1920 Republican National Convention

The 1920 National Convention of the Republican Party of the United States nominated Ohio Senator Warren G. Harding for President and Massachusetts Governor Calvin Coolidge for Vice President. The convention was held in Chicago, Illinois, at the Chicago Coliseum from June 8 to June 12, 1920.

Many Republicans sought the nomination, including General Leonard Wood, Illinois Governor Frank Lowden and California Senator Hiram Johnson. Dark horse Harding, however, was nominated. Many wanted to nominate Wisconsin Senator Irvine L. Lenroot for Vice President, but Coolidge was nominated instead, because he was known for his response to the Boston Police Strike in 1919.

The convention also adopted a platform opposed to the accession of the United States to the League of Nations.[1] The plank was carefully drawn up by Henry Cabot Lodge to appease opponents of the League such as Johnson, while still allowing eventual American entry into the League.[2]

1920 Republican National Convention
1920 presidential election
RP1920
RV1920
Nominees
Harding and Coolidge
Convention
Date(s)June 8–12, 1920
CityChicago, Illinois
VenueChicago Coliseum
Candidates
Presidential nomineeWarren G. Harding
of Ohio
Vice Presidential nomineeCalvin Coolidge
of Massachusetts
Republican National Convention, 1920 LCCN2007663528 (cropped1)
Inside the convention hall
Party banner decorating the balcony 276036v (cropped)
Delegates gathered on the convention floor
Harding front porch campaign
After being nominated, Harding delivers an acceptance speech from the front porch of his home

Republican candidates

At the start of the convention, the race was wide open.[3] General Leonard Wood, Illinois Governor Frank Lowden, and California Senator Hiram Johnson were considered the three most likely nominees.[4] Ohio Senator Warren G. Harding had been a front-runner, but his star had faded by the time of the convention.[4] Many expected a dark horse to be chosen, such as Pennsylvania Governor William Cameron Sproul, Pennsylvania Senator Philander C. Knox, Kansas Governor Henry Justin Allen, Massachusetts Senator Henry Cabot Lodge, or 1916 nominee Charles Evans Hughes.[3] Sproul in particular had been gaining momentum at the expense of Lowden, the candidate of the conservative wing of the party.[4] The issue of joining the League of Nations took center stage at the convention, with some speculating that Johnson would bolt the party if the platform endorsed the League.[4] The convention adjourned for the night after four ballots produced no clear leader, and many states stuck to favorite-son candidates.[5]

As the balloting continued the next day, Wood, Lowden, and Johnson remained in the lead, and party leaders worked to find a candidate acceptable to both the progressive and conservative wings of the party.[6] Conservatives strongly opposed Wood, while Lowden was opposed by the progressive wing of the party.[6] Harding emerged as a moderately conservative candidate acceptable to the progressive wing of the party, and as the convention remained deadlocked, Harding emerged as a strong compromise candidate.[6] After the eighth ballot, the convention recessed, During the recess, Harding's managers lobbied Lowden's supporters and others to support Harding.[6] Harding was also helped by the fact that the Democrats had nominated James M. Cox of Ohio, and Republicans did not want to give the Democrats a home state advantage in electorally critical Ohio.[7]

Harding jumped into the lead on the ninth ballot, and clinched the nomination on the tenth ballot. Many thought that Johnson could have stopped the Harding movement by throwing his support behind Knox, who could have displaced Harding as the compromise candidate. Johnson disliked Harding's policies and disliked Harding personally, and was friends with Knox. However, Johnson never released his supporters, and Harding took the nomination.[6][7]

