming economy of the 1920s, whereas Smith, a Roman Catholic, suffered politically from anti-Catholic prejudice, his anti-prohibitionist stance, and his association with the legacy of corruption of Tammany Hall. Hoover won a third straight Republican landslide and made substantial inroads in the traditionally Democratic Solid South, winning several states that had not voted for a Republican since the end of Reconstruction. Hoover's victory made him the first president born west of the Mississippi River, and he is the most recent sitting member of the Cabinet to win a major party's presidential nomination.

Australian Grand Prix

The Australian Grand Prix is a motor race held annually in Australia currently under contract to host Formula One until 2023. The Grand Prix is the second oldest surviving motor racing competition held in Australia, after the Alpine rally first held in 1921, having been contested 83 times since it was first run at Phillip Island in 1928. It is currently sponsored with naming rights by Swiss watchmaker Rolex.

Prior to its inclusion in the World Championship, it was held at a multitude of venues in every state of Australia. It was a centrepiece of the Tasman Series in most years between 1964 and 1972 and was a round of the Australian Drivers' Championship on many occasions between 1957 and 1983.

Unusual, even for a race of such longevity, as of 2018 the location of the Grand Prix has moved frequently with 23 different venues having been used over its life, a number eclipsing the 16 venues used for the French Grand Prix since its own 1906 start.

The race became part of the Formula One World Championship in 1985 and was held at the Adelaide Street Circuit in Adelaide, South Australia, from that year to 1995. From 1996 it has been held at the Melbourne Grand Prix Circuit at Albert Park in Melbourne. The winner of the race is presented with a circular plate, recently named the Jack Brabham trophy in a design based on the steering wheel of one of Brabham's racing cars and a perpetual trophy, the Lex Davison trophy. These trophies each date back to the 1960s.Since moving to Melbourne, the Australian Grand Prix has been the first race of the F1 World Championship excluding 2006 and 2010. When held in Adelaide it was the final round of the Championship, hosting numerous races memorable for deciding Championship results, most notably the 1986 and 1994 races which saw the 1986 and 1994 World Drivers' Championships decided.

Australian driver Lex Davison and German driver Michael Schumacher are the most successful drivers in the 86-year history of the event taking four wins each, while McLaren and Ferrari have been the most successful constructors with twelve victories each. Frenchman Alain Prost is the only driver to win the Australian Grand Prix in both Australian domestic and World Championship formats, having won the race in 1982 driving a Formula Pacific Ralt RT4 and in Formula One in 1986 and 1988.

Board of Control for Cricket in India

The Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) is the national governing body for cricket in India. The board was formed in December 1928 as a society, registered under the Tamil Nadu Societies Registration Act. It is a consortium of state cricket associations and the state associations select their representatives who in turn elect the BCCI Chief. It's headquarters are in Wankhede Stadium , Mumbai. C.K. Khanna is acting as the current president.

Cthulhu

Cthulhu () is a fictional cosmic entity created by writer H. P. Lovecraft and first introduced in the short story "The Call of Cthulhu", published in the American pulp magazine Weird Tales in 1928. Considered a Great Old One within the pantheon of Lovecraftian cosmic entities, the creature has since been featured in numerous popular culture references. Lovecraft depicts Cthulhu as a gigantic entity worshipped by cultists. Cthulhu's appearance is described as looking like an octopus, a dragon, and a caricature of human form. Its name was given to the Lovecraft-inspired universe where it and its fellow entities existed, the Cthulhu Mythos.

Delta Air Lines

Delta Air Lines, Inc. (NYSE: DAL), typically referred to as simply Delta, is a major United States airline, with its headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia. The airline, along with its subsidiaries and regional affiliates, operates over 5,400 flights daily and serves an extensive domestic and international network that includes 304 destinations in 52 countries on six continents, as of October 2018. Delta is a founding member of the SkyTeam airline alliance. Regional service is operated under the brand name Delta Connection. One of the five remaining legacy carriers, Delta is the sixth-oldest operating airline by foundation date, and the oldest airline still operating in the United States. Among predecessors of today's Delta Air Lines, Western Airlines and Northwest Airlines began flying passengers in 1926 and 1927, respectively.

