1918 World Series

The 1918 World Series featured the Boston Red Sox, who defeated the Chicago Cubs four games to two. The Series victory for the Red Sox was their fifth in five tries, going back to 1903. The Red Sox scored only nine runs in the entire Series, the fewest runs by the winning team in World Series history. Along with the 1906 and 1907 World Series (both of which the Cubs also played in), the 1918 World Series is one of only three Fall Classics where neither team hit a home run.

The 1918 Series was played under several metaphorical dark clouds. The Series was held early in September because of the World War I "Work or Fight" order that forced the premature end of the regular season on September 1, and remains the only World Series to be played entirely in September. The Series was marred by players threatening to strike due to low gate receipts.

The Chicago home games in the series were played at Comiskey Park, which had a greater seating capacity than Weeghman Park, the prior home of the Federal League Chicago Whales that the Cubs were then using and which would be rechristened Wrigley Field in 1925. The Red Sox had played their home games in the 1915 and 1916 World Series in the more expansive Braves Field, but they returned to Fenway Park for the 1918 series.

The 1918 World Series marked the first time "The Star Spangled Banner" was performed at a major league game. During the seventh-inning stretch of Game 1, the band began playing the song because the country was involved in World War I. The song would be named the national anthem of the United States in 1931, and during World War II its playing would become a regular pre-game feature of baseball games and other sporting events. The winning pitcher of Game 1 was Babe Ruth, who pitched a shutout.

The 1918 championship would be the last Red Sox win until 2004. The drought of 86 years was often attributed to the Curse of the Bambino. The alleged curse came to be when Red Sox owner Harry Frazee traded the superbly talented but troublesome Babe Ruth (who was instrumental in their 1918 victory) to the New York Yankees for cash after the 1919 season.

The Cubs would not win their next World Series until 2016. The Cubs, who last won in 1908, won the National League but lost the Series in 1918, 1929, 1932, 1935, 1938, and 1945, and, allegedly stymied by the infamous Curse of the Billy Goat imposed during that latter Series. The Red Sox, who had won the American League but lost the Series in 1946, 1967, 1975, and 1986, finally won the World Series in 2004 and then won again in 2007, 2013 and 2018. When the Red Sox won in 2018 (against the Los Angeles Dodgers), they became the first team to win the Fall Classic exactly one century apart.

After Game 6, it would be some 87 years until the Cubs and Red Sox would play again. A three-game interleague matchup at Wrigley Field began June 10, 2005, and was Boston's first visit to the park. The Cubs would not return to Fenway Park for nearly 94 years until a three-game interleague matchup beginning May 20, 2011.

† For the first time in the Series, all four umpires worked in the infield on a rotating basis. In previous Series from 1909 through 1917, two of the four umpires had been positioned in the outfield for each game, in addition to the standard plate umpire and base umpire.

1918 World Series
Team (Wins) Manager(s) Season
Boston Red Sox (4) Ed Barrow 75–51, .595, GA: ​2 12
Chicago Cubs (2) Fred Mitchell 84–45, .651, GA: ​10 12
DatesSeptember 5–11
UmpiresHank O'Day (NL), George Hildebrand (AL), Bill Klem (NL), Brick Owens (AL)†
Hall of FamersUmpires: Bill Klem, Hank O'Day.
Boston Red Sox: Harry Hooper, Babe Ruth.
Cubs: Grover Cleveland Alexander (dnp).
World Series


AL Boston Red Sox (4) vs. NL Chicago Cubs (2)

Game Date Score Location Time Attendance 
1 September 5 Boston Red Sox – 1, Chicago Cubs – 0 Comiskey Park 1:50 19,274[1] 
2 September 6 Boston Red Sox – 1, Chicago Cubs – 3 Comiskey Park 1:58 20,040[2] 
3 September 7 Boston Red Sox – 2, Chicago Cubs – 1 Comiskey Park 1:57 27,054[3] 
4 September 9 Chicago Cubs – 2, Boston Red Sox – 3 Fenway Park 1:50 22,183[4] 
5 September 10 Chicago Cubs – 3, Boston Red Sox – 0 Fenway Park 1:42 24,694[5] 
6 September 11 Chicago Cubs – 1, Boston Red Sox – 2 Fenway Park 1:46 15,238[6]


