1920 Democratic National Convention

The 1920 Democratic National Convention was held at the Civic Auditorium in San Francisco, California from June 28 to July 6, 1920. It resulted in the nomination of Governor James M. Cox of Ohio for President and Assistant Secretary of the Navy Franklin D. Roosevelt from New York for Vice President.

Neither President Woodrow Wilson, in spite of his failing health, nor former Secretary of State and three-time presidential candidate William Jennings Bryan had entirely given up hope that their party would turn to them, but neither was, in the event, formally nominated. In addition to the eventual nominee, Cox, the other high-scoring candidates as the voting proceeded were: Secretary of the Treasury William McAdoo and Attorney General Mitchell Palmer. On the forty-fourth ballot, Governor James M. Cox of Ohio was nominated for the Presidency.[1] Cora Wilson Stewart of Kentucky, head of the National Education Association's new illiteracy commission, was chosen to second the nomination for Governor Cox.[2] Mrs. Stewart was selected to replace Kentucky Congressman J. Campbell Cantrill, highlighting the candidate's support for what would become the 19th Amendment.[3]

The platform adopted by the convention supported the League of Nations, albeit with qualifications, and women's suffrage.

1920 Democratic National Convention
1920 presidential election
James M. Cox 1920 (3x4)
Roosevelt20 (3x4)
Nominees
Cox and Roosevelt
Convention
Date(s)June 28 – July 6, 1920
CitySan Francisco, California
VenueCivic Auditorium
Candidates
Presidential nomineeJames M. Cox of Ohio
Vice Presidential nomineeFranklin D. Roosevelt of New York

Democratic candidates

Thomas Riley Marshall headshot
Vice President
Thomas R. Marshall
(Not Formally Nominated)
GuestPassDemNatlConvSanFran06281920
A guest ticket purchased for June 28 of the Democratic National Convention in San Francisco.

Although William Gibbs McAdoo (Wilson's son-in-law and former Treasury Secretary) was the strongest candidate, Wilson blocked his nomination in hopes a deadlocked convention would demand that he run for a third term, even though he was seriously ill, physically immobile, and in seclusion at the time. The Democrats, meeting in San Francisco between June 28 and July 6 (the first time a major party held its nominating convention in an urban center on the Pacific coast), nominated another newspaper editor from Ohio, Governor James M. Cox, as their presidential candidate, and 38-year-old Assistant Secretary of the Navy Franklin D. Roosevelt, a fifth cousin of the late president Theodore Roosevelt, for vice-president.

Fourteen names were placed in nomination. Early favorites for the nomination had included McAdoo and Attorney General Alexander Mitchell Palmer. Others placed in nomination included New York Governor Al Smith, United Kingdom Ambassador John W. Davis, New Jersey Governor Edward I. Edwards, and Oklahoma Senator Robert Latham Owen.

History was made at the convention when Laura Clay, a delegate from Kentucky and co-founder of the Kentucky Equal Rights Association and the Democratic Women's Club of Kentucky, became the first woman to have her name placed into nomination for President at the convention of a major political party.[4] She was also the first woman to receive a convention delegation's vote for the presidency.[5]

Vice presidential nomination

Cox asked the delegates to support former Assistant Navy Secretary Franklin D. Roosevelt, because, as some thought, he had a "magic name." FDR was nominated by voice vote and received the nomination by acclamation.[7] After it became clear that Roosevelt was the choice of party leaders, former Ambassador David R. Francis of Missouri, Major General Lawrence Tyson of Tennessee, Governor Sam V. Stewart of Montana, former Governor James H. Hawley of Idaho, former FTC Chairman Joseph Davies of Wisconsin, T.T. Vaughan of Oregon, and oil tycoon Edward L. Doheny of California all withdrew their candidacies.[8]

