1923 FA Cup Final

The 1923 FA Cup Final was an association football match between Bolton Wanderers and West Ham United on 28 April 1923 at the original Wembley Stadium in London. The showpiece match of English football's primary cup competition, the Football Association Challenge Cup (better known as the FA Cup), it was the first football match to be played at Wembley Stadium. King George V was in attendance to present the trophy to the winning team.

Each team had progressed through five rounds to reach the final. Bolton Wanderers won 1–0 in every round from the third onwards, and David Jack scored the lone goal each time. West Ham United faced opposition from the Second Division or lower in each round, the first time this had occurred since the introduction of multiple divisions in the Football League. West Ham took three attempts to defeat Southampton in the fourth round but then easily defeated Derby County in the semi-final, scoring five goals.

The final was preceded by chaotic scenes as vast crowds surged into the stadium, far exceeding its official capacity of approximately 125,000. A crowd estimated at up to 300,000 gained entrance and the terraces overflowed, with the result that spectators found their way into the area around the pitch and even onto the playing area itself. Mounted policemen, including one on a light-coloured horse which became the defining image of the day, had to be brought in to clear the crowds from the pitch and allow the match to take place. The match began 45 minutes late as crowds stood around the perimeter of the pitch. Although West Ham started strongly, Bolton proved the dominant team for most of the match and won 2–0. David Jack scored a goal two minutes after the start of the match and Jack Smith added a controversial second goal during the second half. The pre-match events prompted discussion in the House of Commons and led to the introduction of safety measures for future finals. The match is often referred to as the "White Horse Final" and is commemorated by the White Horse Bridge at the new Wembley Stadium.

1923 FA Cup Final
"Billie" the white horse,
the defining image of the day
Event1922–23 FA Cup
Bolton Wanderers West Ham United
2 0
Date28 April 1923
VenueWembley Stadium, London
RefereeD. H. Asson (Birmingham)
Attendance126,047 (official)
up to 300,000 (estimate)

Route to the final

Bolton Wanderers
Round Opposition Score
1st Norwich City (a) 2–0
2nd Leeds United (h) 3–1
3rd Huddersfield Town (a) 1–1
Huddersfield Town (h) 1–0
4th Charlton Athletic (a) 1–0
Semi-final Sheffield United (n) 1–0

Bolton Wanderers and West Ham United were playing in the First Division and Second Division respectively, and both entered the competition at the first round stage, under the tournament format in place at the time. Bolton had appeared in the final twice before, in 1894 and 1904, but West Ham, who had only joined The Football League in 1919, had never previously progressed further than the quarter finals.[1][2] In the first round, Bolton defeated Norwich City of the Third Division South,[3] in the process recording the club's first away win in the competition since a second round victory over Manchester City in the 1904–05 season.[4][5] After a home win over Leeds United in the second round,[6] Bolton faced one of the First Division's top teams, Huddersfield Town, in the third round. The initial match at Huddersfield's Leeds Road ground ended in a draw, necessitating a replay which Bolton won 1–0.[7][8] In the fourth round Bolton defeated Charlton Athletic by a single goal,[9] and in the semi-final beat Sheffield United by the same score in a match played at Old Trafford, home of Manchester United.[10] Although ticket prices were considered to be extremely high, a crowd of 72,000 attended the match, a new record for an FA Cup semi-final.[4] In every match from the third round onwards, Bolton's single goal was scored by David Jack, which gave him a reputation for having single-handedly steered his team into the final.[11]

West Ham United
Round Opposition Score
1st Hull City (a) 3–2
2nd Brighton & Hove Albion (a) 1–1
Brighton & Hove Albion (h) 1–0
3rd Plymouth Argyle (h) 2–0
4th Southampton (a) 1–1
Southampton (h) 1–1
Southampton (n) 1–0
Semi-final Derby County (n) 5–2