Game 1

Thursday, September 5, 1918 2:30 pm (CT) at Comiskey Park in Chicago, Illinois
Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
Boston 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 5 0
Chicago 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0
WP: Babe Ruth (1–0)   LP: Hippo Vaughn (0–1)

Game 1 went to the Red Sox, 1–0, with Babe Ruth pitching the shutout before 19,274 fans. Stuffy McInnis knocked in the game's only run, driving in Dave Shean with a fourth-inning single off Hippo Vaughn. During the seventh-inning stretch, the U.S. Navy band began to play the Star-Spangled Banner, Red Sox infielder Fred Thomas—who was in the Navy and had been granted furlough to play in the World Series—immediately turned toward the American flag and gave it a military salute, according to the Chicago Tribune.[7] Other players turned to the flag with hands over hearts, and the already-standing crowd began to sing. At the song's conclusion, the previously quiet fans erupted in thunderous applause. At the time, the New York Times reported that it "marked the highest point of the day's enthusiasm." [8] The song would be played at each of the Series' remaining games, to increasingly rapturous response. Other baseball parks began to play the song on holidays and special occasions, and Red Sox owner Harry Frazee made it a regular part of Boston home games. The Star-Spangled Banner officially became the U.S. national anthem in 1931, and by the end of World War II, NFL Commissioner Elmer Layden ordered that it be played at every football game. The tradition quickly spread to other sports, aided by the introduction of large sound systems and post-war patriotism.[9]

Game 2

Friday, September 6, 1918 2:30 pm (CT) at Comiskey Park in Chicago, Illinois
Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
Boston 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 6 1
Chicago 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 X 3 7 1
WP: Lefty Tyler (1–0)   LP: Bullet Joe Bush (0–1)

The Cubs rebounded to knot the Series with a 3–1 victory in Game 2 the next day, behind Lefty Tyler's six-hit pitching. Tyler himself hit a two-run single in the second inning to make the score 3–0 and carried a shutout into the ninth inning, when the Red Sox scored their only run.

Game 3

Saturday, September 7, 1918 2:30 pm (CT) at Comiskey Park in Chicago, Illinois
Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
Boston 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 2 7 0
Chicago 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 7 1
WP: Carl Mays (1–0)   LP: Hippo Vaughn (0–2)

The series remained in Chicago for Game 3 due to wartime restrictions on travel. The Red Sox emerged victorious, 2–1, and took a 2–1 lead in the Series, as Carl Mays scattered seven hits. Wally Schang and Everett Scott's back-to-back RBI singles in the fourth inning were all Boston needed for the win. Vaughn lost his second game of the Series, which ended when Cub baserunner Charlie Pick was caught in a rundown between third and home while trying to score on a passed ball.

Game 4

Babe Ruth in 1918
Monday, September 9, 1918 2:30 pm (ET) at Fenway Park in Boston, Massachusetts
Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
Chicago 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 2 7 1
Boston 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 1 X 3 4 0
WP: Babe Ruth (2–0)   LP: [Phil Douglas (baseball)   Sv: Bullet Joe Bush (1)

Sunday the 8th was a travel day. The teams didn't arrive in Boston until the next day, shortly before the start of Game 4 that same day. The Cubs tied it in the eighth, ending Ruth's World Series scoreless inning streak[10] on hits by Charlie Hollocher and Les Mann; but the Red Sox won it in the home half of the inning on a passed ball by Killefer and a wild throw by relief pitcher Phil Douglas, scoring Schang for a 3–2 victory and a 3–1 series lead.

Starting pitcher Babe Ruth batted sixth for the Red Sox in Game 4. He remains the only starting pitcher in World Series history to bat other than ninth in the batting order.