See also

References

  1. ^ Pietrusza, David (2007). 1920: The Year of the Six Presidents. New York: Carroll and Graf. ISBN 978-0-7867-1622-7.
  2. ^ Baldwin, Yvonne Honeycutt (2006). Cora Wilson Stewart and Kentucky's Moonlight Schools: Fighting for Literacy in America. Lexington: The University Press of Kentucky. p. 127.
  3. ^ Nelms, Willie (1997). Cora Wilson Stewart: Crusader Against Illiteracy. Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Co. p. 102. Retrieved September 26, 2017.
  4. ^ Eblen, Tom (July 14, 2017). "Meet the Kentuckians who led the fight for women's rights a century ago". Lexington Herald-Leader. Retrieved September 26, 2017.
  5. ^ "First Woman to Get Vote for President - Laura Clay". Chicago Tribune. July 26, 1920. Retrieved September 26, 2017.
  6. ^ http://partners.nytimes.com/library/politics/camp/200703convention-dem-ra.html Accessed: April 23, 2016
  7. ^ Staff writer(s) (July 6, 1920). "Roosevelt Given Second Place; Convention Ends". San Francisco Chronicle. San Francisco, CA. Retrieved February 26, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. open access
  8. ^ "Democratic Ticket is Cox and Roosevelt; New Yorker Unopposed as Running Mate; Bryan is Sad, But Other Leaders Rejoice". New York Times. July 7, 1920. Retrieved October 8, 2015.

External links

Preceded by
1916
St. Louis, Missouri
Democratic National Conventions Succeeded by
1924
New York, New York
1920 Democratic Party presidential primaries

The 1920 Democratic presidential primaries were the selection process by which voters of the Democratic Party chose its nominee for President of the United States in the 1920 U.S. presidential election. Ohio Governor James M. Cox was selected as the nominee through a series of primary elections and caucuses culminating in the 1920 Democratic National Convention held from June 28 to July 6, 1920, in San Francisco, California.

1920 United States presidential election

The United States presidential election of 1920 was the 34th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 2, 1920. In the first election held after the end of World War I and the ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment, Republican Senator Warren G. Harding of Ohio defeated Democratic Governor James M. Cox of Ohio.

Incumbent Democratic President Woodrow Wilson privately hoped for a third term, but party leaders were unwilling to re-nominate the unpopular incumbent. Former President Theodore Roosevelt had been the front-runner for the Republican nomination, but he died in 1919 without leaving an obvious heir to his progressive legacy. With both Wilson and Roosevelt out of the running, the major parties turned to little-known dark horse candidates from the state of Ohio, a swing state with a large number of electoral votes. Cox won the 1920 Democratic National Convention on the 44th ballot, defeating William Gibbs McAdoo, A. Mitchell Palmer, and several other candidates. Harding emerged as a compromise candidate between the conservative and progressive wings of the party, and he clinched his nomination on the tenth ballot of the 1920 Republican National Convention.

The election was dominated by the American social and political environment in the aftermath of World War I, which was marked by a hostile response to certain aspects of Wilson's foreign policy and a massive reaction against the reformist zeal of the Progressive Era. The wartime economic boom had collapsed and the country was deep in a recession. Wilson's advocacy for America's entry into the League of Nations in the face of a return to non-interventionist opinion challenged his effectiveness as president and overseas, there were wars and revolutions. At home, the year 1919 was marked by major strikes in the meatpacking and steel industries and large-scale race riots in Chicago and other cities. Anarchist attacks on Wall Street produced fears of radicals and terrorists. The Irish Catholic and German communities were outraged at Wilson's perceived favoritism of their traditional enemy Great Britain, and his political position was critically weakened after he suffered a stroke in 1919 that left him severely disabled.

Harding virtually ignored Cox in the race and essentially campaigned against Wilson by calling for a "return to normalcy". Harding won a landslide victory, sweeping every state outside of the South and becoming the first Republican since the end of Reconstruction to win a former state of the Confederacy. Harding's victory margin of 26.2% in the popular vote remains the largest popular-vote percentage margin in presidential elections since the unopposed re-election of James Monroe in 1820, though other candidates have since exceeded his share of the popular vote. Cox won just 34.1% of the popular vote, and Socialist Eugene V. Debs won 3.4% of the vote. As the election was the first in which women had the right to vote in all 48 states, the total popular vote increased dramatically, from 18.5 million in 1916 to 26.8 million in 1920. Harding would die in 1923 and be succeeded by Vice President Calvin Coolidge, while the Democratic vice presidential nominee, Franklin D. Roosevelt, would later win the 1932 presidential election.

A. Mitchell Palmer

Alexander Mitchell Palmer (May 4, 1872 – May 11, 1936), best known as A. Mitchell Palmer, was United States Attorney General from 1919 to 1921. He is best known for overseeing the Palmer Raids during the Red Scare of 1919–20.