Presidential Balloting, RNC 1920
Ballot 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Before shifts 10 After shifts
Warren G. Harding 65.5 (6.67%) 59 (6.00%) 58.5 (5.95%) 61.5 (6.25%) 78 (7.93%) 89 (9.04%) 105 (10.67%) 133 (13.52%) 374.5 (38.06%) 644.7 (65.52%) 692.2 (70.35%)
Leonard Wood 287.5 (29.22%) 289.5 (29.42%) 303 (30.79%) 314.5 (31.96%) 299 (30.39%) 311.5 (31.66%) 312 (31.7%) 299 (30.39%) 249 (25.3%) 181.5 (18.45%) 156 (15.85%)
Frank Lowden 211.5 259.5 282.5 289 303 311.5 311.5 307 121.5 28 11
Hiram Johnson 133.5 146 148 140.5 133.5 110 99.5 87 82 80.8 80.8
William C. Sproul 84 78.5 79.5 79.5 82.5 77 76 76 78 0 0
Nicholas Murray Butler 69.5 41 25 20 4 4 2 2 2 2 2
Calvin Coolidge 34 32 27 25 29 28 28 30 28 5 5
Robert M. La Follette 24 24 24 22 24 24 24 24 24 24 24
Jeter C. Pritchard 21 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Miles Poindexter 20 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 14 2 0
Howard Sutherland 17 15 9 3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
Herbert C. Hoover 5.5 5.5 5.5 5 6 5 4 5 6 10.5 9.5
Scattering 11 9 7 9 9 9 6 6 5 5.5 3.5

Harding's nomination, said to have been secured in negotiations among party bosses in a "smoke-filled room," was engineered by Harry M. Daugherty, Harding's political manager, who after Harding's election became United States Attorney General. Before the convention, Daugherty was quoted as saying, "I don't expect Senator Harding to be nominated on the first, second, or third ballots, but I think we can afford to take chances that about 11 minutes after two, Friday morning of the convention, when 15 or 12 weary men are sitting around a table, someone will say: 'Who will we nominate?' At that decisive time, the friends of Harding will suggest him and we can well afford to abide by the result." Daugherty's prediction described essentially what occurred, but historians Richard C. Bain and Judith H. Parris argue that Daugherty's prediction has been given too much weight in narratives of the convention.

Vice Presidential nomination

Before Harding was nominated, Johnson, Kansas Governor Henry Justin Allen, Massachusetts Governor Calvin Coolidge, Wisconsin Senator Irvine Lenroot, Kentucky Governor Edwin P. Morrow, and Harding himself were all seen as possible vice presidential nominees.[6] Once the presidential nomination was finally settled, Harding and the party bosses asked Johnson to join the ticket as a progressive balance to Harding.[8] When Johnson turned down the offer, they approached Lenroot, who accepted.[8] However, when Illinois Senator Medill McCormick stood up to nominate Lenroot, several delegates began to shout for Coolidge.[8] A groundswell of support built up for Coolidge, who won the nomination over Lenroot.[8] Coolidge, who was not at the convention during the vice presidential nomination, agreed to join the ticket.[8]

Vice Presidential Balloting, RNC 1920
Calvin Coolidge 674.5
Irvine L. Lenroot 146.5
Henry J. Allen 68.5
Henry W. Anderson 28
Asle J. Gronna 24
Hiram Johnson 22.5
Jeter C. Pritchard 11
Abstaining 9