Delta has eight hubs, with Atlanta being its largest in terms of total passengers and number of departures. It is the world's second largest airline in terms of scheduled passengers carried, revenue passenger-kilometers flown and fleet size. In 2018, Delta ranked No. 75 in the Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue.

Herbert Hoover

Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964) was an American engineer, businessman, and politician who served as the 31st president of the United States from 1929 to 1933. A member of the Republican Party, he held office during the onset of the Great Depression. Prior to serving as president, Hoover led the Commission for Relief in Belgium, served as the director of the U.S. Food Administration, and served as the 3rd U.S. Secretary of Commerce.

Born to a Quaker family in West Branch, Iowa, Hoover took a position with a London-based mining company after graduating from Stanford University in 1895. After the outbreak of World War I, he became the head of the Commission for Relief in Belgium, an international relief organization that provided food to occupied Belgium. When the U.S. entered the war, President Woodrow Wilson appointed Hoover to lead the Food Administration, and Hoover became known as the country's "food czar". After the war, Hoover led the American Relief Administration, which provided food to the inhabitants of Central Europe and Eastern Europe. Hoover's war-time service made him a favorite of many progressives, and he unsuccessfully sought the Republican nomination in the 1920 presidential election.

After the 1920 election, newly-elected Republican President Warren G. Harding appointed Hoover as Secretary of Commerce; Hoover continued to serve under President Calvin Coolidge after Harding died in 1923. Hoover was an unusually active and visible cabinet member, becoming known as "Secretary of Commerce and Under-Secretary of all other departments". He was influential in the development of radio and air travel and led the federal response to the Great Mississippi Flood of 1927. Hoover won the Republican nomination in the 1928 presidential election, and decisively defeated the Democratic candidate, Al Smith. The stock market crashed shortly after Hoover took office, and the Great Depression became the central issue of his presidency. Hoover pursued a variety of policies in an attempt to lift the economy, but opposed directly involving the federal government in relief efforts.

In the midst of an ongoing economic crisis, Hoover was decisively defeated by Democratic nominee Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1932 presidential election. Hoover enjoyed one of the longest retirements of any former president, and he authored numerous works. After leaving office, Hoover became increasingly conservative, and he strongly criticized Roosevelt's foreign policy and New Deal domestic agenda. In the 1940s and 1950s, Hoover's public reputation was rehabilitated as he served for Presidents Harry S. Truman and Dwight D. Eisenhower in various assignments, including as chairman of the Hoover Commission. Nevertheless, Hoover is generally not ranked highly in historical rankings of presidents of the United States.

Joe Jackson (manager)

Joseph Walter Jackson (July 26, 1928 – June 27, 2018) was an American talent manager and patriarch of the Jackson family of entertainers that includes his children Michael and Janet. He was inducted into the Rhythm and Blues Music Hall of Fame as a member of the class of 2014.

March 14

March 14 is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 292 days remaining until the end of the year.

Mickey Mouse

Mickey Mouse is a funny animal cartoon character and the mascot of The Walt Disney Company. He was created by Walt Disney and Ub Iwerks at the Walt Disney Studios in 1928. An anthropomorphic mouse who typically wears red shorts, large yellow shoes, and white gloves, Mickey is one of the world's most recognizable characters.

Created as a replacement for a prior Disney character, Oswald the Lucky Rabbit, Mickey first appeared in the short Plane Crazy, debuting publicly in the short film Steamboat Willie (1928), one of the first sound cartoons. He went on to appear in over 130 films, including The Band Concert (1935), Brave Little Tailor (1938), and Fantasia (1940). Mickey appeared primarily in short films, but also occasionally in feature-length films. Ten of Mickey's cartoons were nominated for the Academy Award for Best Animated Short Film, one of which, Lend a Paw, won the award in 1942. In 1978, Mickey became the first cartoon character to have a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.