Game 5

Tuesday, September 10, 1918 2:30 pm (ET) at Fenway Park in Boston, Massachusetts
Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
Chicago 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 3 7 0
Boston 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0
WP: Hippo Vaughn (1–2)   LP: Sad Sam Jones (0–1)

Vaughn finally earned a Series victory in Game 5 with a five-hit shutout, as the Cubs rallied back for a 3–0 victory. Dode Paskert's two-run double in the top of the eighth sealed the deal for the Chicagoans after Mann had knocked in the first run in the top of the third.

Game 6

Wednesday, September 11, 1918 2:30 pm (ET) at Fenway Park in Boston, Massachusetts
Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
Chicago 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 3 2
Boston 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 X 2 5 0
WP: Carl Mays (2–0)   LP: Lefty Tyler (1–1)

Attendance for Game 6 at Fenway on Wednesday, September 11, was down from over 24,000 on Tuesday to a mere 15,238, but the Red Sox went home happy. Max Flack's third-inning error allowed two Sox runs to score, which were all they needed for a 2–1 victory and the World's Championship of 1918 behind Carl Mays' second win of the Series, a complete game three-hitter.

This was the last Red Sox World Series win for 86 years, and the last time, until 2013, that they won the deciding game at home.

The Red Sox won the series despite a team batting average of .186, lowest for a winning club in World Series history.


Composite box

1918 World Series (4–2): Boston Red Sox (A.L.) over Chicago Cubs (N.L.)

Team 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 R H E
Boston Red Sox 0 0 2 5 0 0 0 1 1 9 32 1
Chicago Cubs 0 3 1 1 1 0 0 4 0 10 37 5
Total attendance: 128,483   Average attendance: 21,414
Winning player's share: $1,103   Losing player's share: $671[11]

Allegations of a Series fix and game tampering

As with the 1917 World Series, there were concerns about whether the 1918 World Series was being played honestly, a rumor revived in 2005 [12] and explored further in the 2009 book The Original Curse by Sean Deveney (McGraw-Hill). Some of the Cubs were later suspected of being "crooked". Pitcher Phil Douglas, accused of conspiring to fix a regular-season game in 1922, was suspended for life. Pitcher Claude Hendrix, who didn't play much in the 1918 Series, was suspected of fixing a game in 1920 but retired after that season and was never officially suspended.

There was no solid evidence that the 1918 World Series itself was "fixed", and with the war dominating the news nothing came of the rumors. It was another season before baseball's relationship with gambling erupted in a major scandal. Star pitcher "Ol' Pete" Alexander of the Cubs saw almost no action in the 1918 regular season due to military service and none in the Series. This left the Cubs pitching corps thin compared to the strong Red Sox staff, which included Babe Ruth and Carl Mays. Hippo Vaughn was the strongest Cubs pitcher, having won the pitching triple crown in 1918, but had the misfortune of starting against the best arms the Red Sox had and taking two of the four Cub losses.

In 2011, a document discovered by the Chicago History Museum cited the court testimony of Chisox pitcher Eddie Cicotte during the investigation of the 1919 Black Sox Scandal a year after the 1918 World Series. According to the trial transcript, Cicotte made vague references and allegations that the Cubs had purposely lost the 1918 World Series to the Red Sox, and justified their "fixing" the games they had lost (all four by one run) by alleging that the owners of both teams had short-changed their players with insufficient shares of the gate receipts.[13]