Source for convention coverage: Richard C. Bain and Judith H. Parris, Convention Decisions and Voting Records (Washington DC: Brookings Institution, 1973), pp. 200–208.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Platform Adopted With Anti-Wilson League Plank; 'My Victory,' Says Johnson; Balloting Starts Today; Wood Men Claim the Lead; Midnight Move for Lowden". New York Times. 11 June 1920. Retrieved 9 October 2015.
  2. ^ Miller, Karen A.J. (1999). Populist Nationalism: Republican Insurgency and American Foreign Policy Making, 1918-1925. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 87–89. Retrieved 9 October 2015.
  3. ^ a b "Platform Fights Starts as the Convention Opens; Johnson Flatly Demands Repudiation of the League; Apathy in the Convention; Lodge Permanent Chairman". New York Times. 9 June 1920. Retrieved 9 October 2015.
  4. ^ a b c d "Text of the Republican Platform, Except League Plank; Dispute Over That, and Threat of a Bolt by Borah; Wood Men See Gains; New Yorkers Balk at Butler Pledge". New York Times. 10 June 1920. Retrieved 9 October 2015.
  5. ^ "Four Ballots, No Nomination, Wood Leads; Has 314 1/2 Votes, Lowden 289 and Johnson 140 1/2; Midnight Conferences Brings No Results". New York Times. 12 June 1920. Retrieved 9 October 2015.
  6. ^ a b c d e f "Harding Nominated for President on the Tenth Ballot at Chicago; Coolidge Chosen for Vice President". New York Times. 13 June 1920. Retrieved 9 October 2015.
  7. ^ a b Miller, pp. 90-91
  8. ^ a b c d e "Calvin Coolidge, 29th Vice President (1921-1923)". US Senate. US Senate. Retrieved 9 October 2015.

Bibliography

External links

Preceded by
1916
Chicago, Illinois
Republican National Conventions Succeeded by
1924
Cleveland, Ohio
1920 Republican Party presidential primaries

The 1920 Republican presidential primaries were the selection process by which voters of the Republican Party chose its nominee for President of the United States in the 1920 U.S. presidential election. The nominee was selected through a series of primary elections and caucuses culminating in the 1920 Republican National Convention held from June 8 to June 12, 1920, in Chicago, Illinois.

1920 United States presidential election

The United States presidential election of 1920 was the 34th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 2, 1920. In the first election held after the end of World War I and the ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment, Republican Senator Warren G. Harding of Ohio defeated Democratic Governor James M. Cox of Ohio.

Incumbent Democratic President Woodrow Wilson privately hoped for a third term, but party leaders were unwilling to re-nominate the unpopular incumbent. Former President Theodore Roosevelt had been the front-runner for the Republican nomination, but he died in 1919 without leaving an obvious heir to his progressive legacy. With both Wilson and Roosevelt out of the running, the major parties turned to little-known dark horse candidates from the state of Ohio, a swing state with a large number of electoral votes. Cox won the 1920 Democratic National Convention on the 44th ballot, defeating William Gibbs McAdoo, A. Mitchell Palmer, and several other candidates. Harding emerged as a compromise candidate between the conservative and progressive wings of the party, and he clinched his nomination on the tenth ballot of the 1920 Republican National Convention.

The election was dominated by the American social and political environment in the aftermath of World War I, which was marked by a hostile response to certain aspects of Wilson's foreign policy and a massive reaction against the reformist zeal of the Progressive Era. The wartime economic boom had collapsed and the country was deep in a recession. Wilson's advocacy for America's entry into the League of Nations in the face of a return to non-interventionist opinion challenged his effectiveness as president and overseas, there were wars and revolutions. At home, the year 1919 was marked by major strikes in the meatpacking and steel industries and large-scale race riots in Chicago and other cities. Anarchist attacks on Wall Street produced fears of radicals and terrorists. The Irish Catholic and German communities were outraged at Wilson's perceived favoritism of their traditional enemy Great Britain, and his political position was critically weakened after he suffered a stroke in 1919 that left him severely disabled.

Harding virtually ignored Cox in the race and essentially campaigned against Wilson by calling for a "return to normalcy". Harding won a landslide victory, sweeping every state outside of the South and becoming the first Republican since the end of Reconstruction to win a former state of the Confederacy. Harding's victory margin of 26.2% in the popular vote remains the largest popular-vote percentage margin in presidential elections since the unopposed re-election of James Monroe in 1820, though other candidates have since exceeded his share of the popular vote. Cox won just 34.1% of the popular vote, and Socialist Eugene V. Debs won 3.4% of the vote. As the election was the first in which women had the right to vote in all 48 states, the total popular vote increased dramatically, from 18.5 million in 1916 to 26.8 million in 1920. Harding would die in 1923 and be succeeded by Vice President Calvin Coolidge, while the Democratic vice presidential nominee, Franklin D. Roosevelt, would later win the 1932 presidential election.