Beginning in 1930, Mickey has also been featured extensively as a comic strip character. His self-titled newspaper strip, drawn primarily by Floyd Gottfredson, ran for 45 years. Mickey has also appeared in comic books such as Disney Italy's Topolino, MM - Mickey Mouse Mystery Magazine, and Wizards of Mickey, and in television series such as The Mickey Mouse Club (1955–1996) and others. He also appears in other media such as video games as well as merchandising and is a meetable character at the Disney parks.

Mickey generally appears alongside his girlfriend Minnie Mouse, his pet dog Pluto, his friends Donald Duck and Goofy, and his nemesis Pete, among others (see Mickey Mouse universe). Though originally characterized as a cheeky lovable rogue, Mickey was rebranded over time as a nice guy, usually seen as an honest and bodacious hero. In 2009, Disney began to rebrand the character again by putting less emphasis on his friendly, well-meaning persona and reintroducing the more menacing and stubborn sides of his personality, beginning with the video game Epic Mickey.

Motorola

Motorola, Inc. () was an American multinational telecommunications company founded on September 25, 1928, based in Schaumburg, Illinois. After having lost $4.3 billion from 2007 to 2009, the company was divided into two independent public companies, Motorola Mobility and Motorola Solutions on January 4, 2011. Motorola Solutions is generally considered to be the direct successor to Motorola, as the reorganization was structured with Motorola Mobility being spun off. Motorola Mobility was sold to Google in 2012, and acquired by Lenovo in 2014.Motorola designed and sold wireless network equipment such as cellular transmission base stations and signal amplifiers. Motorola's home and broadcast network products included set-top boxes, digital video recorders, and network equipment used to enable video broadcasting, computer telephony, and high-definition television. Its business and government customers consisted mainly of wireless voice and broadband systems (used to build private networks), and public safety communications systems like Astro and Dimetra. These businesses (except for set-top boxes and cable modems) are now part of Motorola Solutions. Google sold Motorola Home (the former General Instrument cable businesses) to the Arris Group in December 2012 for US$2.35 billion.Motorola's wireless telephone handset division was a pioneer in cellular telephones. Also known as the Personal Communication Sector (PCS) prior to 2004, it pioneered the "mobile phone" with DynaTAC, "flip phone" with the MicroTAC, as well as the "clam phone" with the StarTAC in the mid-1990s. It had staged a resurgence by the mid-2000s with the Razr, but lost market share in the second half of that decade. Later it focused on smartphones using Google's open-source Android mobile operating system. The first phone to use the newest version of Google's open source OS, Android 2.0, was released on November 2, 2009 as the Motorola Droid (the GSM version launched a month later, in Europe, as the Motorola Milestone).

The handset division (along with cable set-top boxes and cable modems divisions, which would later be sold to Arris Group) was later spun off into the independent Motorola Mobility. On May 22, 2012, Google CEO Larry Page announced that Google had closed on its deal to acquire Motorola Mobility. On January 29, 2014, Page announced that, pending closure of the deal, Motorola Mobility would be acquired by Chinese technology company Lenovo for US$2.91 billion (subject to certain adjustments). On October 30, 2014, Lenovo finalized its purchase of Motorola Mobility from Google.

Nazi Party

The National Socialist German Workers' Party (German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei , abbreviated NSDAP), commonly referred to in English as the Nazi Party (English: ), was a far-right political party in Germany that was active between 1920 and 1945, that created and supported the ideology of Nazism. Its precursor, the German Workers' Party (Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; DAP), existed from 1919 to 1920.