After graduating from Swarthmore College, Palmer established a legal practice in Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania. He became a member of the Democratic Party and won election to the United States House of Representatives, serving from 1909 to 1915. He influenced the Revenue Act of 1913, which lowered the tariff and implemented a federal income tax. Palmer sought election to the Senate in 1914, but finished third behind incumbent Republican Boies Penrose and Progressive candidate Gifford Pinchot. During World War I, he served as Alien Property Custodian, taking charge of the seizure of enemy property.

Palmer became Attorney General under President Woodrow Wilson in 1919. In the aftermath of World War I, the nation experienced a strong reaction against Communists and anarchists known as the First Red Scare. An anarchist named Luigi Galleani conducted a series of bombings and attempted to assassinate Palmer and other prominent individuals. During the Red Summer of 1919, the United States also experienced numerous race riots and labor tensions. In reaction to this domestic unrest, Palmer created the General Intelligence Unit and recruited J. Edgar Hoover to head the new organization. Beginning in November 1919, Palmer launched a series of raids that rounded up and deported numerous suspected radicals. Though the American public initially supported the raids, Palmer's raids earned backlash from civil rights activists and legal scholars. He received further backlash when a series of attacks on May Day 1920 that he had raised grave concerns about did not materialize.

Palmer sought the presidential nomination at the 1920 Democratic National Convention, but he faced strong opposition from labor groups and the nomination went to James M. Cox. He resumed the private practice of law and remained active in Democratic politics until his death in 1936.

Andrew R. Brodbeck

Andrew R. Brodbeck (April 11, 1860 – February 27, 1937) was a Democratic member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania.

Andrew R. Brodbeck was born in Jefferson, Pennsylvania. He was engaged in agricultural pursuits, and taught in the public schools of York County from 1878 to 1880. He moved to Hanover, Pennsylvania, in 1880 and engaged in the farm implement and fertilizer business until 1896. He served as sheriff of York County from 1896 to 1899. He was a member of the board of directors of various business enterprises. He was an unsuccessful candidate for election in 1910.

Brodbeck was elected as a Democrat to the Sixty-third Congress, but was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1914. He was again elected to the Sixty-fifth Congress. He was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1918. He was a delegate at large to the 1920 Democratic National Convention. He retired in 1920 and died in Hanover. Interment in Mount Olivet Cemetery.

Bill Graham Civic Auditorium

The Bill Graham Civic Auditorium (formerly San Francisco Civic Auditorium) is a multi-purpose arena in San Francisco, California, named after promoter Bill Graham. The arena holds 8,500 people.

Carter Glass

Carter Glass (January 4, 1858 – May 28, 1946) was an American newspaper publisher and Democratic politician from Lynchburg, Virginia. He represented Virginia in both houses of Congress and served as the United States Secretary of the Treasury under President Woodrow Wilson. He played a major role in the establishment of the U.S. financial regulatory system, helping to establish the Federal Reserve System and the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.

After working as a newspaper editor and publisher, Glass won election to the Senate of Virginia in 1899. He was a delegate to the Virginia Constitutional Convention of 1902, where he was an influential advocate of both progressive and segregationist policies. Glass won election to the United States House of Representatives in 1902 and became Chairman of the House Committee on Banking and Currency in 1913. Working with President Wilson, he passed the Federal Reserve Act, which established a central banking system for the United States. Glass served as Secretary of the Treasury from 1918 until 1920, when he accepted an appointment to represent Virginia in the United States Senate. Glass was a favorite son candidate for the presidential nomination at the 1920 Democratic National Convention.

Glass served in the Senate from 1920 until his death in 1946, becoming Chairman of the Senate Appropriations Committee in 1933. He also served as president pro tempore of the Senate from 1941 to 1945. He co-sponsored the 1933 Banking Act, also known as the Glass–Steagall Act, which created the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation and enforced the separation of investment banking firms and commercial banks. An ardent supporter of states' rights, Glass opposed much of the New Deal and clashed with President Franklin D. Roosevelt over the control of federal appointments in Virginia.

Electoral history of Franklin D. Roosevelt

Electoral history of Franklin D. Roosevelt, 32nd President of the United States (1933–1945); 44th Governor of New York (1929–1932).