Calvin Coolidge Presidential Library and Museum

The Calvin Coolidge Presidential Library and Museum is the presidential library of 30th U.S. President Calvin Coolidge.

Calvin Galusha Coolidge

Calvin Galusha Coolidge (September 22, 1815 – December 15, 1878) was an American farmer and politician.

Charles E. Pickett

Charles Edgar Pickett (January 14, 1866 – July 20, 1930) was a two-term Republican U.S. Representative from Iowa's 3rd congressional district.

Charles W. Eldridge

Charles Wadleigh Eldridge (born October 16, 1877) was a Massachusetts businessman and politician who served in both branches of the Massachusetts legislature as a member of the Board of Aldermen and as the seventeenth Mayor of Somerville, Massachusetts.

Eldridge was a delegate to the 1920 Republican National Convention.In addition to his duties as an officeholder, starting in 1893, Eldridge worked as a salesman for Chase & Sanborn.Eldridge had married Edith daughter of Harriett J. Brown. Eldridge had five children.Raymon W. Eldridge; Arthur F. Eldridge; Warren P. Eldridge; Louise Eldridge; Charlotte Eldridge

Electoral history of Herbert Hoover

Electoral history of Herbert Hoover, 31st President of the United States (1929–1933) and 3rd United States Secretary of Commerce (1921–1928).

1920 Democratic presidential primaries:

Unpledged delegates - 165,460 (29.85%)

A. Mitchell Palmer - 91,543 (16.51%)

James M. Cox - 86,194 (15.55%)

William McAdoo - 74,987 (13.53%)

Gilbert M. Hitchcock - 37,452 (6.76%)

Edward I. Edwards - 28,470 (5.14%)

Herbert Hoover - 28,042 (5.06%)

William Jennings Bryan - 20,893 (3.77%)

Robert G. Ross - 13,179 (2.38%)

James W. Gerard - 4,706 (0.85%)1920 Republican presidential primaries:

Hiram W. Johnson - 965,651 (30.30%)

Leonard Wood - 710,863 (22.30%)

Frank O. Lowden - 389,127 (12.21%)

Herbert Hoover - 303,815 (9.53%)

Unpledged delegates - 298,109 (9.35%)

Edward R. Wood - 257,841 (8.09%)

Warren G. Harding - 144,762 (4.54%)

John J. Pershing - 45,640 (1.43%)

Howard Sutherland - 33,849 (1.06%)1920 Republican National Convention (Presidential tally):

1928 Republican presidential primaries:

Herbert Hoover - 2,045,928 (49.73%)

Frank O. Lowden - 1,317,799 (32.03%)

George W. Norris - 259,548 (6.31%)

James Eli Watson - 228,795 (5.56%)

Guy D. Goff - 128,429 (3.12%)

Frank B. Willis - 84,461 (2.05%)

Calvin Coolidge (inc.) - 12,985 (0.32%)

Charles G. Dawes - 12,297 (0.30%)1928 Republican National Convention (Presidential tally):

Herbert Hoover - 837 (76.86%)

Frank O. Lowden - 74 (6.80%)

Charles Curtis - 64 (5.88%)

James Eli Watson - 45 (4.13%)

George W. Norris - 24 (2.20%)

Guy D. Goff - 18 (1.65%)

Calvin Coolidge (inc.) - 17 (1.56%)

Blank - 5 (0.46%)

Charles G. Dawes - 4 (0.37%)

Charles Evans Hughes - 1 (0.09%)United States presidential election, 1928:

Herbert Hoover/Charles Curtis (R) - 21,427,123 (58.2%) and 444 electoral votes (40 states carried)

Al Smith/Joseph Taylor Robinson (D) - 15,015,464 (40.8%) and 87 electoral votes (8 states carried)