In contrast to Bolton's defensive style, West Ham's cup run was characterised by fast-moving, attacking play, which won them many admirers.[11] The London-based club began the competition away to fellow Second Division team Hull City and won 3–2.[12] In the second round they were held to a draw by Brighton & Hove Albion of the Third Division South, but won the replay 1–0 at home.[13][14] The "Hammers" defeated another Third Division South team, Plymouth Argyle, in the third round,[15] but found the fourth round tough going against Southampton. The first match at West Ham's home, the Boleyn Ground, ended in a 1–1 draw, as did the replay at The Dell in Southampton.[16][17] A second replay was held at Villa Park in Birmingham, home of Aston Villa, and finally produced a winner, as West Ham won 1–0 with a goal from Billy Brown.[18] The goal came in the 70th minute, with a "clever free kick" past the "startled" Herbert Lock in the Saints' goal.[19] In the semi-finals, West Ham took on Derby County at Stamford Bridge, home of Chelsea, and won 5–2.[20] Brown scored two more goals and Billy Moore also scored twice.[21] All five of the teams that West Ham defeated on their way to Wembley played in the Second Division or lower. This made West Ham the first team since the introduction of multiple divisions in The Football League to reach the FA Cup final without facing opposition from the top division.[22]


White Horse Final1923
The crowd was so large that fans swarmed right up to, and even onto, the pitch.

The match was the first event of any kind to take place at Wembley Stadium, which had not been due to open until 1924 but was completed ahead of schedule.[23] After sub-capacity crowds had attended the first three finals after the First World War at Stamford Bridge,[23] The Football Association (The FA) was unconvinced that the match could fill the large capacity of the new stadium and undertook a major advertising campaign, for fans to attend.[24] Despite these fears, the new national stadium, which had been advertised as the greatest venue of its kind and had an unprecedented capacity of 125,000, proved to be a great lure and drew a large number of casual observers.[24] The fact that a London-based team was competing meant that many football fans from all parts of the city chose to attend.[25] The morning newspapers on the day of the match reported that around 5,000 fans were travelling from Bolton and that they were expected to be joined by "at least 115,000 enthusiasts from London and other parts of the country".[26] The easy accessibility of the stadium by public transport and the fine weather were also factors which contributed to the enormous crowd.[25]

The gates were opened at 11:30 am as advertised,[26] three and a half hours before the match was due to begin, and until 1:00 pm the flow of people into the stadium was orderly. By 1:00 pm, however, a vast number of people were pouring into the stadium, and after an inspection by the stadium authorities, the decision was made to close the gates at 1:45 pm. Spectator William Rose said later that the route to the stadium was "seething with people" and that "the nearer I got to the stadium the worse it got, by the time I got there the turnstiles had been closed".[28] Although the information was relayed to various railway stations, thousands of people continued to arrive and mass outside the gates.[29] Organisation within the stadium was poor, and in his report on the match the correspondent for the Daily Mail described the stewarding as "useless" and stated that officials in and around the stadium "seemed to know nothing".[26] Fans were not directed to any specific area, and the tiers in the lower half of the stadium filled up much faster than those higher up.[29]

As the crowds outside the stadium continued to grow, local police stations were mobilised, but by the time officers arrived the crowd was too large for them to take any effective form of action.[31] At 2:15 pm, the crowds outside the stadium rushed at the barriers and forced their way in. Spectators in the lower tiers had to climb the fences to escape the crush and overflowed onto the pitch itself.[29] Spectator Terry Hickey said later that "To put it mildly, the whole thing was a bloody shambles".[28] The crowd was officially reported as 126,047,[32] but estimates of the actual number of fans in attendance range from 150,000[33] to over 300,000.[25] The FA refunded 10% of the total gate money to fans who had pre-purchased tickets but were unable to reach their assigned seats.[24] The roads around the stadium were blocked and the Bolton players were forced to abandon their coach a mile from the stadium and make their way through the crowds.[31] The Times stated that at one point it seemed impossible that the match would ever be able to start, but that when King George V arrived, the mood of the crowd changed. After enthusiastically singing "God Save The King", the crowd began to assist the authorities in clearing the playing area.[25]

"Supportersrellen" in Wembley stadion 1923 Supporter "riots"
Fans flood the pitch

Eventually mounted policemen were brought in to try to clear the crowds from the pitch, including PC George Scorey, who was mounted on a horse named "Billie" (some sources spell the name "Billy"). PC Scorey had not actually been on duty that day but answered a call for emergency assistance as the throng of spectators in the stadium grew.[24] Billie the horse was actually grey, but appeared white in the primitive (high-contrast) black and white newsreel footage of the era.[34] Contrary to what is sometimes claimed, other horses were also involved, but the "white" horse, as the most visible in the news footage, became the defining image of the day.[24][34]

Eventually the police, assisted by appeals from the players for the crowd to calm, were able to manoeuvre the spectators to just beyond the touchline, and the game began approximately 45 minutes late, while fans stood around the perimeter of the pitch.[25]



Dick Pym and two other Bolton players defend their goal.