The Nazi Party emerged from the German nationalist, racist and populist Freikorps paramilitary culture, which fought against the communist uprisings in post-World War I Germany. The party was created to draw workers away from communism and into völkisch nationalism. Initially, Nazi political strategy focused on anti-big business, anti-bourgeois, and anti-capitalist rhetoric, although this was later downplayed to gain the support of business leaders, and in the 1930s the party's main focus shifted to anti-Semitic and anti-Marxist themes.Pseudo-scientific racist theories were central to Nazism, expressed in the idea of a "people's community" (Volksgemeinschaft). The party aimed to unite "racially desirable" Germans as national comrades, while excluding those deemed either to be political dissidents, physically or intellectually inferior, or of a foreign race (Fremdvölkische). The Nazis sought to strengthen the Germanic people, the "Aryan master race", through racial purity and eugenics, broad social welfare programs, and a collective subordination of individual rights, which could be sacrificed for the good of the state on behalf of the people.

To protect the supposed purity and strength of the Aryan race, the Nazis sought to exterminate Jews, Romani, Poles and most other Slavs, along with the physically and mentally handicapped. They disenfranchised and segregated homosexuals, Africans, Jehovah's Witnesses and political opponents. The persecution reached its climax when the party-controlled German state set in motion the Final Solution–an industrial system of genocide which achieved the murder of an estimated 5.5 to 6 million Jews and millions of other targeted victims, in what has become known as the Holocaust.Adolf Hitler, the party's leader since 1921, was appointed Chancellor of Germany by President Paul von Hindenburg on 30 January 1933. Hitler rapidly established a totalitarian regime known as the Third Reich. Following the defeat of the Third Reich at the conclusion of World War II in Europe, the party was "declared to be illegal" by the Allied powers, who carried out denazification in the years after the war.

Ottoman Turkish language

Ottoman Turkish (; Turkish: Osmanlı Türkçesi), or the Ottoman language (Ottoman Turkish: لسان عثمانى‎, lisân-ı Osmânî, also known as تركجه‎, Türkçe or تركی‎, Türkî, "Turkish"; Turkish: Osmanlıca), is the variety of the Turkish language that was used in the Ottoman Empire. It borrows, in all aspects, extensively from Arabic and Persian, and it was written in the Ottoman Turkish alphabet. During the peak of Ottoman power, Arabic and Persian vocabulary accounted for up to 88% of the Ottoman vocabulary, while words of foreign origin heavily outnumbered native Turkish words.Consequently, Ottoman Turkish was largely unintelligible to the less-educated lower-class and rural Turks, who continued to use kaba Türkçe ("raw/vulgar Turkish", as in Vulgar Latin), which used far fewer foreign loanwords and is the basis of the modern Turkish language. The Tanzimât era saw the application of the term "Ottoman" when referring to the language (لسان عثمانی‎ lisân-ı Osmânî or عثمانليجه‎ Osmanlıca) and the same distinction is made in Modern Turkish (Osmanlıca and Osmanlı Türkçesi).

Real Valladolid

Real Valladolid Club de Fútbol, S.A.D., or simply Real Valladolid (pronounced [reˈal βaʎaðoˈlið]) or Valladolid, is a football club based in Valladolid, Spain, in the autonomous community of Castile and León, from where the nickname Pucela is derived. The colors that identify the club are the violet and white, used in the form of streaks in his uniform holder from its foundation on 20 June 1928. It plays in La Liga, holding home games at the Estadio José Zorrilla, which seats 26,512 spectators.

Valladolid's honors include a single trophy of great relevance, the defunct Copa de la Liga 1983/84. It has been runner-up in the Copa del Rey on two occasions (1949/50 and 1988/89), and has participated in two editions of the UEFA Cup (1984/85 and 1997/98) and also one edition of the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup (1989/90). The team subsidiary, the Real Valladolid B, currently play in the Segunda División B.

Valladolid is the most successful football club in Castile and León by honors and history, with a total of 43 seasons in the First Division, 35 in the Second and 10 in the Third. Historically, Valladolid is the 13th best team in Spain by overall points. Two of its players have risen with the Pichichi Trophy: Manuel Badenes and Jorge da Silva; and ten were internationals with the Spain national football team.

On 3 September 2018, it was announced Brazilian former international footballer Ronaldo Nazario had become the majority shareholder after purchasing a 51% controlling stake in the club.