Norman Thomas/James H. Maurer (Socialist) - 267,478 (0.7%)

William Z. Foster/Benjamin Gitlow (Communist) - 48,551 (0.1%)

Others - 48,396 (0.1%)1932 Republican presidential primaries:

Joseph I. France - 1,137,948 (47.50%)

Herbert Hoover (incumbent) - 861,602 (35.96%)

George W. Norris - 139,514 (5.82%)

Jacob S. Coxey - 100,844 (4.21%)

Hiram W. Johnson - 64,464 (2.69%)

Olin J. Ross - 48,867 (2.04%)

Unpledged delegates - 1,236 (0.05%)

Others - 6,126 (0.26%)1932 Republican National Convention (Presidential tally):

Herbert Hoover (incumbent) - 1,127 (97.92%)

John J. Blaine - 13 (1.13%)

Calvin Coolidge - 5 (0.43%)

Joseph I. France - 4 (0.35%)

Charles W. Dawes - 1 (0.09%)

James W. Wadsworth - 1 (0.09%)United States presidential election, 1932

Franklin D. Roosevelt/John Nance Garner (D) - 22,821,277 (57.4%) and 472 electoral votes (42 states carried)

Herbert Hoover/Charles Curtis (R) (inc.) - 15,761,254 (39.7%) and 59 electoral votes (6 states carried)

Norman Thomas/James H. Maurer (Socialist) - 884,885 (2.2%)

William Z. Foster/James H. Ford (Communist) - 103,307 (0.3%)

William D. Upshaw/Frank S. Regan (Prohibition) - 81,905 (0.2%)

William Hope Harvey/Frank Hemenway (Liberty) - 53,425 (0.1%)

Verne L. Reynolds/J.W. Aiken (Socialist Labor) - 33,276 (0.1%)

Others - 12,569 (0.1%)1936 Republican presidential primaries:

William E. Borah - 1,478,676 (44.48%)

Alf Landon - 729,908 (21.96%)

Frank Knox - 527,054 (15.85%)

Earl Warren - 350,917 (10.56%)

Stephen A. Day - 155,732 (4.69%)

Warren E. Green - 44,518 (1.34%)

Leo J. Chassee - 18,986 (0.57%)

Herbert Hoover - 7,750 (0.23%)1940 Republican presidential primaries

Thomas E. Dewey - 1,605,754 (49.76%)

Jerrold L. Seawell - 538,112 (16.68%)

Robert A. Taft - 516,428 (16.00%)

Unpledged - 186,157 (5.77%)

Charles L. McNary - 133,488 (4.14%)

R. N. Davis - 106,123 (3.29%)

Arthur H. Vandenberg - 100,651 (3.12%)

Wendell Willkie - 21,140 (0.66%)

Franklin D. Roosevelt (inc.) - 9,496 (0.29%)

Arthur H. James - 8,172 (0.25%)

Herbert Hoover - 1,082 (0.03%)

John W. Bricker - 188 (0.01%)1940 Republican National Convention (Presidential tally):First ballot:

Thomas E. Dewey - 360

Robert A. Taft - 189

Wendell Willkie - 105

Arthur H. Vandenberg - 76

Arthur H. James - 74

Joseph William Martin - 44

Scattering - 40

Hanford MacNider - 34

Frank E. Gannett - 33

Styles Bridges - 28

Herbert Hoover - 17Second ballot:

Thomas E. Dewey - 338

Robert A. Taft - 203

Wendell Willkie - 171

Arthur H. Vandenberg - 73

Arthur H. James - 66

Hanford MacNider - 34

Frank E. Gannett - 30

Scattering - 29

Joseph William Martin - 26

Herbert Hoover - 21

Styled Bridges - 9Third ballot:

Thomas E. Dewey - 315

Wendell Willkie - 259

Robert A. Taft - 212

Arthur H. Vandenberg - 72

Arthur H. James - 59

Herbert Hoover - 32

Hanford McNider - 28

Frank E. Gannett - 11

Scattering - 11

Styles Bridges - 1Fourth ballot:

Wendell Willkie - 306

Robert A. Taft - 254

Thomas E. Dewey - 250

Arthur H. Vandenberg - 61

Arthur H. James - 56

Herbert Hoover - 31

Scattering - 11

Frank E. Gannett - 4

Styles Bridges - 1Fifth ballot:

Wendell Willkie - 429

Robert A. Taft - 377

Arthur H. James - 59

Thomas E. Dewey - 57

Arthur H. Vandenberg - 42

Herbert Hoover - 20

Scattering - 11

Handorf MacNider - 4

Frank E. Gannett - 1Sixth ballot (before shifts):

Wendell Willkie - 655

Robert A. Taft - 318

Thomas E. Dewey - 11

Herbert Hoover - 10

Scattering - 5

Frank E. Gannett - 1

Florence E. S. Knapp

Florence Elizabeth Smith Knapp (March 25, 1875 – October 26, 1949) was an American politician who was the first woman elected to a state cabinet office in New York state.

Frank Orren Lowden

Frank Orren Lowden (January 26, 1861 – March 20, 1943) was a Republican Party politician who served as the 25th Governor of Illinois and as a United States Representative from Illinois. He was also a candidate for the Republican presidential nominations in 1920 and 1928.

Born in Sunrise Township, Minnesota, Lowden practiced law in Chicago after graduating from the University of Iowa. He emerged as a local Republican leader and served in the House of Representatives from 1906 to 1911. He served as Governor of Illinois from 1917 to 1921, earning wide notice for his reorganization of state government and his handling of the Chicago race riot of 1919.

At the 1920 Republican National Convention, Lowden was the preferred candidate of many of the party's conservatives. His supporters coalesced behind Warren G. Harding as a compromise candidate, and Harding won both the nomination and the 1920 presidential election. Lowden was nominated for vice president at the 1924 Republican National Convention, but he declined the nomination. Lowden was a candidate for president at the 1928 Republican National Convention, but Herbert Hoover won the nomination on the first ballot.

Hold Me in Paradise

"Hold Me in Paradise" is the eighth episode of the first season of the HBO television series Boardwalk Empire, which premiered on November 7, 2010. It was written by staff writer Meg Jackson and directed by Brian Kirk. Nucky attends the Republican National Convention in Chicago, while Eli fills in for him in Atlantic City.

J. Hampton Moore

Joseph Hampton Moore (March 8, 1864 – May 2, 1950) was the 108th and 111th Mayor of Philadelphia and a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives from Pennsylvania.

John F. O'Brien (secretary of state)

John F. O'Brien (c. 1857 – April 23, 1927) was an American businessman and politician. He was Secretary of State of New York from 1903 to 1906.

John J. Lyons

John J. Lyons (c. 1881 – February 27, 1945) was the Secretary of State of the State of New York.

John Meek Whitehead

John Meek Whitehead was a politician in the state of Wisconsin.

Joseph E. Warner

Joseph Everett Warner (May 16, 1884 – May 30, 1958) was a U.S. politician who served as the Speaker of the Massachusetts House of Representatives from 1919 to 1920, as the Attorney General of Massachusetts from 1928 to 1935, and as a Justice of the Massachusetts Superior Court from 1940 until his death in 1958.

Warner was born in Taunton, Massachusetts, on May 16, 1884, to Richard Everett Warner and Ida Evelyn (Briggs) Warner.

Warner graduated from Harvard College and Harvard Law School.Warner was a delegate to the 1920 Republican National Convention.In 1940 Gov. Leverett Saltonstall appointed Warner to be a Justice of the Massachusetts Superior Court.Warner died in his home of a heart attack on May 30, 1958.