  1. ^ "1918 World Series Game 1 – Boston Red Sox vs. Chicago Cubs". Retrosheet. Retrieved September 13, 2009.
  2. ^ "1918 World Series Game 2 – Boston Red Sox vs. Chicago Cubs". Retrosheet. Retrieved September 13, 2009.
  3. ^ "1918 World Series Game 3 – Boston Red Sox vs. Chicago Cubs". Retrosheet. Retrieved September 13, 2009.
  4. ^ "1918 World Series Game 4 – Chicago Cubs vs. Boston Red Sox". Retrosheet. Retrieved September 13, 2009.
  5. ^ "1918 World Series Game 5 – Chicago Cubs vs. Boston Red Sox". Retrosheet. Retrieved September 13, 2009.
  6. ^ "1918 World Series Game 6 – Chicago Cubs vs. Boston Red Sox". Retrosheet. Retrieved September 13, 2009.
  7. ^ http://www.chicagotribune.com/sports/baseball/ct-wrigley-field-national-anthem-20170703-story.html
  8. ^ https://timesmachine.nytimes.com/timesmachine/1918/09/06/97025138.pdf
  9. ^ http://www.history.com/news/why-the-star-spangled-banner-is-played-at-sporting-events
  10. ^ Going back to 1916 at ​29 23, which stood until Whitey Ford surpassed it in 1962
  11. ^ "World Series Gate Receipts and Player Shares". Baseball Almanac. Retrieved June 14, 2009.
  12. ^ Gay, Timothy M. (June 9, 2005). "1918 Series questioned". USA Today. Retrieved November 18, 2012.
  13. ^ "Cubs threw 1918 World Series?". ESPN. April 20, 2011. Retrieved November 18, 2012.


  • Cohen, Richard M.; Neft, David S. (1990). The World Series: Complete Play-By-Play of Every Game, 1903–1989. New York: St. Martin's Press. pp. 71–75. ISBN 0-312-03960-3.
  • Reichler, Joseph (1982). The Baseball Encyclopedia (5th ed.). Macmillan Publishing. p. 2126. ISBN 0-02-579010-2.

External links

$100,000 infield

The $100,000 infield was the infield of the Philadelphia Athletics in the early 1910s. The $100,000 infield consisted of first baseman Stuffy McInnis, second baseman Eddie Collins, shortstop Jack Barry and third baseman Frank "Home Run" Baker. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, the nickname reflects "the purported combined market value of the foursome," which is equivalent to about $2.7 million in 2018.

Baseball historian Bill James rated the 1914 edition of the $100,000 infield the greatest infield of all time, and also ranked the 1912 and 1913 editions in the top five all time. The $100,000 infield helped the Athletics win four American League championships in five years—1910, 1911, 1913 and 1914—and win the World Series in 1910, 1911 and 1913. The group was broken up after losing the 1914 World Series as a result of the financial pressures resulting from the emergence of the Federal League. Two members—Collins and Baker—have been inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame.

1918 Boston Red Sox season

The 1918 Boston Red Sox season was the eighteenth season in the franchise's Major League Baseball history. The Red Sox finished first in the American League (AL) with a record of 75 wins and 51 losses, in a season cut short due to World War I. The team then faced the National League (NL) champion Chicago Cubs in the 1918 World Series, which the Red Sox won in six games to capture the franchise's fifth World Series. This would be the last World Series championship for the Red Sox until 2004.

The Red Sox' pitching staff, led by Carl Mays and Bullet Joe Bush, allowed the fewest runs in the league. Babe Ruth was the fourth starter and also spent significant time in the outfield, as he was the best hitter on the team, leading the AL in home runs and slugging percentage.

1918 Chicago Cubs season

The 1918 Chicago Cubs season was the 47th season of the Chicago Cubs franchise, the 43rd in the National League and the 3rd at Wrigley Field (then known as "Weeghman Park"). The Cubs finished first in the National League with a record of 84–45, 10.5 games ahead of the second place New York Giants. The team was defeated four games to two by the Boston Red Sox in the 1918 World Series.

1918 in sports

1918 in sports describes the year's events in world sport.

Note — many sporting events did not take place because of World War I or the 1918 flu pandemic

Bill Killefer

William Killefer (October 10, 1887 – July 3, 1960) was an American professional baseball player, coach and manager. He played in Major League Baseball as a catcher for the St. Louis Browns, Philadelphia Phillies, and Chicago Cubs. Killefer, who was nicknamed "Reindeer Bill" due to his speed afoot, is notable for being the favorite catcher of Hall of Fame pitcher Grover Cleveland Alexander and, for being one of the top defensive catchers of his era. After his playing career, he continued to work as a coach and a manager for a Major League Baseball career that spanned a total of 48 years.