Both teams employed the 2-3-5 formation typical of the era: two full-backs, three half-backs, comprising one centre-half and two wing-halves, and five forwards, comprising two outside-forwards, two inside-forwards and a centre-forward.[26] West Ham's game plan initially centred on the two fast-moving outside-forwards Dick Richards and Jimmy Ruffell, but Bolton set out from the start to keep the two players contained, rushing at them whenever they got the ball.[11] After just two minutes West Ham half-back Jack Tresadern became entangled in the crowd after taking a throw-in and was unable to return to the pitch immediately. This gave Bolton's David Jack the opportunity to shoot for goal. His shot beat West Ham goalkeeper Ted Hufton to give Bolton the lead, and hit a spectator who was standing pressed against the goal net, knocking him unconscious.[35] Three minutes later Vic Watson received the ball a few yards in front of the Bolton goal but his shot flew over the crossbar.[25] Eleven minutes into the game the crowd surged forward once again and a large number of fans encroached onto the pitch, leading to the suspension of play while the mounted police again cleared the playing area. A number of fans required first aid from members of the British Red Cross while the players looked on and awaited the resumption of play. Policemen patrolled the perimeter of the pitch to keep it clear for the linesmen, after play was resumed.[11]

Soon after play restarted, West Ham's Dick Richards eluded two Bolton defenders and shot for goal. Bolton goalkeeper Dick Pym fumbled the ball but managed to kick it clear before it crossed the goal-line.[11] Bolton continued to dominate the match, and were only prevented from scoring again by a strong performance from West Ham full-back Billy Henderson.[25] When West Ham attacked, however, Bolton were able to quickly switch to a strongly defensive formation, as players changed positions to form a line of five half-backs. This stifled West Ham's attacking style of play and ensured that the Bolton goal was not seriously threatened, and the score remained 1–0 to Bolton until half-time. Due to the crowds that surrounded the pitch, the players were unable to reach the dressing-rooms and instead remained on the pitch for five minutes before starting the second half.[11]

West Ham began the second half as the stronger team, and Vic Watson received the ball in a good goalscoring position but mis-hit his shot.[25] Eight minutes into the second half, Bolton added a second goal in controversial circumstances. Outside-forward Ted Vizard played the ball into a central position and Jack Smith hit the ball past Hufton. West Ham's players claimed that the ball had not entered the goal but rebounded into play from the goalpost, but referee D. H. Asson overruled them, stating that in his view the ball had entered the goal but then rebounded off a spectator. West Ham also claimed that Bolton had received an unfair advantage, as a Bolton fan at pitchside had kicked the ball towards Vizard, but Asson disregarded these claims as well and confirmed Bolton's second goal.[35] At this point the crowd began to sense that Bolton would emerge victorious and many began heading towards the exits.[25] Neither team had any more serious chances to score, and the remainder of the match was largely a stalemate with little inspired play.[11] Late in the game, West Ham captain George Kay attempted to persuade Asson to abandon the match, but Bolton captain Joe Smith reportedly replied "We're doing fine, ref, we'll play until dark to finish the match if necessary".[35] The score remained 2–0 to Bolton until the final whistle. The King presented the FA Cup trophy to Joe Smith and then left the stadium to cheers from the crowd.[25] West Ham trainer Charlie Paynter attributed his team's defeat to the damage the pitch had suffered before kick-off, saying "It was that white horse thumping its big feet into the pitch that made it hopeless. Our wingers were tumbling all over the place, tripping up in great ruts and holes".[23]


