1924 Democratic National Convention

The 1924 Democratic National Convention, held at the Madison Square Garden in New York City from June 24 to July 9, 1924, was the longest continuously running convention in United States political history. It took a record 103 ballots to nominate a presidential candidate. It was the first major party national convention that saw the name of a woman, Lena Springs, placed in nomination for the office of Vice President. John W. Davis, a dark horse, eventually won the presidential nomination on the 103rd ballot, a compromise candidate following a protracted convention fight between distant front-runners William Gibbs McAdoo and Al Smith.

Davis and his vice presidential running-mate, Charles W. Bryan of Nebraska, went on to be defeated by the Republican ticket of President Calvin Coolidge and Charles G. Dawes in the 1924 presidential election.

1924 Democratic National Convention
1924 presidential election
John William Davis (3x4)
Charles Wayland Bryan (3x4 A)
Nominees
Davis and Bryan
Convention
Date(s)June 24 – July 9, 1924
CityNew York, New York
VenueMadison Square Garden
Candidates
Presidential nomineeJohn W. Davis of West Virginia
Vice Presidential nomineeCharles W. Bryan of Nebraska

Site selection

The selection of New York as the site for the 1924 convention was based in part on the recent success of the party in that state. Two years earlier, in 1922, thirteen Republican congressmen had lost their seats to Democrats. New York had not been chosen for a convention since 1868. Wealthy New Yorkers, who had outbid other cities, declared their purpose "to convince the rest of the country that the town was not the red-light menace generally conceived by the sticks". Though "dry" organizations that supported continuing the prohibition of alcohol opposed the choice of New York, it won McAdoo's grudging consent in the fall of 1923, before the oil scandals made Smith a serious threat to him. (McAdoo's candidacy was hurt by the revelation that he had accepted money from Edward L. Doheny, an oil tycoon implicated in the Teapot Dome scandal.) McAdoo's own adopted state, California, had played host to the Democrats in 1920.[1]

The primaries

McAdoo swept the primaries in the first real race in the history of the party, although most states chose delegates through party organizations and conventions, giving most of their projected votes to local or hometown candidates, referred to as "favorite sons".

Ku Klux Klan presence

External video
FDR-Nominating-Smith-June-26-1924
A Broken Party (1924) Conventional Wisdom, 5:56, 2016, Retro Report[2]

The Ku Klux Klan had surged in popularity after World War I, due to its leadership's connections to passage of the successful Prohibition Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.[3] This made the Klan a political power throughout many regions of the United States, and it reached the apex of its power in the mid-1920s, when it exerted deep cultural and political influence on both Republicans and Democrats.[4] Its supporters had successfully quashed an anti-Klan resolution before it ever went to a floor vote at the 1924 Republican National Convention earlier in June, and proponents expected to exert the same influence at the Democratic convention. Instead, tension between pro- and anti-Klan delegates produced an intense and sometimes violent showdown between convention attendees from the states of Colorado and Missouri.[4][5] Klan delegates opposed the nomination of New York Governor Al Smith because Smith was a Roman Catholic and an opponent of Prohibition, and most supported William Gibbs McAdoo. Non-Klan delegates, led by Sen. Oscar Underwood of Alabama, attempted to add condemnation of the organization for its violence to the Democratic Party's platform. The measure was narrowly defeated, and the anti-KKK plank was not included in the platform.[4]

Roosevelt comeback

Smith's name was placed into nomination by Franklin D. Roosevelt, in a speech in which Roosevelt dubbed Smith "The Happy Warrior".[6] Roosevelt's speech, which has since become a well-studied example of political oratory,[7] was his first major political appearance since the paralytic illness he had contracted in 1921.[8] The success of this speech and his other convention efforts in support of Smith signaled that he was still a viable figure in politics, and he nominated Smith again in 1928.[9] Roosevelt succeeded Smith as governor in 1929, and went on to win election as president in 1932.[10]

Results

Presidential candidates

FDR-Nominating-Smith-June-26-1924 (cropped1)
Franklin D. Roosevelt placing Al Smith's name into nomination

The first day of balloting (June 30) brought the predicted deadlock between the leading aspirants for the nomination, William G. McAdoo of California and Gov. Alfred E. Smith of New York, with the remainder divided mainly between local "favorite sons". McAdoo was the leader from the outset, and both he and Smith made small gains in the day's fifteen ballots, but the prevailing belief among the delegates was that the impasse could only be broken by the elimination of both McAdoo and Smith and the selection of one of the other contenders; much interest centred about the candidacy of John W. Davis, who also increased his vote during the day from 31 to 61 (with a peak of 64.5 votes on the 13th and 14th ballots). Most of the favorite son delegations refused to be stampeded to either of the leading candidates and were in no hurry to retire from the contest.[11]

In the early balloting many delegations appeared to be jockeying for position, and some of the original votes were purely complimentary and seemed to conceal the real sentiments of the delegates. Louisiana, for example, which was bound by the "unit rule" (all the state's delegate votes would be cast in favor of the candidate favored by a majority of them), first complimented its neighbor Arkansas by casting its 20 votes for Sen. Joseph T. Robinson, then it switched to Sen. Carter Glass, and on another ballot Maryland Gov. Albert C. Ritchie got the twenty, before the delegation finally settled on John W. Davis.

There was some excitement on the tenth ballot, when Kansas abandoned Gov. Jonathan M. Davis and threw its votes to McAdoo. There was an instant uproar among McAdoo delegates and supporters, and a parade was started around the hall, the Kansas standard leading, with those of all the other McAdoo states coming along behind, and pictures of "McAdoo, Democracy's Hope", being lifted up. After six minutes the chairman's gavel brought order and the roll call resumed, and soon the other side had something to cheer, when New Jersey made its favorite son, Gov. George S. Silzer, walk the plank and threw its votes into the Smith column. This started another parade, the New York and New Jersey standards leading those of the other Smith delegations around the hall while the band played "Tramp, Tramp, Tramp, the Boys are Marching".