Bullet Joe Bush

Leslie Ambrose "Bullet Joe" Bush (November 27, 1892 – November 1, 1974) was an American Major League Baseball pitcher with the Philadelphia Athletics, Boston Red Sox, New York Yankees, St. Louis Browns, Washington Senators, Pittsburgh Pirates and the New York Giants between 1912 and 1928. Bush batted and threw right-handed. He is credited with having developed the forkball pitch.

Charlie Pick

Charles Thomas Pick (April 10, 1888 in Brookneal, Virginia – June 26, 1954 in Lynchburg, Virginia), was a professional baseball player who played second base in the Major Leagues from 1914 to 1920 for the Chicago Cubs, Washington Senators, Philadelphia Athletics, and Boston Braves. He was later the manager of the Sacramento Senators of the Pacific Coast League from 1922–1924.

Game 3 of the 1918 World Series came to an end with Pick being caught in a rundown between third base and home plate, failing to score on a passed ball, in a 2-1 Chicago loss to the Boston Red Sox. Pick went on to bat .389 for the Series, leading the Cubs in hits.

Claude Hendrix

Claude Raymond Hendrix (April 13, 1889 – March 22, 1944) born in Olathe, Kansas, USA, is a former professional baseball player who played pitcher in Major League Baseball for the Pittsburgh Pirates (1911–13), Chicago Chi-Feds/Chicago Whales (1914–15) and Chicago Cubs (1916–20).

Dode Paskert

George Henry Paskert (August 28, 1881 – February 12, 1959) was an outfielder in Major League Baseball who played from 1907 through 1921 for the Philadelphia Phillies, Cincinnati Reds and Chicago Cubs. Born in Cincinnati, Ohio, he was nicknamed 'Dode'.The speedy Dode Paskert was one of the finest defensive center fielders of the dead-ball era. Besides, Paskert was an extremely patient hitter who worked pitchers deep into the count as well as a notorious pull hitter. Being used most often in the leadoff position, Paskert frequently hit for extra bases. Eventually, he was used as a corner outfielder and entrenched in the four infield positions.Paskert collected 51 stolen bases for the Reds in 1910, including stealing second base, third base and home in the first inning of a 6–5 win over the Boston Bees.His most productive season in 1912, when he hit a career-high .312 batting average along with a .420 on-base percentage and.413 slugging average, ranking among the top-10 in four offensive categories, being considered in the National League MVP vote at the end of the season.Besides, from 1912 to 1918 he ranked among the top ten in doubles four times and home runs once.In between, the reliable Paskert batted third in the lineup in each game of the 1915 World Series for the Phillies against the Boston Red Sox, while batting clean-up for the Cubs in each game of the 1918 World Series, also against the Red Sox.In a 15-season career, Paskert hit a .268/.350/.361 batting line, including 577 runs batted in, 868 runs scored, 1613 hits, 279 doubles, 77 triples, 42 home runs, and stole 293 bases in 1,716 games.An aggressive hitter, he struck out more times (784) than he walked (715) in 6,017 at-bats. Overall, he recorded a .968 fielding percentage.Afterwards, Paskert refused to retire at 40. As a result, he became an itinerant minor leaguer over the next six years, playing with the Kansas City Blues and Columbus Senators of the American Association, for the Atlanta Crackers and Nashville Vols of the Southern Association, and the Erie Sailors of the Ohio–Pennsylvania League, before retiring from baseball at age 46 after the 1927 season.Paskert died in 1959 in his homeland of Cleveland Ohio at the age of 77.

Ed Barrow

Edward Grant Barrow (May 10, 1868 – December 15, 1953) was an American manager and front office executive in Major League Baseball. He served as the field manager of the Detroit Tigers and Boston Red Sox. He served as business manager (de facto general manager) of the New York Yankees from 1921 to 1939 and as team president from 1939 to 1945, and is credited with building the Yankee dynasty. Barrow was elected to the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1953.