Bolton Wanderers2–0West Ham United
Jack Goal 2'
Ja. Smith Goal 53'
Bolton Wanderers[36]
West Ham United[36]
GK England Dick Pym
FB England Bob Haworth
FB England Alex Finney
HB England Harry Nuttall
HB England Jimmy Seddon
HB Wales Billy Jennings
FW England Billy Butler
FW England David Jack
FW Scotland Jack Smith
FW England Joe Smith (c)
FW Wales Ted Vizard
England Charles Foweraker
GK England Ted Hufton
FB England Billy Henderson
FB England Jack Young
HB England Sid Bishop
HB England George Kay (c)
HB England Jack Tresadern
FW Wales Dick Richards
FW England Billy Brown
FW England Vic Watson
FW England Billy Moore
FW England Jimmy Ruffell
England Syd King

Match rules

  • 90 minutes.
  • 30 minutes of extra-time if necessary.
  • Replay if scores still level.
  • No substitutes.


Although around 900 spectators were treated for slight injuries,[37] only 22 were taken to hospital and ten of those were quickly discharged. Two policemen were also injured during the match.[38] The chaotic scenes at the match prompted discussion in the House of Commons, where Home Secretary William Bridgeman paid tribute to the actions of the police and the general behaviour of the crowd. During the debate Oswald Mosley was chastised by the Speaker of the House for characterising the fans present at the stadium as hooligans.[39] Bridgeman was asked to consider opening a public inquiry,[40] but ultimately concluded that the police had dealt successfully with the incident, and that he was happy for the stadium authorities and the police to decide on a plan to prevent similar events from happening again.[38]

David Lloyd George
David Lloyd George gave the toast at the post-match dinner.

A committee examined the stadium a month after the match, and made several recommendations to the stadium authorities. Their proposals included the replacement of the turnstiles with more up-to-date models, the erection of extra gates and railings, and the division of the terraces into self-contained sections, each with its own entrance.[41] In addition, the pre-purchasing of tickets was made compulsory for all future finals, eliminating the possibility that excessive numbers of fans would arrive in the hope of being able to pay at the turnstile.[27][42] The gross gate money for the match was £27,776. After the deduction of the stadium authorities' costs, the Football Association and each of the two clubs took £6,365, although the refunds to fans unable to reach their assigned seats were deducted from the FA's share.[43][44]

After the match the players and officials attended a dinner at which former Prime Minister David Lloyd George proposed the toast. The Bolton players returned home by train and were greeted at Moses Gate railway station by the chairman of Farnworth District Council before going on to a reception hosted by the Mayor.[43] The club presented each of the victorious players with a gold watch.[45] The players from both teams received gold commemorative medals. In 2005 the medal presented to West Ham's George Kay was sold at auction for £4,560,[46] and tickets and programmes from the match have also been star lots at auctions.[47][48]


The image of Billie the white horse remains famous within English football lore, and the match is often referred to as "The White Horse Final".[24][34][48] Billie's rider, George Scorey, was rewarded by the Football Association with free tickets to subsequent finals, but he had no interest in football and did not attend.[23]

In 2005, a public poll chose that the new footbridge near the rebuilt Wembley Stadium would be named the White Horse Bridge.[49] The executive director of the London Development Agency, which organised the poll, stated that the choice of name was appropriate given that the bridge, like the horse, would improve safety for fans at Wembley.[50] In 2007 a play drawn from the reactions of a group of Bolton residents to the events of the final was staged at the Octagon Theatre, Bolton.[51]