First ballot

Democratic National Convention presidential vote, 1st ballot[12]
Candidate Votes Percentage
William G. McAdoo 431.5 39.4%
Alfred E. Smith 241 22.0%
James M. Cox 59 5.4%
Pat Harrison 43.5 4.0%
Oscar W. Underwood 42.5 3.9%
George S. Silzer 38 3.5%
John W. Davis 31 2.8%
Samuel M. Ralston 30 2.7%
Woodbridge N. Ferris 30 2.7%
Carter Glass 25 2.3%
Albert C. Ritchie 22.5 2.1%
Joseph T. Robinson 21 1.9%
Jonathan M. Davis 20 1.8%
Charles W. Bryan 18 1.6%
Fred H. Brown 17 1.6%
William Ellery Sweet 12 1.1%
Willard Saulsbury 7 0.6%
John Kendrick 6 0.5%
Houston Thompson 1 0.1%

Fifteenth ballot

Democratic National Convention presidential vote, 15th ballot[12]
Candidate Votes Percentage
William G. McAdoo 479 43.6%
Alfred E. Smith 305.5 27.8%
John W. Davis 61 5.6%
James M. Cox 60 5.5%
Oscar W. Underwood 39.5 3.6%
Samuel M. Ralston 31 2.8%
Carter Glass 25 2.3%
Pat Harrison 20.5 1.9%
Joseph T. Robinson 20.5 1.9%
Albert C. Ritchie 17.5 1.6%
Jonathan M. Davis 11 1.0%
Charles W. Bryan 11 1.0%
Fred H. Brown 9 0.8%
Willard Saulsbury 6 0.5%
Thomas J. Walsh 1 0.1%
Newton D. Baker 1 0.1%

Twentieth ballot

McAdoo and Smith each evolved a strategy to build up his own total slowly. Smith's trick was to plant his extra votes for his opponent, so that McAdoo's strength might later appear to be waning; the Californian countered by holding back his full force, though he had been planning a strong early show. But by no sleight of hand could the convention have been swung around to either contestant. With the party split into two assertive parts, the rule requiring a two-thirds majority for nomination crippled the chances of both candidates by giving a veto each could—and did—use. McAdoo himself wanted to drop the two-thirds rule, but his Protestant supporters preferred to keep their veto over a Catholic candidate, and the South regarded the rule as protection against a northern nominee unfavorable to southern interests. At no point in the balloting did Smith receive more than a single vote from the South and scarcely more than 20 votes from the states west of the Mississippi; he never won more than 368 of the 729 votes needed for nomination, though even this performance was impressive for a Roman Catholic. McAdoo's strength fluctuated more widely, reaching its highest point of 528 on the seventieth ballot. Since both candidates occasionally received purely strategic aid, the nucleus of their support was probably even less. The remainder of the votes were divided among dark horses and favorite sons who had spun high hopes since the Doheny testimony; understandably, they hesitated to withdraw their own candidacies as long as the convention was so clearly divided.

Democratic National Convention presidential vote, 20th ballot[12]
Candidate Votes Percentage
William G. McAdoo 432 39.5%
Alfred E. Smith 307.5 28.0%
John W. Davis 122 11.3%
Oscar W. Underwood 45.5 4.1%
Samuel M. Ralston 30 2.7%
Carter Glass 25 2.3%
Joseph T. Robinson 21 1.9%
Albert C. Ritchie 17.5 1.6%
Others 97.5 8.6%

Thirtieth ballot

As time passed, the maneuvers of the two factions took on the character of desperation. Daniel C. Roper even went to Franklin Roosevelt, reportedly to offer Smith second place on a McAdoo ticket. For their part, the Tammany men tried to prolong the convention until the hotel bills were beyond the means of the delegates who had travelled to the convention. The Smith backers also attempted to stampede the delegates by packing the galleries with noisy rooters. Senator James Phelan of California, among others, complained of "New York rowdyism". But the rudeness of Tammany, and particularly the booing accord to Bryan when he spoke to the convention, only steeled the resolution of the country delegates. McAdoo and Bryan both tried to reassemble the convention in another city, perhaps Washington, D.C. or St. Louis.

Democratic National Convention presidential vote, 30th ballot[12]
Candidate Votes Percentage
William G. McAdoo 415.5 37.7%
Alfred E. Smith 323.5 29.4%
John W. Davis 126.5 11.5%
Oscar W. Underwood 39.5 3.6%
Samuel M. Ralston 33 3.0%
Carter Glass 24 2.2%
Joseph T. Robinson 23 2.1%
Albert C. Ritchie 17.5 1.6%
Others 95.5 9.9%

Forty-second ballot

Democratic National Convention presidential vote, 42nd ballot[12]
Candidate Votes Percentage
William G. McAdoo 503.4 45.7%
Alfred E. Smith 318.6 28.9%
John W. Davis 67 6.0%
Others 209.0 19.4%

Sixty-first ballot

As a last resort, McAdoo supporters introduced a motion to eliminate one candidate on each ballot until only five remained, but Smith delegates and those supporting favorite sons managed to defeat the McAdoo strategy. Smith countered by suggesting that all delegates be released from their pledges—to which McAdoo agreed on condition that the two-thirds rule be eliminated—although Smith fully expected that loyalty would prevent the disaffection of Indiana and Illinois votes, both controlled by political bosses friendly to him. Indeed, Senator David Walsh of Massachusetts expressed the sentiment that moved Smith backers: "We must continue to do all that we can to nominate Smith. If it should develop that he cannot be nominated, then McAdoo cannot have it either." For his part, McAdoo would angrily quit the convention once he lost: but the sixty-first inconclusive round—when the convention set a record for length of balloting—was no time to admit defeat.

Democratic National Convention presidential vote, 61st ballot[12]
Candidate Votes Percentage
William G. McAdoo 469.5 42.6%
Alfred E. Smith 335.5 30.5%
John W. Davis 60 5.4%
Others 233 21.5%

Seventieth ballot

Samuel Moffett Ralston

Samuel Moffett Ralston

It had seemed for a time that the nomination could go to Samuel Ralston, an Indiana senator and popular ex-governor. Advanced by the indefatigable boss Thomas Taggart, Ralston's candidacy might look for some support from Bryan, who had written, "Ralston is the most promising of the compromise candidates." Ralston was also a favorite of the Klan and a second choice of many McAdoo men. In 1922 he had launched an attack on parochial schools that the Klan saw as an endorsement of its own views, and he won several normally Republican counties dominated by the Klan. Commenting on the Klan issue, Ralston said that it would create a bad precedent to denounce any organization by name in the platform. Much of Ralston's support came from the South and West—states including Oklahoma, Missouri, and Nevada, with their strong Klan elements. McAdoo himself, according to Claude Bowers, said: "I like the old Senator, like his simplicity, honesty, record"; and it was reported that he told Smith supporters he would withdraw only in favor of Ralston. As with John W. Davis, Ralston had few enemies, and his support from men as divergent as Bryan and Taggart cast him as a possible compromise candidate. He passed Davis, the almost consistent third choice of the convention, on the fifty-second ballot; but Taggart then discouraged the boom for the time being because the McAdoo and Smith phalanxes showed no signs of weakening. On July 8, the eighty-seventh ballot showed a total for Ralston of 93 votes, chiefly from Indiana and Missouri; before the day was over, the Ralston total had risen to almost 200, a larger tally than Davis had ever received. Most of these votes were drawn from McAdoo, to whom they later returned.