Born in a covered wagon in Springfield, Illinois, Barrow worked as a journalist and soap salesman before entering the business of baseball by selling concessions at games. From there, Barrow purchased minor league baseball teams, also serving as team manager, and served as president of the Atlantic League. After managing the Tigers in 1903 and 1904 and returning to the minor leagues, Barrow became disenchanted with baseball, and left the game to operate a hotel.

Barrow returned to baseball in 1910 as president of the Eastern League. After a seven-year tenure, Barrow managed the Red Sox from 1918 through 1920, leading the team to victory in the 1918 World Series. When Red Sox owner Harry Frazee began to sell his star players, Barrow joined the Yankees. During his quarter-century as their baseball operations chief, the Yankees won 14 AL pennants and 10 World Series titles.

Eddie Cicotte

Edward Victor Cicotte (; June 19, 1884 – May 5, 1969), nicknamed "Knuckles", was an American right-handed pitcher in Major League Baseball best known for his time with the Chicago White Sox. He was one of eight players permanently ineligible for professional baseball for his alleged participation in the Black Sox scandal in the 1919 World Series, in which the favored White Sox lost to the Cincinnati Reds in eight games. The "fixing" of the 1919 World Series is the only recognized gambling scandal to tarnish a World Series.

Fred Mitchell (baseball)

Frederick Francis Mitchell, born Frederick Francis Yapp (June 5, 1878 – October 13, 1970), was an American right-handed pitcher, catcher, first baseman and manager in Major League Baseball. After pitching for the Boston Red Sox, Philadelphia Athletics, Philadelphia Phillies, and Brooklyn Superbas from 1901 to 1905, he returned to the major leagues as a catcher for the New York Highlanders in 1910. He was noted for relieving Hall of Famer Cy Young in the first-ever Red Sox game.

Mitchell was born in Cambridge, Massachusetts. In 1917, he joined the Chicago Cubs as team president, and was later hired as manager. In his second year at the helm, he won the 1918 National League pennant, losing to the Red Sox in the 1918 World Series. However, in the middle of the 1919 season, he was relieved of his president duties and one year later, he was out of a job. The Boston Braves hired him as manager for the 1921 season, but his success in Chicago did not follow him to his hometown Braves, where he lost 100 games twice. After he was fired by the Braves, he returned to Harvard University where he had previously coached baseball in 1916. He remained at Harvard for thirty years until his retirement. Mitchell was best known for his excellence in coaching.

Mitchell died in Newton, Massachusetts at age 92. He is buried in Brookside Cemetery in Stow, Massachusetts.

Lefty Tyler

George Albert "Lefty" Tyler (December 14, 1889 – September 29, 1953) was a professional baseball pitcher from 1910 to 1921.

From 1910 to 1917, Tyler played with the Boston Doves/Boston Braves. He performed well, having an earned run average (ERA) under 3 in all but two years. In 1918, Tyler was traded to the Chicago Cubs for Larry Doyle, Art Wilson, and $15,000. Tyler did well in Chicago as well, having ERA's under 4.

Tyler's career earned run average was 2.95. His brother, Fred Tyler, played in the major leagues in 1914 as a catcher.

In 1914, Tyler was a member of the Braves team that went from last place to first place in two months, becoming the first team to win a pennant after being in last place on the Fourth of July. The team then went on to defeat Connie Mack's heavily favored Philadelphia Athletics in the 1914 World Series.

In 1916, the New York Giants set the current record of 26 wins without a defeat: Tyler beat them to end the streak on September 30, 1916.

He was the winning pitcher in Game 2 of the 1918 World Series for the Cubs, as well as the hard-luck loser of a 2-1 decision in Game 6, the last game of the Series; it was the last win for the opposing Boston Red Sox until 2004.

Tyler was a better than average hitting pitcher in his 12-year major league career, compiling a .217 batting average (189-for-870) with 85 runs, 4 home runs and 73 RBI. He recorded a career-high 20 RBI as a member of the 1916 Boston Braves.