  1. ^ "Bolton Wanderers". The Football Club History Database. Retrieved 24 October 2008.
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  26. ^ a b c d Thraves, Andrew. The History of the Wembley FA Cup Final. p. 1.
  27. ^ a b "Countdown to the FA Cup final: 1923 and all that". The Independent. 18 May 2007. Retrieved 28 October 2008.
  28. ^ a b Graham Wellham, Paul Armstrong (Producers), Tony Pastor (Director) (1997). The Essential F.A. Cup Final (Television programme). BBC.
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  30. ^ Collett, Mike. The Complete Record of the FA Cup. pp. 34–35.
  31. ^ a b Collett, Mike (2003). The Complete Record of the FA Cup. Sports Books. p. 34. ISBN 1-899807-19-5.
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  33. ^ Bateson, Bill; Albert Sewell (1992). News of the World Football Annual 1992–93. Harper Collins. p. 219. ISBN 0-85543-188-1.
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  35. ^ a b c "Bolton clinch the Cup". BBC. 1 October 2000. Retrieved 14 October 2008.
  36. ^ a b c d e Thraves, Andrew. The History of the Wembley FA Cup Final. pp. 1–4.
  37. ^ Thraves, Andrew. The History of the Wembley FA Cup Final. p. 3.
  38. ^ a b "Cup Final Crush". The Times. London. 3 May 1923.
  39. ^ "Home Secretary's Inquiries – Praise for Police". The Times. London. 1 May 1923. Retrieved 15 October 2008.
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  45. ^ Nicholas Spencer (23 May 2007). "Wembley's first Cup final achieved iconic status". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 14 October 2008.
  46. ^ "1923 FA Cup Final Medal Fetches £4,500". The Bolton News. 19 November 2005. Retrieved 14 October 2008.
  47. ^ Edward Chadwick (31 October 2006). "Pieces of Whites' FA Cup history up for sale". Lancashire County Publications. Retrieved 16 October 2008.
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  50. ^ Mark Honigsbaum (25 May 2005). "Horse beats Hurst in Wembley bridge contest". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 October 2008.
  51. ^ "And Did Those Feet". BBC. 28 September 2007. Retrieved 14 October 2008.

Further reading

  • Belton, Brian (2006). The Lads of '23: Bolton Wanderers, West Ham United and the 1923 FA Cup Final. Soccerdata. ISBN 978-1-899468-91-1.

External links

2006 FA Cup Final

The 2006 FA Cup Final was a football match played between Liverpool and West Ham United on 13 May 2006 at the Millennium Stadium, Cardiff. It was the final match of the 2005–06 FA Cup, the 125th season of the world's oldest football knockout competition, the FA Cup. Liverpool were participating in their 13th final, they had previously won six and lost six. West Ham were appearing in their fifth final, they had previously won three and lost once. This was the last final to be held at the Millennium Stadium while Wembley Stadium was rebuilt. Liverpool had won the first final to be held at the Millennium Stadium in 2001, when they beat Arsenal 2–1. The match has been called The Gerrard Final and is widely regarded as one of the greatest cup finals in the history of the competition.

As both teams were in the highest tier of English football, the Premier League, they entered the competition in the third round. Matches up to the semi-final were contested on a one-off basis, with a replay taking place if the match ended in a draw. Liverpool's matches varied from close affairs to comfortable victories. They beat Manchester United 1–0 in the fifth round, while they won 7–0 against Birmingham City in the sixth round. The majority of West Ham's matches were close, with their only match to be decided by more than one goal being their 4–2 victory against Blackburn Rovers in the fourth round.

Watched by a crowd of 71,140, West Ham took the lead in the first half when Liverpool defender Jamie Carragher scored an own goal, and striker Dean Ashton scored a few minutes later to make it 2–0 to West Ham. Liverpool scored, courtesy of Djibril Cissé, to make the score 2–1 at half time. They equalised not long after the restart via a Steven Gerrard goal. However, ten minutes later West Ham defender Paul Konchesky gave his team a 3–2 lead. With the match in injury time, Gerrard equalised from distance to make the score 3–3 and force the game into extra time. No further goals were scored in extra time meaning the match was to be decided by a penalty shoot-out. West Ham missed three of their four penalties while Liverpool converted three of four to win the shoot-out 3–1.

The victory meant Liverpool won the FA Cup for the seventh time. They later played against league champions Chelsea in the 2006 FA Community Shield. Given Liverpool had already qualified for Europe via their league position, their UEFA Cup spot was awarded to runners-up West Ham.

Billy Brown (footballer, born 1900)

William Brown (22 August 1900 – 7 January 1985) was an English professional footballer who played in the Football League for West Ham United, Chelsea, Fulham, Stockport County and Hartlepools United.Brown joined West Ham United, a club he had played for as a 16-year-old during World War I, from Hetton in 1921. He made his debut in the final match of the 1920–21 season, a scoreless away game against South Shields on 7 May 1921.Brown was often used as a utility player, but predominantly featured in the inside-forward positions during his Football League career. He played at inside-right, partnering Dick Richards, in the 1923 FA Cup Final against Bolton Wanderers. A month later, he played for England in a reserve international against France. He gained a full cap the following year, scoring in a 2–2 draw against Belgium at The Hawthorns that saw him playing alongside West Ham teammate Ted Hufton.He made 71 appearances and scored 20 goals for the east London club before leaving for Chelsea in 1924. He went on to play for Fulham, Stockport County and Hartlepools United, where he scored 3 goals in 13 appearances. He saw out his playing days with spells at Annfield Plain and Blackhall Colliery Welfare. He also played cricket for Blackhall, signing on 14 March 1933 and becoming captain of the team. He ended his time with the club when he took on a role as a swimming baths superintendent at Easington Colliery.