Numerous sources indicate that Taggart was not exaggerating when he later said: "We would have nominated Senator Ralston if he had not withdrawn his name at the last minute. It was a near certainty as anything in politics could be. We had pledges of enough delegates that would shift to Ralston on a certain ballot to have nominated him." Ralston himself had wavered on whether to make the race; despite the doctor's stern recommendation not to run and the illness of his wife and son, the Senator had told Taggart that he would be a candidate, albeit a reluctant one. But the three-hundred pound Ralston finally telegraphed his refusal to go on with it; sixty-six years old at the time of the convention, he would die the following year.

Democratic National Convention presidential vote, 70th ballot[12]
Candidate Votes Percentage
William G. McAdoo 528.5 48.0%
Alfred E. Smith 334.5 30.4%
John W. Davis 67 6.0%
Others 170 15.6%

Seventy-seventh ballot

Democratic National Convention presidential vote, 77th ballot[12]
Candidate Votes Percentage
William G. McAdoo 513 47.7%
Alfred E. Smith 367 33.3%
John W. Davis 76.5 6.9%
Others 134 12.1%

Eighty-seventh ballot

Democratic National Convention presidential vote, 87th ballot[12]
Candidate Votes Percentage
Alfred E. Smith 361.5 32.8%
William G. McAdoo 333.5 30.3%
John W. Davis 66.5 6.0%
Others 336.5 30.9%

One hundredth ballot

Democratic National Convention presidential vote, 100th ballot[12]
Candidate Votes Percentage
Alfred E. Smith 351.5 32.4%
John W. Davis 203.5 18.7%
William G. McAdoo 190 17.5%
Edwin T. Meredith 75.5 7.0%
Thomas J. Walsh 52.5 4.8%
Joseph T. Robinson 46 4.2%
Oscar W. Underwood 41.5 3.8%
Carter Glass 35 3.2%
Josephus Daniels 24 2.2%
Robert L. Owen 20 1.8%
Albert C. Ritchie 17.5 1.6%
James W. Gerard 10 0.9%
David F. Houston 9 0.8%
Willard Saulsbury 6 0.6%
Charles W. Bryan 2 0.2%
George L. Berry 1 0.1%
Newton D. Baker 1 0.1%

One hundred third ballot

CharlesBryan
Governor Charles Wayland Bryan

The nomination, stripped of all honor, finally was awarded to John W. Davis, a compromise candidate, on the one hundred third ballot, after the withdrawal of Smith and McAdoo.[13] Davis had never been a genuine dark horse candidate; he had almost always been third in the balloting, and by the end of the twenty-ninth round he was the betting favorite of New York gamblers. There had been a Davis movement at the 1920 San Francisco convention of considerable size; however, Charles Hamlin wrote in his diary, Davis "frankly said ... that he was not seeking [the nomination] and that if nominated he would accept only as a matter of public duty". For Vice-President, the Democrats nominated the able Charles W. Bryan, governor of Nebraska, brother of William Jennings Bryan, and for many years editor of The Commoner. Loquacious beyond endurance, Bryan attacked the gas companies of Nebraska and bravely tried such socialistic schemes as a municipal ice plant for Lincoln. In 1922 he had won the governorship by promising to lower taxes. Bryan received little more than the necessary two-thirds vote, and no attempt was made to make the choice unanimous; booes were sounding through the Garden. The incongruous teaming of the distinguished Wall Street lawyer and the radical from a prairie state provided not a balanced but a schizoid ticket, and because the selection of Bryan was reputed to be a sop to the radicals, many delegates unfamiliar with Davis's actual record came to identify the lawyer with a conservatism in excess even of that considerable amount he did indeed represent.

Full Balloting

Vice presidential nomination

13 names were placed into nomination for Davis's vice-presidential running mate. Early in the process, the permitted length of speeches was limited to five minutes each.

The only ballot was chaotic, with over thirty people, including three women, getting votes. George Berry, a labor union leader from Tennessee, trailed Charles W. Bryan, Governor of Nebraska, by a vote of 332 to 270.5. Bryan had been chosen by a group of party leaders, including Davis and Al Smith.[13] The party leaders first asked Montanan Senator Thomas J. Walsh to run for vice president, but Walsh refused. New Jersey Governor George Sebastian Silzer, Newton D. Baker, and Maryland Governor Albert Ritchie were also considered, but Bryan was proposed as a candidate who could unite the Smith and McAdoo factions.[13] After the end of the first ballot, a cascade of switches from various candidates to Bryan took place, and Bryan was nominated with at least 740 votes. Notably, he remains the only brother of a previous nominee (William Jennings Bryan) to be nominated by a major party.

The official tally was:

Vice Presidential Balloting, DNC 1924
First ballot before shifts after shifts
Governor C. W. Bryan 332 739
George Berry 270.5 212
Bennett Clark 42
Lena Springs 42 18
Colonel Alvin Owsley 16
Governor George S. Silzer 10
Mayor John F. Hylan 109 6
Governor Jonathan M. Davis 4

Prayers

Each of the convention's 23 sessions was opened with an invocation by a different nationally prominent clergyman. The choices represented the party's coalition at the time: there were five Episcopalian ministers; three Presbyterians; three Lutherans; two Roman Catholics; two Baptists; two Methodists; one each from the Congregationalists, Disciples of Christ, Unitarians, and Christian Scientists; and two Jewish rabbis. All of the clergy were white men; African-American denominations were not represented.

With the convention deadlocked over the choice of a nominee, some of the invocations became calls for the delegates and candidates to put aside sectionalism and ambition in favor of party unity.[14][15][16]

Among the clergy who spoke to the convention:

Legacy

In his acceptance speech, Davis made the perfunctory statement that he would enforce the prohibition law, but his conservatism prejudiced him in favor of personal liberty and home rule and he was frequently denounced as a wet. The dry leader Wayne Wheeler complained of Davis's "constant repetition of wet catch phrases like 'personal liberty', 'illegal search and seizure', and 'home rule'". After the convention Davis tried to satisfy both factions of his party, but his support came principally from the same city elements that had backed Cox in 1920.[24] The last surviving participant from the convention is Diana Serra Cary who as a five-year-old child film star was the convention's Official Mascot.