Max Flack

Max John Flack (February 5, 1890 – July 31, 1975) was a Major League Baseball outfielder. He played twelve seasons in the majors from 1914 to 1925 for the Chicago Chi-Feds/Whales (1914–15) of the Federal League, then the Chicago Cubs (1916–22) and the St. Louis Cardinals (1922–25) of the National League.

Peoria Distillers

The Peoria Distillers were a minor league baseball team that existed on-and-off from 1894 to 1917. They played in the Western Association from 1894 to 1896; the Central League in 1900, 1904 and 1917; the Western League from 1902 to 1903; and the Three-I League from 1905 to 1917.Under managers David Drohan and Charley Stis, they won their first League Championship in 1911. In 1916, they won their second and final League Championship under the guidance of William Jackson.Joe McGinnity, nicknamed "Iron Man," who would go on to have a long career in the Major Leagues and be inducted in the National Baseball Hall of Fame, pitched every inning of a 21-inning game for the Peoria Distillers in 1898. His manager in Peoria was Pat Wright.

Others who played for the Distillers in the 19th century and proceeded to the majors included Harry Bay, Jimmy Burke, Frank Dillon, Frank Donnelly, Dan Dugdale, Hi Ebright, Zaza Harvey, John Roach and Harry Truby. In 1902 George Stone, who later was the 1906 American League batting champion, played for the team. In 1913, outfielder Max Flack played for the Distillers, and would go on to play for St. Louis in the 1918 World Series.

Pants Rowland was the Peoria team's manager in 1913, then was hired by Charles Comiskey to be manager of the Chicago White Sox. He guided them to the 1917 World Series championship, the last one won by the White Sox until 2005.

Phil Douglas (baseball)

Phillip Brooks Douglas (June 17, 1890 – August 1, 1952) was an American baseball player. He was known as "Shufflin' Phil", most likely because of his slow gait from the bullpen to the mound.Douglas originally signed with the Chicago White Sox in 1912, but soon landed with the Cincinnati Reds. In 1915, he was traded to the Brooklyn Dodgers, then to the Chicago Cubs. Douglas' short stints with these and future teams stemmed from their frustrations with his well-documented alcoholism, about which a contemporary journalist wrote, "Drinking was not a habit with Douglas—it was a disease."

His error on a sacrifice bunt in Game 4 of the 1918 World Series gave the Boston Red Sox a 3-2 victory over the Cubs.

In 1919, he was signed by the New York Giants. John McGraw had some luck in keeping Douglas' drinking under control. In 1920, Douglas had a 14–10 record and a 2.71 ERA. Following the season, the spitball was banned but 17 players, including Douglas, were allowed to continue using the pitch.

Douglas' best year was in 1921, when he won 15 games in the regular season with an ERA of 2.08. He then won two games in the 1921 World Series to help the Giants win the series.

In 1922, he had 11 wins and a league-leading 2.63 ERA, but was suspended after a quarrel with McGraw and fined $100.

Shortly after he was suspended and while intoxicated, Douglas sent the following letter to Les Mann of the St. Louis Cardinals:

I want to leave here but I want some inducement. I don't want this guy to win the pennant and I feel if I stay here I will win it for him. If you want to send a man over here with the goods, I will leave for home on next train. I will go down to fishing camp and stay there.

The letter found its way to Kenesaw Mountain Landis. Landis banned Douglas from baseball for life.

On August 1, 1952, Douglas died in Sequatchie, Tennessee, and was buried in Tracy City, Tennessee.

Sam Agnew

Samuel Lester (Slam) Agnew (April 12, 1887 – July 19, 1951) was a catcher in Major League Baseball. From 1913 through 1919, he played for the St. Louis Browns (1913–15), Boston Red Sox (1916–18) and Washington Senators (1919). Agnew batted and threw right-handed. He was born in Farmington, Missouri.