James A. Parsons

James A. Parsons (ca. 1868 in Steuben County, New York – March 4, 1945 in Albany, New York) was an American lawyer and politician.

James M. Cox

James Middleton Cox (March 31, 1870 – July 15, 1957) was the 46th and 48th Governor of Ohio, a U.S. Representative from Ohio, and the Democratic nominee for President of the United States in the election of 1920. He founded the chain of newspapers that continues today as Cox Enterprises, a media conglomerate.

Born and raised in Ohio, Cox began his career as a newspaper copy reader before becoming an assistant to Congressman Paul J. Sorg. As owner of the Dayton Daily News, Cox introduced several innovations and crusaded against the local Republican Party boss. He served in the United States House of Representatives from 1909 to 1913 before winning election as Governor of Ohio. As governor, Cox introduced a series of progressive reforms and supported Woodrow Wilson's handling of World War I and its aftermath. He was chosen as the Democratic nominee for president on the forty-fourth ballot of the 1920 Democratic National Convention. Running on a ticket with Franklin D. Roosevelt, Cox suffered the worst defeat in presidential election history as the country accepted Republican nominee Warren G. Harding's call for a "return to normalcy" after the Wilson years.

Cox retired from public office after the 1920 election to focus on his media conglomerate, which expanded into several cities. By 1939, his media empire extended from Dayton to Miami. He remained active in politics, supporting Roosevelt's campaigns and attending the 1933 London Economic Conference.

John Cosgrove (Missouri politician)

John Cosgrove (September 12, 1839 – August 15, 1925) was a Democratic Representative from Missouri's 6th congressional district. He served from March 4, 1883 – March 4, 1885.

Cosgrove was born near Alexandria Bay in Jefferson County, New York on September 12, 1839. He attended schools in Redwood, New York, and then traveled in the western United States, where his activities included mining for gold. He later taught school, studied law in Watertown, New York, and was admitted to the bar in 1863.

During the American Civil War Cosgrove was rejected for military service after he failed his physical exam, but he joined a unit of the National Guard. he attained the rank of first lieutenant, and served on the Canada–US border during the increased security measures which followed the Confederate attack in Vermont that came to be called the St. Albans Raid.

Cosgrove moved to Boonville, Missouri in 1865 and was Boonville city attorney from 1870 to 1871 and prosecuting attorney of Cooper County, Missouri in 1872. He served as a delegate to the Democratic National Conventions in 1872.

He was twice more city attorney of Boonville, first from April 1877 to April 1878, and then from April 1879 to April 1881.

Cosgrove was elected as a Democrat to the Forty-eighth Congress (March 4, 1883 – March 4, 1885). He was renominated in 1884, but withdrew before election day.

After leaving Congress Cosgrove resumed the practice of law in Boonville. He served on the local school board for several years, and was a delegate to the 1920 Democratic National Convention.

Cosgrove died in Boonville on August 15, 1925. He was buried at Walnut Grove Cemetery in Boonville.

John Joseph Seerley

John Joseph Seerley (March 13, 1852 – February 23, 1931) was a one-term Democratic U.S. Representative from Iowa's 1st congressional district in southeastern Iowa.

Born on a farm near Toulon, Illinois, Seerley moved to Iowa in 1854 with his parents, who settled on a farm in Keokuk County.

He attended the common schools, and graduated from the University of Iowa at Iowa City in 1875.

While serving as principal of Iowa City High School in 1876, he enrolled in the University of Iowa College of Law, graduating in 1877.

He was admitted to the bar in 1877 and commenced practice in Burlington, Iowa.

He served as City solicitor of Burlington from 1885 to 1890.

In 1888, he won the Democratic nomination to challenge incumbent Republican Representative John H. Gear, who was seeking re-election to a second term representing Iowa's 1st district. This would be the first of three consecutive races between the two. Gear won the 1888 general election. Two years later, however, Seerley unseated Gear as part of the 1890 democratic landslide, becoming one of six Democratic U.S. House members from Iowa in the Fifty-second Congress. In 1892, however, Gear again ran against Seerley. Like all four Democratic freshmen from Iowa, Seerley lost his bid for re-election. He served in Congress from March 4, 1891 to March 3, 1893.