  • This was the first Democratic National Convention broadcast on radio.[25]
  • The first seconding address by a woman in either national political parties was given by Izetta Jewel at this convention, seconding John Davis, and Abby Crawford Milton, seconding McAdoo.[26][27]
  • During his 1960 campaign, John F. Kennedy cited the dilemma of the Massachusetts delegation at the 1924 Democratic National Convention when making light of his own campaign problems : "Either we must switch to a more liberal candidate or move to a cheaper hotel."[28]
  • Both Franklin D. Roosevelt and Al Smith were filmed during the convention by Lee De Forest in DeForest's Phonofilm sound-on-film process. These films are in the Maurice Zouary collection at the Library of Congress.

"Klanbake" meme

In 2015, conservative blogs and Facebook pages started circulating a photo of hooded Klansmen supposedly marching at the convention. In early 2017, a pro-Donald Trump Facebook group called "ElectTrump2020" turned the photo into a meme which has since been shared more than 18,000 times on Facebook alone. In fact, the widely circulated photo depicted an anti-immigrant march by Klansmen in Madison, Wisconsin and had no connection to any political convention.[4] The term "Klanbake" appears to have originated in a dispatch by a New York Daily News reporter referring satirically to the discovery of the KKK presence at the 1924 DNC convention. The term was later mentioned in a Daily News article in 2000.[4][29] In 2010, the conservative news site Breitbart published a series of articles twisting the Klan's participation in the convention into what The Washington Post called a "twisted morality tale", and hyper-partisan social media helped spread the "Klanbake" meme widely in the following years, helped by the fact that Wikipedia claimed from 2005 to 2018 that the convention was "also called the Klanbake".[4]

See also

References

  1. ^ Schlesinger, Arthur M. Jr. History of American Presidential Elections 1789–1968. pp. 2467–2470.
  2. ^ "A Broken Party (1924): Conventional Wisdom". Retro Report. 2016. Retrieved February 23, 2017.
  3. ^ Laackman, Dale W. (2014). For the Kingdom and the Power (First ed.). S. Woodhouse Books. pp. 43–44. ISBN 978-1-893121-98-0.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Mendelsohn, Jennifer; Shulman, Peter A. (15 Mar 2018). "How social media spread a historical lie". The Washington Post. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  5. ^ Kent, Frank B. (29 Jun 1924). "Democrats Split Wide Open in Row Over Klan Issue" (Vol. 84, No. 180). Newspapers.com. The Brooklyn Daily Eagle. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  6. ^ Roosevelt, Franklin (1928). The Happy Warrior, Alfred E. Smith. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. pp. 25–40.
  7. ^ Reid, Loren Dudley (1961). American Public Address: Studies in Honor of Albert Craig Baird. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press. p. 216.
  8. ^ Houck, Davis W.; Kiewe, Amos (2003). FDR's Body Politics: The Rhetoric of Disability. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press. p. 11. ISBN 978-1-58544-233-1.
  9. ^ Ryan, Halford Ross (1995). U.S. Presidents as Orators: A Bio-critical Sourcebook. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. p. 147. ISBN 978-0-313-29059-6.
  10. ^ U.S. Presidents as Orators, p. 147.
  11. ^ Oulahan, Richard V., "M'Adoo Ahead on 15th Ballot With 479, Smith 305 1/2; Governor Gains 64 1/2 During Day to his Rival's 47 1/2; J.B. Davis Third With 61: Adjourn to 10:30 a.m. Today", The New York Times, July 1, 1924.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Murray, Robert K. (1976). The 103rd Ballot: Democrats and the Disaster in Madison Square Garden. New York: Harper & Row. ISBN 0-06-013124-1.
  13. ^ a b c "Democrats Nominate Davis and C. W. Bryan; Former, Acclaimed, Calls Party to Battle; Smith Promises to Work Hard for the Ticket". The New York Times. July 10, 1924. Retrieved October 8, 2015.
  14. ^ "Thrills Come Early in Morning After Session Opens Tamely". The New York Times. July 9, 1924.
  15. ^ a b Official Report of the Proceedings of the Democratic National Convention, published by the Democratic National Committee (1924), p. 886
  16. ^ Official Report of the Proceedings of the Democratic National Convention, published by the Democratic National Committee (1924), p. 948
  17. ^ Official Report of the Proceedings of the Democratic National Convention, published by the Democratic National Committee (1924), pp. 3-4
  18. ^ Official Report of the Proceedings of the Democratic National Convention, published by the Democratic National Committee (1924), p. 385
  19. ^ Official Report of the Proceedings of the Democratic National Convention, published by the Democratic National Committee (1924), p. 45
  20. ^ Official Report of the Proceedings of the Democratic National Convention, published by the Democratic National Committee (1924), pp. 221-22
  21. ^ Official Report of the Proceedings of the Democratic National Convention, published by the Democratic National Committee (1924), p. 852
  22. ^ Official Report of the Proceedings of the Democratic National Convention, published by the Democratic National Committee (1924), p. 227
  23. ^ Official Report of the Proceedings of the Democratic National Convention, published by the Democratic National Committee (1924), pp. 538-39
  24. ^ Schlesinger, Arthur M. Jr. History of American Presidential Elections 1789–1968. pp. 2467–2478.
  25. ^ Sterling, Christopher H.; O'Dell, Cary (2011). The Concise Encyclopedia of American Radio. Routledge. p. 258. ISBN 9781135176846.
  26. ^ Izetta Jewel, wvencyclopedia.org accessed September 1, 2012
  27. ^ Teel, Ray (2006). The Public Press, 1900–1945: The History of American Journalism. p. 109.
  28. ^ White, Theodore (1961). The Making of the President 1960. New York: Atheneum Publishers. p. ?.
  29. ^ Shapira, Ian (26 September 2017). "No, Dinesh D'Souza, that photo isn't the KKK marching to the Democratic National Convention". washingtonpost.com. The Washington Post. Retrieved 18 March 2018.

Further reading

External links

Preceded by
1920
San Francisco, California
Democratic National Conventions Succeeded by
1928
Houston, Texas
1924 Nebraska gubernatorial election

The 1924 Nebraska gubernatorial election was held on November 4, 1924, and featured former state Senator Adam McMullen, a Republican, defeating Democratic nominee, former state Representative John N. Norton, and Progressive nominee, Omaha City Commissioner Dan B. Butler.

Incumbent Governor Charles W. Bryan, initially the nominee of both the Democratic and Progressive parties, withdrew from the race after being nominated for Vice President of the United States at the 1924 Democratic National Convention on July 9.