Agnew debuted with the St. Louis Browns on April 10, 1913. In 105 games his rookie season, Sam hit .208 with 2 home runs and 24 RBI, stealing 11 bases, in 307 at bats. In 1914, Agnew hit .212 with 16 RBI in 115 games. That season he finished 23rd in the balloting for Most Valuable Player, losing out to Eddie Collins of the Philadelphia Athletics. In 1915, he slipped down to a .203 average with 19 RBI in 104 games.

On December 16, 1915, the Boston Red Sox purchased Agnew from the St. Louis Browns. Serving as the backup to regular backstop Pinch Thomas, Agnew hit .209 (14-for-67) with 7 RBI in 40 games. Splitting time behind the plate with Thomas in 1917, Agnew hit .208 with 16 RBI in 85 games. Although he was considered the regular catcher in 1918, Agnew struggled at the plate, hitting just .166 with a career-low 6 RBI in 72 games. His offensive woes continued during the 1918 World Series, as he went hitless in nine at bats over four games against the Chicago Cubs.

In January 1919, Agnew was purchased from the Boston Red Sox by the Washington Senators. In just 42 games, Agnew hit a career-high .235 with 10 RBI. He played his final major league game on September 28, 1919. After his playing career, he went on to become a pitching coach for the Cubs and also a minor league coach.

In a seven-season career, Agnew posted a .204 batting average with two home runs and 98 RBI in 563 games played. Agnew died in Sonoma, California, at the age of 64.

After his Major League career ended, he continued to play in the minor leagues with the San Francisco Seals and Hollywood Stars of the Pacific Coast League until 1929.

He was later a manager in the minors for the San Diego Aces of the California State League (1929), Augusta Wolves of the South Atlantic League (1930 & 1938) and Palatka Azaleas of the Florida State League (1937).

His brother was Troy Agnew.

Speed Martin

Elwood Good "Speed" Martin (September 15, 1893 in Wawawai, Washington – June 14, 1983 in Lemon Grove, California) was a Major League Baseball player from 1917 to 1922. He was a pitcher for the St. Louis Browns and Chicago Cubs.

Martin pitched for the Cubs in 1918, but did not appear in the 1918 World Series. He won a career-best 11 games for them in 1921.

The Star-Spangled Banner

"The Star-Spangled Banner" is the national anthem of the United States. The lyrics come from the Defence of Fort M'Henry, a poem written on September 14, 1814, by the then 35-year-old lawyer and amateur poet Francis Scott Key after witnessing the bombardment of Fort McHenry by British ships of the Royal Navy in Baltimore Harbor during the Battle of Baltimore in the War of 1812. Key was inspired by the large U.S. flag, with 15 stars and 15 stripes, known as the Star-Spangled Banner, flying triumphantly above the fort during the U.S. victory.

The poem was set to the tune of a popular British song written by John Stafford Smith for the Anacreontic Society, a men's social club in London. "To Anacreon in Heaven" (or "The Anacreontic Song"), with various lyrics, was already popular in the United States. This setting, renamed "The Star-Spangled Banner", soon became a well-known U.S. patriotic song. With a range of 19 semitones, it is known for being very difficult to sing. Although the poem has four stanzas, only the first is commonly sung today.

"The Star-Spangled Banner" was recognized for official use by the United States Navy in 1889, and by U.S. President Woodrow Wilson in 1916, and was made the national anthem by a congressional resolution on March 3, 1931 (46 Stat. 1508, codified at 36 U.S.C. § 301), which was signed by President Herbert Hoover.

Before 1931, other songs served as the hymns of U.S. officialdom. "Hail, Columbia" served this purpose at official functions for most of the 19th century. "My Country, 'Tis of Thee", whose melody is identical to "God Save the Queen", the United Kingdom's national anthem, also served as a de facto national anthem. Following the War of 1812 and subsequent U.S. wars, other songs emerged to compete for popularity at public events, among them "America the Beautiful", which itself was being considered before 1931, as a candidate to become the national anthem of the United States.

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