Seerley resumed the practice of law in Burlington, serving again as City solicitor from 1893 to 1895. He was also interested in banking and agricultural pursuits. He remained active in Democratic Party activities, serving as a delegate to the 1920 Democratic National Convention.

Seerley died in Burlington, on February 23, 1931. He was interred in Aspin Grove Cemetery.

His son and namesake, Major John Joseph Seerley Jr. (1897–1943) served with distinction in World War I and World War II, losing his life while serving in the latter.

He was the grandfather of George Irving Bell.

Joseph Taylor Robinson

Joseph Taylor Robinson (August 26, 1872 – July 14, 1937), also known as Joe T. Robinson, was an American politician from Arkansas. A member of the Democratic Party, he served as the 23rd Governor of Arkansas and as the Majority Leader of the United States Senate. He was also the Democratic vice presidential nominee in the 1928 presidential election.

After studying law at the University of Virginia, Robinson returned to Arkansas, winning election to the Arkansas General Assembly. He won election to the United States House of Representatives, serving from 1903 to 1913. He won election as Governor of Arkansas in 1912, but resigned from that position in 1913 to take a seat in the Senate. In the Senate, Robinson established himself as a progressive and strong supporter of President Woodrow Wilson. Robinson served as the chairman of the 1920 Democratic National Convention and won election as the Senate Minority Leader in 1923. He sought the Democratic presidential nomination in the 1924 election and was nominated as the Democratic vice presidential nominee in 1928. The Democratic ticket of Al Smith and Robinson lost in a landslide to the Republican ticket of Herbert Hoover and Charles Curtis.

The Democrats took control of the Senate after the 1932 Senate elections and elected Robinson as Senate Majority Leader. He passed Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal programs through the Senate, alienating some of his colleagues with his autocratic style. In the midst of debate over the Judicial Procedures Reform Bill of 1937, Robinson died of heart failure.

Laura Clay

Laura Clay (February 9, 1849 – June 29, 1941), co-founder and first president of the Kentucky Equal Rights Association, was a leader of the American women's suffrage movement. She was one of the most important suffragists in the South, favoring the state’s rights approach to suffrage. A powerful orator, she was active in the Democratic Party and had important leadership roles in local, state and national politics. In 1920 at the Democratic National Convention, she was one of two women, alongside Cora Wilson Stewart, to be the first women to have their names placed into nomination for the presidency at the convention of a major political party.

Ogle Marbury

Ogle Marbury (August 23, 1882 – October 3, 1973) was an American jurist who served as Chief Judge of the supreme court of the U.S. state of Maryland, the Court of Appeals.

Timothy T. Ansberry

Timothy Thomas Ansberry (December 24, 1871 – July 5, 1943) was a U.S. Representative from Ohio.

Born in Defiance, Ohio, Ansberry attended the public schools.

He graduated from the University of Notre Dame, South Bend, Indiana, in June 1893.

He was admitted to the bar and commenced practice in Defiance, Ohio.

He was in the Justice of the Peace 1893-1895.

He served as prosecuting attorney of Defiance County 1895-1903.

He was an unsuccessful candidate for election in 1904 to the Fifty-ninth Congress.

Ansberry was elected as a Democrat to the Sixtieth and to the three succeeding Congresses and served from March 4, 1907, until January 9, 1915, when he resigned to accept a judicial position.

He served as chairman of the Committee on Elections No. 1 (Sixty-second Congress).

He was appointed associate judge of the Ohio Court of Appeals, in which capacity he served until his resignation in 1916.

He served as delegate to the 1920 Democratic National Convention at San Francisco and the 1924 Democratic National Convention at New York.

He moved to Washington, D.C., in 1916 and engaged in the practice of law until his death.

He died in New York City, July 5, 1943.

He was interred in Mount Olivet Cemetery (Washington, D.C.)

Tom Yon

Thomas Alva Yon (March 14, 1882 – February 16, 1971) was a U.S. Representative from Florida.

Yon was born near Blountstown, Florida. At the age of five his family moved to a farm in Jackson County, Florida. Yon attended rural schools and graduated from Lanier Southern Business College in Macon, Georgia, in 1903. He returned to Blountstown the same year and engaged in mercantile pursuits until 1906. He engaged as a traveling salesman at Tallahassee, Florida from 1906 to 1927. He served as delegate to the 1920 Democratic National Convention.