1924 United States presidential election

The United States presidential election of 1924 was the 35th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 4, 1924. In a three-way contest, incumbent Republican President Calvin Coolidge won election to a full term.

Coolidge had been vice president under Warren G. Harding and became president in 1923 upon Harding's death. Coolidge was given credit for a booming economy at home and no visible crises abroad, and he faced little opposition at the 1924 Republican National Convention. The Democratic Party nominated former Congressman John W. Davis of West Virginia, making Davis the first major party nominee who had held public office in a former slave state since the end of the Civil War. Davis, a compromise candidate, triumphed on the 103rd ballot of the 1924 Democratic National Convention after a deadlock between supporters of William Gibbs McAdoo and Al Smith. Dissatisfied by the conservatism of both major party candidates, the Progressive Party nominated Senator Robert La Follette of Wisconsin.

Garland S. Tucker, in a 2010 book, argues that the election marked the "high tide of American conservatism," as both major candidates campaigned for limited government, reduced taxes, and less regulation. By contrast, La Follette called for the gradual nationalization of the railroads and increased taxes on the wealthy.

Coolidge won a decisive victory, taking majorities in both the popular vote and the Electoral College and winning almost every state outside of the Solid South. La Follette won 16.6% of the popular vote, a strong showing for a third party candidate, while Davis won the lowest share of the popular vote of any Democratic nominee in history.

Anning Smith Prall

Anning Smith Prall (September 17, 1870 – July 23, 1937) was a Representative from New York, born in Port Richmond, Staten Island.

In his early years Prall was employed as a clerk in a New York newspaper office. Prall attended New York University, studying business. From 1908 until 1918 he was in charge of a real estate department of a bank, while serving as the first president of the Staten Island Board of Realtors from 1915 to 1916.

In 1918 Prall began a public service career when he was appointed Clerk of New York City's First District Municipal Court. He was appointed a member of the New York City Board of Education on January 1, 1918, and served until December 31, 1921, and was elected the board's president. He was New York City's commissioner of taxes and assessment from 1922 to 1923.

He was a delegate to the 1924 Democratic National Convention and was elected as a Democrat to the Sixty-eighth Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Daniel J. Riordan. He was reelected to the sixty-ninth and to the four succeeding Congresses and served from November 6, 1923, to January 3, 1935. He was not a candidate for renomination in 1934.

Prall served as a member and chairman of the Federal Communications Commission from January 15, 1935, until his death in 1937 at his summer home in Boothbay Harbor, Maine. He is interred at Moravian Cemetery in New Dorp, Staten Island.

Intermediate school (I.S.) 27 on Staten Island is also known as the Anning S. Prall School. He also served as Chairman of the FCC from March 9, 1935 to June 23, 1937.

Edwin J. Brown

Edwin J. Brown (1864–1941) was mayor of Seattle, elected in May, 1922, and again in 1924. He graduated from Kansas City School of Law in 1899, and worked as a dentist, thus earning the moniker "Doc" Brown. As a politician during prohibition, Brown personally did not drink alcohol, but supported the public's right to drink.When Brown left to attend the 1924 Democratic National Convention, he appointed city council member Bertha Knight Landes as acting mayor. Landes began her own law and order campaign, firing Police Chief William B. Severyns for corruption and closing down lotteries, punchboards and speakeasies. Upon his return, Brown reinstated the police chief. In 1926, Brown ran for a third term, but lost to Landes.

He died on July 28, 1941, at the age of 76, of a heart attack.

Frederick Hermann Knubel

Frederick Hermann Knubel (May 22, 1870 – October 16, 1945) was a U.S. Lutheran clergyman and first president of the United Lutheran Church in America from 1918 to October 1944.

Knubel was born in New York City to Friedrich (Frederick) C. Knubel (1827-1908), a German-born grocer who had immigrated in 1855, and his wife, Katherine.

He was educated in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania and at the Theologisches Seminar and University of Leipzig.

He was a pastor in New York from 1896 to 1918.

On July 2, 1924, he offered the invocation at the opening of the twelfth session of the 1924 Democratic National Convention.

George K. Shuler

George Kent Shuler (December 15, 1884 – October 16, 1942) was an American war hero and politician.

Governorship of Franklin D. Roosevelt

Franklin D. Roosevelt was elected governor of New York in 1928 and served from 1 January 1929 until his election as President of the United States in 1932. His term as governor provided him with a high-visibility position in which to prove himself as well as provide a major base from which to launch a bid for the presidency.

After several years out of politics following his defeat for vice president in the 1920 presidential election, by 1928, Roosevelt believed he had recovered sufficiently to resume his political career. He had been careful to maintain his contacts in the Democratic Party. In 1924, he had attended the 1924 Democratic National Convention and made a presidential nomination speech for the then-governor of New York, Al Smith. Although Smith was not nominated, he ran again in 1928, and Roosevelt again supported him. This time, he became the Democratic candidate, and he urged Roosevelt to run for governor of New York.

Izetta Jewel

Izetta Jewel (November 24, 1883 – November 14, 1978) was an American stage actress, women's rights activist and politician. She became the first woman to deliver a seconding speech for a presidential nominee at a major American political party convention when she seconded the nomination of John W. Davis at the 1924 Democratic National Convention.

John M. Callahan

John M. Callahan was Chairman of the Democratic Party of Wisconsin.

John W. Davis

John William Davis GBE (April 13, 1873 – March 24, 1955) was an American politician, diplomat and lawyer. He served under President Woodrow Wilson as the Solicitor General of the United States and the United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom. The culmination of his political career came when he ran for President in 1924 under the Democratic Party ticket, losing to Republican incumbent Calvin Coolidge.

Born and raised in West Virginia, Davis briefly worked as a teacher before beginning his long legal career. Davis's father, John J. Davis, had been a delegate to the Wheeling Convention and served in the United States House of Representatives in the 1870s. Davis joined his father's legal practice and adopted much of his father's political views, including opposition to anti-lynching legislation and support for states' rights. Davis served in the United States House of Representatives from 1911 to 1913, helping to write the Clayton Antitrust Act. He held the position of solicitor general from 1913 to 1918, during which time he successfully argued for the illegality of Oklahoma's "grandfather law" in Guinn v. United States.