Billy Butler (footballer)

William Butler (17 March 1900 – 11 July 1966) was an English professional footballer who was most famously a winger for Bolton Wanderers in the 1920s.

Billy Butler was born in Atherton, Lancashire. He had never played for any form of organised football team prior to joining the army. He played as a centre-forward for his regiment and on leaving the army he joined his hometown club Atherton at the age of 19. He moved to Bolton Wanderers in April 1920 and, on moving to the right wing, soon established himself. He played in the 1923 FA Cup Final victory over West Ham United, the famous first Wembley final, and the following year, on 12 April 1924, made his England debut against Scotland.

It was to be his only appearance for the England national team, but he was back at Wembley again for the 1926 FA Cup Final win over Manchester City, and picked up his third winners medal in 1929, scoring the opening goal in the 2–0 defeat of Portsmouth.

On Bolton's relegation in 1933, Butler asked for a transfer and left to join his former Bolton teammate Joe Smith, who by now was manager of Reading. He had played 449 games for Bolton, scoring 74 goals.

In August 1935, Smith left to manage Blackpool and Butler took over the reins at Reading and carried on with the good work Smith had started. Reading never finished below 6th place in Division Three (South) during Butler's tenure and were heading for another top five finish when he resigned in February 1939.

He became manager of Guildford City, but then World War II intervened and Butler joined the RAF as a PT instructor. With the war over, Butler was appointed manager of Torquay United in August 1945, but left Plainmoor in May 1946 before league football had resumed.

He subsequently moved to South Africa to manage Johannesburg Rangers, where he discovered the future Wolves defender Eddie Stuart and future Blackpool and England left winger Bill Perry. He was later a coach for the Pietermaritzburg & District Football Association and then a coach for the Rhodesian Football Association

Butler died in Durban in July 1966, aged 66.

Billy Jennings (Welsh footballer)

William Jennings (25 February 1893 – 1968) was a Welsh football player best known for playing for Bolton Wanderers, for whom he made over 250 appearances in The Football League. He played for the team in the 1923 FA Cup Final. He also played 11 times for the Welsh national team and later spent a two-year spell in charge of Cardiff City.

Bolton Wanderers F.C.

Bolton Wanderers Football Club ( (listen)) is a professional football club in Bolton, Greater Manchester, England, which competes in EFL League One, the third tier of English football.

Formed as Christ Church Football Club in 1874, it adopted its current name in 1877 and was a founder member of the Football League in 1888. Bolton have spent more seasons than any other club in the top flight without winning the title. They finished third in the First Division in 1891–92, 1920–21 and 1924–25.

Bolton won three FA Cups in the 1920s, and a fourth in 1958. The club spent a season in the Fourth Division in 1987-88 before regaining top-flight status in 1995 and qualifying for the UEFA Cup twice, reaching the last 32 in 2005–06 and the last 16 in 2007–08.

The club played at Burnden Park for 102 years from 1895. On 9 March 1946, 33 Bolton fans lost their lives in the Burnden Park disaster when a human crush occurred. In 1997, Bolton moved to the Reebok Stadium, renamed the Macron Stadium in 2014, and recently changed the name to University of Bolton Stadium.

D. H. Asson

David H. Asson was the match referee at the first FA Cup Final to be staged at Wembley Stadium in 1923.

David Jack

David Bone Nightingale Jack (3 April 1898 – 10 September 1958) was an English footballer who played as an inside forward. He scored 267 goals from 521 appearances in the Football League playing for Plymouth Argyle, Bolton Wanderers and Arsenal. He was the first footballer to be transferred for a fee in excess of £10,000, was the first to score at Wembley – in the 1923 FA Cup Final – and was capped nine times for England. After retiring as a player he managed Southend United, Middlesbrough and Shelbourne.