Republic of China (1912–1949)

The Republic of China (ROC) was a state in East Asia which controlled the Chinese mainland between 1912 and 1949. The state was established in January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China. Its government fled to Taipei in 1949 due to the Kuomintang's defeat in the Chinese Civil War. The Republic of China's first president, Sun Yat-sen, served only briefly before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, leader of the Beiyang Army. His party, then led by Song Jiaoren won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. Song Jiaoren was assassinated shortly after and the Beiyang Army led by Yuan Shikai maintained full control of the Beiyang government. Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan Shikai tried to reinstate the monarchy before abdicating due to popular unrest. After Yuan Shikai's death in 1916, members of cliques in the Beiyang Army claimed their autonomy and clashed with each other. During this period, the authority of the Beiyang government was weakened by a restoration of the Qing dynasty.

In 1921, Sun Yat-sen's Kuomintang (KMT) established a rival government in Canton City, Canton Province, together with the fledgling Communist Party of China (CPC). The economy of North China, overtaxed to support warlord adventurism, collapsed between 1927 and 1928. General Chiang Kai-shek, who became KMT leader after Sun Yat-sen's death, started his Northern Expedition military campaign in 1926 to overthrow the Beiyang government, which was completed in 1928. In April 1927, Chiang established a Nationalist government in Nanking, and massacred communists in Shanghai, which forced the CPC into armed rebellion, marking the beginning of the Chinese Civil War.

There were industrialization and modernization, but also conflict between the Nationalist government in Nanking, the CPC, remnant warlords, and the Empire of Japan. Nation-building took a backseat to the Second Sino-Japanese War when the Imperial Japanese Army launched an offensive against China in 1937 that turned into a full-scale invasion. After the surrender of Japan at the end of World War II in 1945, the Chinese Civil War quickly resumed in 1946 between the KMT and CPC, with both sides receiving foreign assistance due to the Cold War between the USSR and USA. During this period, the 1946 Constitution of the Republic of China replaced the 1928 Organic Law as the Republic of China's fundamental law. Near the end of the Chinese Civil War in 1949, the Chinese Communist Party established the People's Republic of China, overthrowing the Nationalist government on the Chinese mainland. The Government of the Republic of China fled from Nanking to Taipei in 1949, controlling only Taiwan after 1949.

Summer Olympic Games

The Summer Olympic Games (French: Jeux olympiques d'été) or the Games of the Olympiad, first held in 1896, is a major international multi-sport event held once every four years. The most recent Olympics were held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The International Olympic Committee (IOC) organises the Games and oversees the host city's preparations. In each Olympic event, gold medals are awarded for first place, silver medals are awarded for second place, and bronze medals are awarded for third place; this tradition began in 1904. The Winter Olympic Games were created due to the success of the Summer Olympics.

The Olympics have increased in scope from a 42-event competition with fewer than 250 male competitors from 14 nations in 1896, to 306 events with 11,238 competitors (6,179 men, 5,059 women) from 206 nations in 2016.

The Summer Olympics has been hosted on five continents by a total of nineteen countries. The Games have been held four times in the United States (in 1904, 1932, 1984 and 1996); three times in the United Kingdom (in 1908, 1948 and 2012); twice each in Greece (1896, 2004), France (1900, 1924), Germany (1936, 1972) and Australia (1956, 2000); and once each in Sweden (1912), Belgium (1920), Netherlands (1928), Finland (1952), Italy (1960), Japan (1964), Mexico (1968), Canada (1976), Soviet Union (1980), South Korea (1988), Spain (1992), China (2008) and Brazil (2016).

The IOC has selected Tokyo, Japan, to host the Summer Olympics for a second time in 2020. The 2024 Summer Olympics will be held in Paris, France, for a third time, exactly one hundred years after the city's last Summer Olympics in 1924. The IOC has also selected Los Angeles, California, to host its third Summer Games in 2028.

To date, only five countries have participated in every Summer Olympic Games – Australia, France, Great Britain, Greece and Switzerland. The United States leads the all-time medal table for the Summer Olympics.

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