While serving as the ambassador to Britain from 1918 to 1921, Davis was a dark horse candidate for the 1920 Democratic presidential nomination. After he left office, Davis helped establish the Council on Foreign Relations and advocated for the repeal of Prohibition. The 1924 Democratic National Convention nominated Davis for president after 103 ballots. His nomination made him the second nominee (With Wilson having been nominated in 1912) from a former slave state, Virginia, since the Civil War, and Davis remains the only major party presidential candidate from West Virginia. Running on a ticket with Charles W. Bryan, Davis lost in a landslide to Coolidge.

Davis did not seek public office again after 1924, but remained a prominent attorney, representing many of the country's largest businesses. Over a 60-year legal career, he argued 140 cases before the United States Supreme Court. He famously argued the winning side in Youngstown Steel, in which the Supreme Court ruled against President Harry Truman's seizure of the nation's steel plants. Davis also unsuccessfully defended the "separate but equal" doctrine in Briggs v. Elliott, one of the companion cases to Brown v. Board of Education.

Julius Miller

Julius Miller (January 12, 1880 – February 3, 1955) was a Manhattan Borough President from 1922 to 1930, who is best remembered for pushing through the West Side Elevated Highway from 72nd Street to the tip of Manhattan.

Lena Springs

Lena Jones Wade Springs (March 22, 1883 - May 17, 1942) was the first woman placed in nomination for Vice President of the United States at a political convention. She was nominated at the 1924 Democratic National Convention.

A native of Pulaski, Tennessee, she attended public schools, followed by Sullins College and post-graduate work at Virginia College in Roanoke. She became chairman of the English Department at Queens College in Charlotte, and married Col. Leroy Springs in 1913, a second marriage for both.

An enthusiastic supporter of women's rights, she became a Democratic National Committeewoman in 1922, and served as chairman of the Credentials Committee in 1924. While her being supported for the vice presidential nomination was in essence a gesture, she received some votes in the election process, variously given as several, over 50, and 44.She died on May 18, 1942, and is buried in Pulaski, Tennessee.

Madison Square Garden (1890)

Madison Square Garden (1890-1926) was an indoor arena in New York City, the second by that name, and the second to be located at 26th Street and Madison Avenue in Manhattan. Opened in 1890 at the cost of about $500,000, it replaced the first Madison Square Garden, and hosted numerous events, including boxing matches, orchestral performances, light operas and romantic comedies, the annual French Ball, both the Barnum and the Ringling circuses, and the 1924 Democratic National Convention, which nominated John W. Davis after 103 ballots. The building closed in 1925, and was replaced by the third Madison Square Garden at Eighth Avenue and 50th Street, which was the first to be located away from Madison Square.

Oscar Underwood

Oscar Wilder Underwood (May 6, 1862 – January 25, 1929) was an American lawyer and politician from Alabama, and also a candidate for President of the United States in 1912 and 1924. He was the first formally designated floor leader in the United States Senate, and the only individual to serve as the Democratic leader in both the Senate and the United States House of Representatives.Born in Louisville, Kentucky, Underwood began a legal career in Minnesota after graduating from the University of Virginia. He moved his legal practice to Birmingham, Alabama in 1884 and won election to the House of Representatives in 1894. Underwood served as House Majority Leader from 1911 to 1915, and was a strong supporter President Woodrow Wilson's progressive agenda and a prominent advocate of a reduction in the tariff. He sponsored the Revenue Act of 1913, also known as the Underwood Tariff, which lowered tariff rates and imposed a federal income tax. He won election to the Senate in 1914 and served as Senate Minority Leader from 1920 to 1923. He unsuccessfully opposed federal Prohibition, arguing that state and local governments should regulate alcohol.

Underwood sought the presidential nomination at the 1912 Democratic National Convention, but the convention selected Woodrow Wilson after forty-six ballots. He declined the vice presidential nomination, which instead went to Thomas R. Marshall. Underwood ran for president again in 1924, entering the 1924 Democratic National Convention as a prominent conservative opponent of the Ku Klux Klan. One of the few prominent anti-Klan politicians in the South at the time, Underwood and his supporters narrowly failed to win adoption of a Democratic resolution condemning the Klan. He experienced a boomlet of support on the 101st presidential ballot of the convention, but the Democrats nominated John W. Davis as a compromise candidate. Underwood declined to run for re-election in 1926 and retired to his Woodlawn plantation in Fairfax County, Virginia, where he died in 1929.

Sunrise at Campobello (play)

Sunrise at Campobello is a 1958 play by American producer and writer Dore Schary based on U.S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt's struggle with polio. The film version was released in 1960.

Timothy T. Ansberry

Timothy Thomas Ansberry (December 24, 1871 – July 5, 1943) was a U.S. Representative from Ohio.

Born in Defiance, Ohio, Ansberry attended the public schools.

He graduated from the University of Notre Dame, South Bend, Indiana, in June 1893.

He was admitted to the bar and commenced practice in Defiance, Ohio.

He was in the Justice of the Peace 1893-1895.

He served as prosecuting attorney of Defiance County 1895-1903.

He was an unsuccessful candidate for election in 1904 to the Fifty-ninth Congress.

Ansberry was elected as a Democrat to the Sixtieth and to the three succeeding Congresses and served from March 4, 1907, until January 9, 1915, when he resigned to accept a judicial position.

He served as chairman of the Committee on Elections No. 1 (Sixty-second Congress).

He was appointed associate judge of the Ohio Court of Appeals, in which capacity he served until his resignation in 1916.

He served as delegate to the 1920 Democratic National Convention at San Francisco and the 1924 Democratic National Convention at New York.

He moved to Washington, D.C., in 1916 and engaged in the practice of law until his death.

He died in New York City, July 5, 1943.

He was interred in Mount Olivet Cemetery (Washington, D.C.)

William Gibbs McAdoo

William Gibbs McAdoo Jr. (October 31, 1863 – February 1, 1941) was an American lawyer and statesman. McAdoo was a leader of the Progressive movement and played a major role in the administration of President Woodrow Wilson. A member of the Democratic Party, he also represented California in the United States Senate.

Born in Marietta, Georgia, McAdoo moved to Knoxville, Tennessee in his youth and graduated from the University of Tennessee. He established a legal practice in Chattanooga, Tennessee before moving to New York City in 1892. He gained notoriety as the president of the Hudson and Manhattan Railroad Company and served as the vice chairman of the Democratic National Committee. McAdoo worked on Wilson's successful 1912 presidential campaign and served as the United States Secretary of the Treasury from 1913 to 1918. He married Wilson's daughter, Eleanor, in 1914. McAdoo presided over the establishment of the Federal Reserve System and helped prevent an economic crisis after the outbreak of World War I. After the U.S. entered the war, McAdoo also served as the Director General of Railroads. McAdoo left Wilson's Cabinet in 1919, co-founding the law firm of McAdoo, Cotton & Franklin.