Dick Richards (footballer)

Richard William Richards (14 February 1890 – 29 January 1934) was a Welsh footballer who played in various forward positions in the Football League for Wolverhampton Wanderers, West Ham United and Fulham, and internationally for Wales.

George Scorey

George Albert Scorey (30 December 1882 – 14 April 1965) was an English soldier and later policeman. He is best known as the rider of the white horse at the 1923 FA Cup Final, played between Bolton Wanderers and West Ham United on 28 April 1923, the first FA Cup final to be played at the original Wembley Stadium, which became known as the "White Horse Final".

Ibrox Stadium

Ibrox Stadium is a football stadium on the south side of the River Clyde in the Ibrox district of Glasgow. The home of Rangers F.C., Ibrox is the third largest football stadium in Scotland, with an all-seated capacity of 50,817.Opened as Ibrox Park in 1899, it suffered a disaster in 1902 when a wooden terrace collapsed. Vast earthen terraces were built in its place, and a main stand, now a listed building, in 1928. A British record crowd of 118,567 gathered in January 1939 for a league match with Celtic. After the Ibrox disaster of 1971, the stadium was largely rebuilt. The vast bowl-shaped terracing was removed and replaced by three rectangular, all-seated stands by 1981. After renovations were completed in 1997, the ground was renamed Ibrox Stadium.

Ibrox hosted the Scotland national football team when Hampden Park was redeveloped in the 1990s, and three Scottish cup finals in the same period, and has also been a concert venue.

Jack Smith (footballer, born 1895)

John Reid Smith (2 April 1895 – 1 September 1946) was a Scottish footballer, who played as a centre forward and helped Bolton Wanderers win the FA Cup in 1923 and 1926. His son (Jack Denver Smith) and Grandson (Barry Smith) also played for the Bolton Wanderers.

Joe Smith (football forward, born 1889)

Joseph Smith (25 June 1889 – 11 August 1971) was an English professional football player and manager. He is tenth in the list of England's top-flight goal scorers with 243 league goals to his name. He was manager of Blackpool for 23 years and guided them to victory in the 1953 FA Cup Final, the only time they have won the competition since their 1887 inception.

A forward, he began his career at Crewe Alexandra, but did not play a first team game for the club. He instead made his name at Bolton Wanderers, where with 277 league and cup goals between 1908 and 1927, he is the club's second highest goalscorer, only eight behind Nat Lofthouse. He won the Second Division title with Bolton 1908–09, and played in FA Cup final victories in 1923 and 1926. He later hit 61 goals in 70 league games for Stockport County, before being appointed player-manager at Darwen in 1929. Two years later he was appointed manager of Reading, and narrowly missed out on promotion during his four seasons in charge. He became Blackpool manager in August 1935, and remained in this position until April 1958. He led the "Seasiders" to one victory in three FA Cup final appearances (1948, 1951, and 1953), and also led the club to runners-up spot in the Second Division in 1936–37, second place in the First Division in 1955–56, and runners-up in the 1953 FA Charity Shield.

Queen's Park F.C.

Queen's Park Football Club is a Scottish football club based in Glasgow. The club is currently the only fully amateur club in the Scottish Professional Football League; its amateur status is reflected by its Latin motto, 'Ludere Causa Ludendi' – 'To Play for the Sake of Playing'.

Queen's Park is the oldest association football club in Scotland, having been founded in 1867, and is the oldest outside England and Wales. Queen's Park is also the only Scottish football club to have played in the FA Cup Final, achieving this feat in both 1884 and 1885.

The club's home is a Category 4 stadium; the all-seated Hampden Park in South East Glasgow, which is also the home of the Scottish national team. With 10 titles, Queen's Park has won the Scottish Cup the third most times of any club, behind Rangers and Celtic, although their last such win was in 1893.

They currently play in League Two.

Walter Rowley

Walter James Rowley (14 April 1891 – 22 March 1976) was an English footballer around World War I and a manager during and after World War II. He spent some 47 years playing and coaching in the Football League.

