1919 Estonian Constituent Assembly election

The Estonian Constituent Assembly (Estonian: Asutav kogu) was elected on 5–7 April 1919,[1] called by the Estonian Provisional Government during the Estonian War of Independence. The Assembly was elected by party-list proportional representation in one nationwide district using the D'Hondt method.[2] Eligible voters included soldiers at the front. The elections were won by left-wing and centrist parties.[3]

Estonian parliamentary election, 1919

7 April 1919

120 seats in the Constituent Assembly
61 seats were needed for a majority
  Jaan Tonisson1928
Leader August Rei Otto August Strandman Jaan Tõnisson
Party Social Democratic Workers' Labour Party People's Party
Last election 9 seats 4 seats 7 seats
Seats won 41 30 25
Seat change +32 (+16.2%) +26 (+17.3%) +18 (+7.6%)
Popular vote 152,341 114,879 94,892
Percentage 32.6% 24.6% 20.3%

Prime Minister of the Provisional Government before election

Konstantin Päts
Country People's Union

Elected Prime Minister

Otto August Strandman
Labour Party


Estonian Constituent Assembly, Opening Session on 23 April 1919.

The 120 members of the Constituent Assembly met at the opening session on 23 April 1919, the birthday of the Estonian Parliament[1] and elected the chairman, Social Democrat August Rei. On 7 May the Assembly passed the Public Elementary Schools Act: The principle of compulsory and free primary 6-year elementary school education was established.[4]

On 8 May 1919 the Estonian provisional government resigned, and the first fully democratically elected Government of Estonia headed by Prime Minister Otto Strandman (Estonian Labor Party) took office. On 15 May the assembly reaffirmed the Estonian Declaration of Independence, aimed at the international community for recognizing Estonia as an independent state.

On 4 June 1919 the Assembly adopted a temporary Constitution of Estonia, and on 10 October 1919 The Land Reform Act was passed which confiscated and redistributed the Baltic German estates, ending the 700 years possession of the regions that the Germans had gained after the Livonian Crusade.[5]

On 13 February the Peace Treaty of Tartu was ratified, signed by Estonia and Russian SFSR on 2 February. The first Constitution of Estonia was adopted on 15 June 1920. After the constitution had entered into effect and the first parliamentary elections were held, the Constituent Assembly disbanded itself on 20 December 1920.[3]


Party Votes % Seats
Estonian Social Democratic Workers' Party 152,341 33.3 41
Estonian Labour Party 114,879 25.1 30
Estonian People's Party 94,892 20.7 25
Rural League 29,989 6.5 8
Socialists-Revolutionaries 26,536 5.8 7
Christian Democratic Party 20,157 4.4 5
German-Baltic Party 11,462 2.5 3
Russian National Union 5,765 1.3 1
Party of the Residents of Hiiumaa Island 1,090 0.2 0
All-Estonian Sailors' Union 795 0.2 0
Total 457,906 100 120
Registered voters/turnout 653,000 70.1
Source: McHale,[6] Nohlen & Stöver[2]


  1. ^ a b Chronology at riigikogu.ee
  2. ^ a b Nohlen, D & Stöver, P (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, p581 ISBN 978-3-8329-5609-7
  3. ^ a b Historical Dictionary of Estonia; p. 140 ISBN 0-8108-4904-6
  4. ^ "Public Elementary Schools Act at Estonian Historical Archives". Archived from the original on 2008-01-20. Retrieved 2007-11-01.
  5. ^ Wikisource Meyendorff, Alexander Feliksovich (1922). "Esthonia" . In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 31 (12th ed.). London & New York. pp. 10–13.
  6. ^ Vincent E McHale (1983) Political parties of Europe, Greenwood Press, p397 ISBN 0-313-23804-9

External links

List of elections in 1919

The following elections occurred in the year 1919.

Armenian parliamentary election, 1919


de:Landtagswahl in Niederösterreich 1919

de:Landtagswahl in Oberösterreich 1919

de:Landtagswahl in Salzburg 1919

de:Landtagswahl in der Steiermark 1919

de:Landtagswahl in Tirol 1919

de:Landtagswahl in Vorarlberg 1919

Belgian general election, 1919

Brazilian presidential election, 1919

Estonian Constituent Assembly election, 1919

Finnish parliamentary election, 1919

French legislative election, 1919

German federal election, 1919

Free State of Prussia: constitutional convention elected on 26 January 1919

Republic of Baden: constitutional convention elected 12 January 1919

Freistaat Bremen:

election of an 'Arbeiter- und Soldatenrat' on 6 January 1919

election of a constitutional convention on 9 March 1919

Hamburg: election of the Hamburg Parliament on 16 March 1919

People's State of Hesse: election of a constitutional convention on 26 January 1919

Honduran general election, 1919 (October)

Italian general election, 1919

Liberian general election, 1919

Luxembourgian legislative election, 1919

Newfoundland general election, 1919

Norwegian local elections, 1919

Philippine House of Representatives elections, 1919

Philippine Senate elections, 1919

Philippine legislative election, 1919

Polish legislative election, 1919

Salvadoran presidential election, 1919

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