McAdoo sought the Democratic presidential nomination at the 1920 Democratic National Convention but was blocked by his father-in-law Woodrow Wilson. In 1922, McAdoo left his law firm and moved to California. He sought the Democratic presidential nomination again in 1924, but the 1924 Democratic National Convention nominated John W. Davis. He was elected to the Senate in 1932 but was defeated in his bid for a second term. McAdoo died of a heart attack in 1941 while traveling to the third inauguration of Franklin D. Roosevelt.

William W. Brandon

William Woodward Brandon (June 5, 1868 – December 7, 1934) was an American Democratic politician who was the 37th governor of Alabama from 1923 to 1927.

Wythe Leigh Kinsolving

Wythe Leigh Kinsolving (November 14, 1878 – December, 1964) was an American Episcopal priest, writer, poet, Democratic Party political advocate, sometime pacifist, and anti-Communist. He wrote nine books and dozens of letters and op-ed essays for the New York Times, the Washington Post, and regional papers. He gave an invocation for a national audience at the 1924 Democratic National Convention. Prior to the Pearl Harbor attack in 1941, he strongly opposed going to war against Nazi Germany.

(1-20) Presidential Ballot
1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th
J.W. Davis 31 32 34 34 34.5 55.5 55 57 63 57.5 59 60 64.5 64.5 61 63 64 66 84.5 122
McAdoo 431.5 431 437 443.6 443.1 443.1 442.6 444.6 444.6 471.6 476.3 478.5 477 475.5 479 478 471.5 470.5 474 432
Smith 241 251.5 255.5 260 261 261.5 261.5 273.5 278 299.5 303.2 301 303.5 306.5 305.5 305.5 312.5 312.5 311.5 307.5
Cox 59 61 60 59 59 59 59 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60 60
Harrison 43.5 23.5 23.5 20.5 20.5 20.5 20.5 20.5 20.5 31.5 20.5 21.5 20.5 20.5 20.5 0 0 0 0 0
Underwood 42.5 42 42 41.5 41.5 42.5 42.5 48 45.5 43.9 42.5 41.5 40.5 40.5 39.5 41.5 42 39.5 39.5 45.5
Silzer 38 30 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Ferris 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 6.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Ralston 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30.5 30.5 32.5 31.5 31.5 31 31 31 30 30 31 30
Glass 25 25 29 45 25 25 25 26 25 25 25.5 26 25 24 25 25 44 30 30 25
Ritchie 22.5 21.5 22.5 21.5 42.9 22.9 20.9 19.9 17.5 17.5 17.5 17.5 17.5 17.5 17.5 17.5 17.5 18.5 17.5 17.5
Robinson 21 41 41 19 19 19 19 21 21 20 20 19 19 19 20 46 28 22 22 21
J.M. Davis 20 23 20 29 28 27 30 29 32.4 12 11 13.5 11 11 11 11 10 10 9 10
C.W. Bryan 18 18 19 19 19 18 18 16 15 12 11 11 10 11 11 11 11 11 10 11
Brown 17 12.5 12.5 9.9 8.5 8 8 9 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 1 0 0 0 0
Sweet 12 12 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Saulsbury 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6
Kendrick 6 6 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Thompson 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Walsh 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 8
W.J. Bryan 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Baker 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1
Berry 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Krebs 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Copeland 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.5 0.5 0 1 0
Hull 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 20 0 0
Hitchcock 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Dever 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.5
(21-40) Presidential Ballot
21st 22nd 23rd 24th 25th 26th 27th 28th 29th 30th 31st 32nd 33rd 34th 35th 36th 37th 38th 39th 40th
J.W. Davis 125 123.5 129.5 129.5 126 125 128.5 126 124.5 126.5 127.5 128 121 107.5 107 106.5 107 105 71 70
McAdoo 439 438.5 438.5 438.5 436.5 415.5 413 412 415 415.5 415.5 415.5 404.5 445 439 429 444.5 444 499 506.4
Smith 307.5 307.5 308 308 308.5 311.5 316.5 316.5 321 323.5 322.5 322 310.5 311 323.5 323 321 321 320.5 315.1
Cox 60 60 60 60 59 59 59 59 59 57 57 57 57 54 50 55 55 55 55 55
Underwood 45.5 45.5 39.5 39.5 39.5 39.5 39.5 39.5 39.5 39.5 39.5 39.5 39.5 39.5 39.5 39.5 39.5 39.5 38.5 41.5
Ralston 30 32 32 33 31 32 32 34 34 33 32 32 32 31 33 33.5 32 32 32 31
Glass 24 25 30 29 29 29 29 25 25 24 24 24 24 24 29 24 24 24 25 24
Robinson 22 22 23 22 23 23 23 24 23 23 24 24 23 24 24 24 24 24 23 24
Ritchie 17.5 17.5 17.5 17.5 17.5 17.5 18.5 18.5 17.5 17.5 16.5 16.5 16.5 16.5 16.5 16.5 17.5 17.5 18.5 17.5
Saulsbury 12 12 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6
Walsh 8 8.5 8 9 16 14 7 7 1.5 1.5 2.5 3.5 2.5 1.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 1.5 1 0
J.M. Davis 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 3 3 3 3 4 3 3
Baker 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Miller 0.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Pomerene 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Owen 0 0 0 0 0 20 20 24 24 25 25 24 25 5 25 25 24 24 4 4
Daniels 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Martin 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Gaston 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Gerard 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0
Doheny 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
Jackson 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
(41-60) Presidential Ballot
41st 42nd 43rd 44th 45th 46th 47th 48th 49th 50th 51st 52nd 53rd 54th 55th 56th 57th 58th 59th 60th
J.W. Davis 70 67 71 71 73 71 70.5 70.5 63.5 64 67.5 59 63 62 62.5 58.5 58.5 40.5 60 60
McAdoo 504.9 503.4 483.4 484.4 483.4 486.9 484.4 483.5 462.5 461.5 442.5 413.5 423.5 427 426.5 430 430 495 473.5 469.5
Smith 317.6 318.6 319.1 319.1 319.1 319.1 320.1 321 320.5 320.5 328 320.5 320.5 320.5 320.5 320.5 320.5 331.5 331.5 330.5
Cox 55 56 54 54 54 54 54 54 53 54 55 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54 54
Underwood 39.5 39.5 40 39 38 37.5 38.5 38.5 42 42.5 43 38.5 42.5 40 40 39.5 39.5 38 40 42
Ralston 30 30 31 31 31 31 31 31 57 58 63 93 94 92 97 97 97 40.5 42.5 42.5
Glass 24 28.5 24 24 24 24 24 25 25 24 25 24 25 24 24 25 25 25 25 25