He played for Oldham Athletic and Bolton Wanderers, spending 13 years with the latter club. After spending many years as part of Bolton's back-room staff, he was appointed as manager in August 1944. He spent six years in charge before retiring due to ill health. He coached Middlesbrough from June 1952 to February 1954, before again stepping side due to illness. His final management role was at Shrewsbury Town from July 1955 until June 1957.

Wembley Stadium (1923)

The original Wembley Stadium (; formerly known as the Empire Stadium) was a football stadium in Wembley Park, London, which stood on the same site now occupied by its successor, the new Wembley Stadium. The demolition in 2003 of its famous Twin Towers upset many people worldwide. Debris from the stadium was used to make the Northala Fields in Northolt, London.

Wembley hosted the FA Cup final annually, the first in 1923, the League Cup final annually, five European Cup finals, the 1966 World Cup Final, and the final of Euro 96. Brazilian footballer Pelé once said of the stadium: "Wembley is the cathedral of football. It is the capital of football and it is the heart of football," in recognition of its status as the world's best-known football stadium. The stadium hosted the 1948 Summer Olympics, rugby league’s Challenge Cup final, and the 1992 and 1995 Rugby League World Cup Finals. It also hosted numerous music events, including the 1985 Live Aid charity concert, and in professional wrestling hosted the WWF’s SummerSlam in 1992.

West Ham United F.C.

West Ham United Football Club is an English professional football club based in Stratford, East London. They compete in the Premier League, the top tier of English football. The club play at the London Stadium, having moved from their former home the Boleyn Ground in 2016.

The club was founded in 1895 as Thames Ironworks and reformed in 1900 as West Ham United. They moved to the Boleyn Ground in 1904, which remained their home ground for more than a century. The team initially competed in the Southern League and Western League before joining the Football League in 1919. They were promoted to the top flight in 1923, when they were also losing finalists in the first FA Cup Final held at Wembley. In 1940, the club won the inaugural Football League War Cup.

West Ham have been winners of the FA Cup three times, in 1964, 1975, and 1980, and have also been runners-up twice, in 1923, and 2006. The club have reached two major European finals, winning the European Cup Winners' Cup in 1965 and finishing runners-up in the same competition in 1976. West Ham also won the Intertoto Cup in 1999. They are one of eight clubs never to have fallen below the second tier of English football, spending 61 of 93 league seasons in the top flight, up to and including the 2018–19 season. The club's highest league position to date came in 1985–86, when they achieved third place in the then First Division.

Three West Ham players were members of the 1966 World Cup final-winning England team: captain Bobby Moore and goalscorers Geoff Hurst and Martin Peters.

Whitburn, Tyne and Wear

Whitburn is a village in South Tyneside, on the coast of North East England. It lies within the metropolitan borough of South Tyneside, close to the border with Sunderland, in the ceremonial county of Tyne and Wear. Historically part of County Durham, the village has a population of 5,235.

White Horse Bridge

The White Horse Bridge is a footbridge that crosses the tracks at Wembley Stadium railway station leading up to Wembley Stadium in Wembley Park, England. It was designed by Steve Chilton for architects Marks Barfield and engineered by Halcrow. It replaced an old concrete footbridge which was probably built for the British Empire Exhibition. The project also included the construction of a public square.

The bridge's name was chosen in May 2005, after a BBC Five Live poll. It is named after a grey (though appearing white in old black and white photographs and films) Metropolitan Police horse, named 'Billy', that was used to restore order after the huge numbers of spectators (estimated at 200,000) who turned up to witness the 1923 FA Cup Final spilled onto the pitch before kick off.

That game, the first to be held at the old Wembley Stadium, was won by Bolton Wanderers, beating West Ham United 2–0.Unlike the old footbridge, the new structure was designed to cope with up to 12,000 people an hour, the estimated number of users during match days. The bridge and square opened in 2008. They now give easy access from the Chiltern Line to London Designer Outlet.

Qualifying rounds
FA competitions
Football League
Lower leagues
Related to national team
FA Cup Finals
League Cup Finals
FA Community Shields
EFL Championship play-offs Finals
EFL League One play-offs Final
Football League Trophy Finals
FA Cup Finals
Football League War Cup Final
League Cup Finals
FA Charity Shields
European Cup Winners' Cup Finals
Football League play-off Finals
Other matches

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