Yon was elected as a Democrat to the U.S. House of Representatives in the 1926 election, and was twice reelected, serving from March 4, 1927 to March 4, 1933, in the 70th, 71st, and 72nd Congresses. He was an unsuccessful candidate for renomination in 1932. He was a supporter of the building of Naval Air Station Pensacola.

Yon served as a special and commercial agent in the Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce of the United States Department of Commerce in Washington, D.C. from 1933 to 1940. He served as assistant investigator in the Division of Investigation of the General Accounting Office from 1941 until his retirement in January 1946. Yon engaged in development and sale of his Florida real estate holdings after retirement. He died in Tallahassee, Florida in 1971, and was interred in Oakland Cemetery.

Whitmell P. Martin

Whitmell Pugh Martin (August 12, 1867 – April 6, 1929) was a U.S. Representative from Louisiana. Although he later served most of his congressional career as a Democrat, Martin was first elected as a "Bull Moose" Progressive in 1914. He is the only individual ever to represent Louisiana in Congress as a member of that party.

Born near Napoleonville, Assumption Parish, Louisiana, to Robert Campbell Martin and Margerite Chism (Littlejohn) Martin, Whitmell attended the public schools and was privately tutored. He graduated from the Louisiana State University in 1888. He was a professor of chemistry at Kentucky Military Institute in 1889 and 1890. He worked as a chemist for Imperial Sugar at Sugar Land, Texas, in 1890 and 1891.

Martin studied law at the University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, in 1891 and 1892. He was admitted to the bar in 1892 and commenced practice in Napoleonville, Louisiana. He moved to Thibodaux, Louisiana, the same year and continued the practice of law. From 1894 to 1900, he was superintendent of schools for Lafourche Parish, Louisiana. On April 14, 1896 he married Amy Williamson. He served as district attorney for the 20th judicial district of Louisiana from 1900 to 1906 and judge of the same district from 1906 to 1914.

Elected in 1914 as a "Bull Moose" Progressive to the Sixty-fourth and Sixty-fifth Congresses, Martin was the last non-Democrat to represent Louisiana in Congress prior to the election of Republican David C. Treen, also from Louisiana's 3rd congressional district, in 1972. Martin was the only individual to represent Louisiana in Congress during the 20th century without being a member of either the Democratic Party or the Republican Party. In 1916 he narrowly won re-election against Sheriff Wade O. Martin, Sr. by 99 votes, less than a percent separating the two lead candidates.

In 1918, he sought re-election as a Democrat to the Sixty-sixth Congress, and continued as a Democrat through the ensuing five congressional elections, all of them uncontested. Martin thus served in Congress from March 4, 1915 until his death in Washington, D.C., on April 6, 1929. He was a delegate, representing his congressional district, to the 1920 Democratic National Convention in San Francisco. Martin was an Episcopalian as well as a Freemason.Martin was interred in St. John's Episcopal Cemetery, Thibodaux, Louisiana.

Wilbur W. Marsh

Wilbur W. Marsh (July 14, 1862 - December 23, 1929), was treasurer of the Democratic National Committee.

William Gibbs McAdoo

William Gibbs McAdoo Jr. (October 31, 1863 – February 1, 1941) was an American lawyer and statesman. McAdoo was a leader of the Progressive movement and played a major role in the administration of President Woodrow Wilson. A member of the Democratic Party, he also represented California in the United States Senate.

Born in Marietta, Georgia, McAdoo moved to Knoxville, Tennessee in his youth and graduated from the University of Tennessee. He established a legal practice in Chattanooga, Tennessee before moving to New York City in 1892. He gained notoriety as the president of the Hudson and Manhattan Railroad Company and served as the vice chairman of the Democratic National Committee. McAdoo worked on Wilson's successful 1912 presidential campaign and served as the United States Secretary of the Treasury from 1913 to 1918. He married Wilson's daughter, Eleanor, in 1914. McAdoo presided over the establishment of the Federal Reserve System and helped prevent an economic crisis after the outbreak of World War I. After the U.S. entered the war, McAdoo also served as the Director General of Railroads. McAdoo left Wilson's Cabinet in 1919, co-founding the law firm of McAdoo, Cotton & Franklin.