Robinson 24 23 44 44 44 44 45 44 45 44 43 42 43 43 43 43 43 23 23 23
Ritchie 17.5 17.5 17.5 17.5 17.5 16.5 16.5 16.5 16.5 16.5 16.5 16.5 16.5 17.5 16.5 16.5 16.5 16.5 16.5 16.5
Saulsbury 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6
Owen 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 4 24 24
J.M. Davis 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Cummings 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Spellacy 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Walsh 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2.5 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 3
Edwards 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
C.W. Bryan 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 6 7 3 3 3 3 2 2
Battle 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 20 0 0 0 0 0 0
Roosevelt 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
Behrman 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
(61-80) Presidential Ballot
61st 62nd 63rd 64th 65th 66th 67th 68th 69th 70th 71st 72nd 73rd 74th 75th 76th 77th 78th 79th 80th
J.W. Davis 60 60.5 62 61.5 71.5 74.5 75.5 72.5 64 67 67 65 66 78.5 78.5 75.5 76.5 73.5 71 73.5
McAdoo 469.5 469 446.5 488.5 492 495 490 488.5 530 528.5 528.5 527.5 528 510 513 513 513 511 507.5 454.5
Smith 335.5 338.5 315.5 325 336.5 338.5 336.5 336.5 335 334 334.5 334 335 364 366 368 367 363.5 366.5 367.5
Cox 54 49 49 54 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0
Underwood 42 40 39.5 39.5 40 39.5 46.5 46.5 38 37.5 37.5 37.5 38.5 47 46.5 47.5 47.5 49 50 46.5
Ralston 37.5 38.5 56 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3.5 4.5 4.5 6.5 5 4 5
Glass 25 26 25 25 25 25 25 26 25 25 25 25 25 28 28 29 27 21 17 68
Owen 24 24 24 24 24 22 22 22 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 0 0 1
Robinson 23 23 23 24 23 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 21 23 25 25 24 22.5 28.5 29.5
Ritchie 16.5 16.5 16.5 16.5 16.5 16.5 16.5 16.5 16.5 16.5 16.5 16.5 16.5 16.5 16.5 16.5 16.5 16.5 16.5 16.5
Saulsbury 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 6 6 6 6 6 6
C.W. Bryan 2 4 4 3 3 2 3 3 2 3 2 2 3 4 4 4 4 3 3 4.5
Walsh 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 1 0 0 1 2 2 4.5 2 2 2 6 6 4
Ferris 0 0 28 24.5 6.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 17 18 17.5
Walsh 0 0 0 2.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Baker 0 0 0 0 48 55 54 57 56 56 56 57.5 54 5 2 1 1 0 0 0
Wheeler 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 20 0 0 0 0 0 0
Rogers 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Coolidge 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Daniels 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2.5 - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Kevin 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
Roosevelt 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1
Gerard 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0
(81-100) Presidential Ballot
81st 82nd 83rd 84th 85th 86th 87th 88th 89th 90th 91st 92nd 93rd 94th 95th 96th 97th 98th 99th 100th
J.W. Davis 70.5 71 72.5 66 68 65.5 66.5 59.5 64.5 65.5 66.5 69.5 68 81.75 139.25 171.5 183.25 194.75 210 203.5
McAdoo 432 413.5 418 388.5 380.5 353.5 336.5 315.5 318.5 314 318 310 314 395 417.5 421 415.5 406.5 353.5 190
Smith 365 366 368 365 363 360 361.5 362 357 354.5 355.5 355.5 355.5 364.5 367.5 359.5 359.5 354 354 351.5
Glass 73 78 76 72.5 67.5 72.5 71 66.5 66.5 30.5 28.5 26.5 27 37 34 39 39 36 38 35
Underwood 48 49 48.5 40.5 40.5 38 38 39 41 42.5 46.5 45.25 44.75 46.25 44.25 38.5 37.25 38.25 39.5 41.5
Robinson 29.5 28.5 27.5 25 27.5 25 20.5 23 20.5 20 20 20 19 37 31 32 22 25 25 46
Owen 21 21 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 3 20
Ritchie 16.5 16.5 16.5 16.5 16.5 23.5 23 22.5 22.5 16.5 16.5 16.5 16.5 16.5 20.5 21.5 19.5 18.5 17.5 17.5
Ferris 16 12 7.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Walsh 7 4 4 1.5 3 5 4 5 3.5 5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4 2 4 4 6 4 52.5
Saulsbury 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 0 0 0 6 6 6 6
C.W. Bryan 4.5 4.5 5.5 6.5 9.5 7 7 9 9 15 8 8 8 9 9 7 6 5 5 2
Ralston 4 24 24 86 87 92 93 98 100.5 159.5 187.5 196.75 196.25 37 0 0 0 0 0 0
Barnett 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Daniels 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 23 19.5 19 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 24
Roosevelt 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 2 2 1 0 0 0 0
Miller 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Wheeler 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Coyne 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Baker 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 4
Meredith 0 0 0 0 0 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 26 0 0 0 37 75.5
Maloney 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
J.M. Davis 0 0 0 0 0 0 20 20 20 22 4 0 0 20 0 0 0 0 0 0
Cox 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Cummings 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8.5 8.5 8.5 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
Houston 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 9
Callahan 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Copeland 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 17 2 0 0 0 0 0
Stewart 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
Marshall 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 3 2 0
Berry 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
Gerard 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10
(101-103) Presidential Ballot
101st 102nd 103rd Before shifts 103rd After shifts
J.W. Davis 316 415.5 575.5 844
Underwood 229.5 317 250.5 102.5
Walsh 98 123 84.5 58
Glass 59 67 79 23
Robinson 22.5 21 21 20
Meredith 130 66.5 42.5 15.5
McAdoo 52 21 14.5 11.5
Smith 121 44 10.5 7.5
Gerard 16 7 8 7
Hull 2 1 1 1
Daniels 1 2 1 0
Thompson 0 1 1 0
Berry 0 1.5 0 0
Allen 0 1 0 0
C.W. Bryan 0 1 0 0
Ritchie 0.5 0.5 0 0
Owen 23 0 0 0
Cummings 9 0 0 0
Houston 9 0 0 0
Murphree 4 0 0 0
Baker 1 0 0 0
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