Leonard Wood

Leonard Wood (October 9, 1860 – August 7, 1927) was a United States Army major general, physician, and public official. He served as the Chief of Staff of the United States Army, Military Governor of Cuba, and Governor General of the Philippines. He began his military career as an army doctor on the frontier, where he received the Medal of Honor. During the Spanish–American War, he commanded the Rough Riders, with Theodore Roosevelt as his second-in-command. Wood was bypassed for a major command in World War I, but then became a prominent Republican Party leader and a leading candidate for the 1920 presidential nomination.

Born in Winchester, New Hampshire, Wood became an army surgeon after earning a Doctor of Medicine degree from Harvard Medical School. He received the Medal of Honor for his role in the Apache Wars and became the personal physician to the President of the United States. At the outbreak of the Spanish–American War, Wood and Roosevelt organized the Rough Riders, a volunteer cavalry regiment. Wood was promoted to the rank of brigadier general during the war and fought in the Battle of San Juan Hill and other engagements. After the war, Wood served as the Military Governor of Cuba, where he instituted improvements to medical and sanitary conditions. President William Howard Taft made Wood the Army Chief of Staff in 1910, and Wood held that position until 1914. Several Republican leaders supported Wood for the role of commander of the American Expeditionary Forces in World War I, but the Woodrow Wilson administration selected John J. Pershing.

After Roosevelt's death in 1919, many of Roosevelt's former supporters backed Wood for the presidential nomination at the 1920 Republican National Convention. Wood received the most votes on the first four ballots of the convention, but the Republicans nominated Warren G. Harding for president. Wood retired from the army in 1921 and was appointed Governor General of the Philippines later that year. He held that position until his death in 1927.

Biographer Jack Lane sums up his importance:

Wood played a significant role in shaping many of the United States's major developments in the early twentieth century: progressivism, expansionism and colonialism, military reform, preparedness and American intervention in World War I, and the election of 1920. He was particularly representative of an era that valued moral and physical strength. Although admired by his generation for his honesty, forthrightness, and his intense and vigorous approach to life, he fell short of greatness.

Philander C. Knox

Philander Chase Knox (May 6, 1853 – October 12, 1921) was an American lawyer, bank director and politician. A member of the Republican Party, Knox served in the Cabinet of three different presidents and represented Pennsylvania in the United States Senate.

Born in Brownsville, Pennsylvania, Knox became a prominent attorney in Pittsburgh, forming the law firm of Knox and Reed. With the industrialists Henry Clay Frick and Andrew Mellon, Knox also served as a director of the Pittsburgh National Bank of Commerce. In early 1901, he accepted appointment as United States Attorney General. Knox served under President William McKinley until McKinley was assassinated in September 1901, and Knox continued to serve under President Theodore Roosevelt until 1904, when he resigned to accept appointment to the Senate.

Knox won re-election to the Senate in 1905 and unsuccessfully sought the 1908 Republican presidential nomination. In 1909, President William Howard Taft appointed Knox to the position of United States Secretary of State. From that post, Knox reorganized the State Department and pursued dollar diplomacy, which focused on encouraging and protecting U.S. investments abroad. Knox returned to private practice in 1913 after Taft lost re-election. He won election to the Senate in 1916 and played a role in the Senate's rejection of the Treaty of Versailles. Knox was widely seen as a potential compromise candidate at the 1920 Republican National Convention, but the party's presidential nomination instead went to Warren G. Harding. While still serving in the Senate, Knox died in October 1921.

Plymouth Notch Cemetery

The Plymouth Notch Cemetery in Plymouth Notch, Vermont, is noted as the burial place for 30th President of the United States Calvin Coolidge, as well as his wife Grace, children (Calvin Coolidge, Jr. 1908-1924, John Coolidge 1906-2000), and other members of the Coolidge family.

Other notable burials include Howard E. Armstrong, who served as Secretary of State of Vermont from 1949 to 1965.

Thomas B. Dunn

Thomas Byrne Dunn (March 16, 1853 in Providence, Rhode Island – July 2, 1924 in Rochester, Monroe County, New York) was an American businessman and politician.

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