McAdoo sought the Democratic presidential nomination at the 1920 Democratic National Convention but was blocked by his father-in-law Woodrow Wilson. In 1922, McAdoo left his law firm and moved to California. He sought the Democratic presidential nomination again in 1924, but the 1924 Democratic National Convention nominated John W. Davis. He was elected to the Senate in 1932 but was defeated in his bid for a second term. McAdoo died of a heart attack in 1941 while traveling to the third inauguration of Franklin D. Roosevelt.

(1-22) Presidential Ballot
1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th 21st 22nd
James M. Cox 134 159 177 178 181 195 295.5 315 321.5 321 332 404 428.5 443.5 468.5 454.5 442 458 468 456.5 426.5 430
William Gibbs McAdoo 266 289 323.5 335 357 368.5 384 380 386 385 380 375.5 363.5 355.5 344.5 337 332 330.5 327.5 340.5 395.5 372.5
A. Mitchell Palmer 256 264 251.5 254 244 265 267 262 257 257 255 201 193.5 181 167 164.5 176 174.5 179.5 178 144 166.5
Alfred E. Smith 109 101 92 96 95 98 4 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Edward I. Edwards 42 34 32.5 31 31 30 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Thomas R. Marshall 37 36 36 34 29 13 14 12 7 7 7 7 7 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Robert L. Owen 33 29 22 32 34 36 35 36 37 37 35 34 32 34 31 34 36 38 37 41 36 35
John W. Davis 32 31.5 28.5 31 29 29 33 32 32 34 33 31.5 29.5 33 32 52 57 42 31 36 54 52
Edwin T. Meredith 27 26 26 28 27 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Carter Glass 26.5 25.5 27 27 27 27 27 27 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 25 27 26 26 26 26 25
Homer Cummings 25 27 26 24 21 20 19 18 18 19 19 8 7 7 19 20 19 19 19 10 7 6
Furnifold M. Simmons 24 25 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
James W. Gerard 21 12 11 2 0 0 0 1 1 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0
John Sharp Williams 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Gilbert M. Hitchcock 18 16 16 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Champ Clark 9 6 7 8 9 7 8 6 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 2 2
Francis Burton Harrison[6] 6 6 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Leonard Wood 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
William Jennings Bryan 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Bainbridge Colby 1 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Josephus Daniels 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
William Randolph Hearst 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Oscar Underwood 0.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Woodrow Wilson 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
(23-44) Presidential Ballot
23rd 24th 25th 26th 27th 28th 29th 30th 31st 32nd 33rd 34th 35th 36th 37th 38th 39th 40th 41st 42nd 43rd 44th
James M. Cox 425 429 424 424.5 423.5 423 404.5 400.5 391.5 391 380.5 379.5 376.5 377 386 383.5 468.5 490 497.5 540.5 568 699.5
William Gibbs McAdoo 364.5 364.5 364.5 371 371.5 368.5 394.5 403.5 415.5 421 421 420.5 409 399 405 405.5 440 467 460 427 412 270
A. Mitchell Palmer 181.5 177 169 167 166.5 165.5 166 165 174 176 180 184 222 241 202.5 211 74 19 12 8 7 1
John W. Davis 50.5 54.5 58.5 55.5 60.5 62.5 63 58 57.5 55.5 56 54 33 28 50.5 50 71.5 76 55.5 49.5 57.5 52
Robert L. Owen 34 33 34 33 34 35.5 33 33 34 34 34 37 38.5 36 33 33 32 33 35 34 34 34
Carter Glass 25 25 25 25 25 24 24 24 12.5 9.5 13 7.5 5 4 1 1 0 0 24 24 5.5 1.5
Homer Cummings 5 5 4 3 3 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 2 2 2 3 2 0
Champ Clark 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2.5 2.5 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 0
Annette Abbott Adams 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Eugene C. Bonniwell 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
William Jennings Bryan 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Laura Clay 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Irvin S. Cobb 1.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Bainbridge Colby 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1
Josephus Daniels 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Walker Hines 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Andrieus A. Jones 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Ring Lardner 0.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
James H. Lewis 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Thomas R. Marshall 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
John J. Pershing 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Joseph T. Robinson 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Cora Wilson Stewart 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Oscar Underwood 0 1 9 9 4 6 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
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