1916 United States presidential election

The United States presidential election of 1916 was the 33rd quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 7, 1916. Incumbent Democratic President Woodrow Wilson defeated Supreme Court Justice Charles Evans Hughes, the Republican candidate. Wilson was the only sitting Democratic president to win re-election between 1832 and 1936.

Wilson was re-nominated without opposition at the 1916 Democratic National Convention. The 1916 Republican National Convention chose Hughes as a compromise between the conservative and progressive wings of the party. Hughes defeated John W. Weeks, Elihu Root, and several other candidates on the third ballot of the convention, becoming the only Supreme Court Justice to serve as a major party's presidential nominee. While conservative and progressive Republicans had been divided in the 1912 election between the candidacies of then-incumbent President William Howard Taft and former President Theodore Roosevelt, they largely united around Hughes in his bid to oust Wilson.

The election took place during the time of the Mexican Revolution and World War I. Although officially neutral in the European conflict, public opinion in the United States leaned towards the Allied forces headed by Great Britain and France against the German Empire and Austria-Hungary, due in large measure to the harsh treatment of civilians by the German Army in Belgium and northern France and the militaristic character of the German and Austrian monarchies, but in spite of their sympathy with the Allied forces most American voters wanted to avoid involvement in the war and preferred to continue a policy of neutrality. Wilson's campaign used the popular slogans "He kept us out of war" and "America First" to appeal to those voters who wanted to avoid a war in Europe or with Mexico.[2][3][4] Hughes criticized Wilson for not taking the "necessary preparations" to face a conflict, which only served to strengthen Wilson's image as an anti-war candidate. Ironically, the United States would enter the war in April 1917, one month after Wilson's second inauguration as president.

After a hard-fought contest, Wilson defeated Hughes by nearly 600,000 votes in the popular vote. The 1916 election saw an increase in Wilson's popular vote from the four-way election of 1912, but a major decline in the number of electoral votes won. Wilson secured a narrow majority in the Electoral College by sweeping the Solid South and winning several swing states with razor-thin margins. Wilson won California by just 3,773 votes; had he lost California, he would have lost the election. Allan L. Benson of the Socialist Party and Frank Hanly of the Prohibition Party each finished with greater than 1% of the popular vote.

1916 United States presidential election

November 7, 1916

531 electoral votes of the Electoral College
266 electoral votes needed to win
Turnout61.6%[1] Increase 2.8 pp
  Woodrow Wilson-H&E Governor Charles Evans Hughes
Nominee Woodrow Wilson Charles Evans Hughes
Party Democratic Republican
Home state New Jersey New York
Running mate Thomas R. Marshall Charles W. Fairbanks
Electoral vote 277 254
States carried 30 18
Popular vote 9,126,868 8,548,728
Percentage 49.2% 46.1%

1916 United States presidential election in California1916 United States presidential election in Oregon1916 United States presidential election in Washington (state)1916 United States presidential election in Idaho1916 United States presidential election in Nevada1916 United States presidential election in Utah1916 United States presidential election in Arizona1916 United States presidential election in Montana1916 United States presidential election in Wyoming1916 United States presidential election in Colorado1916 United States presidential election in New Mexico1916 United States presidential election in North Dakota1916 United States presidential election in South Dakota1916 United States presidential election in Nebraska1916 United States presidential election in Kansas1916 United States presidential election in Oklahoma1916 United States presidential election in Texas1916 United States presidential election in Minnesota1916 United States presidential election in Iowa1916 United States presidential election in Missouri1916 United States presidential election in Arkansas1916 United States presidential election in Louisiana1916 United States presidential election in Wisconsin1916 United States presidential election in Illinois1916 United States presidential election in Michigan1916 United States presidential election in Indiana1916 United States presidential election in Ohio1916 United States presidential election in Kentucky1916 United States presidential election in Tennessee1916 United States presidential election in Mississippi1916 United States presidential election in Alabama1916 United States presidential election in Georgia1916 United States presidential election in Florida1916 United States presidential election in South Carolina1916 United States presidential election in North Carolina1916 United States presidential election in Virginia1916 United States presidential election in West Virginia1916 United States presidential election in Maryland1916 United States presidential election in Delaware1916 United States presidential election in Pennsylvania1916 United States presidential election in New Jersey1916 United States presidential election in New York1916 United States presidential election in Connecticut1916 United States presidential election in Rhode Island1916 United States presidential election in Vermont1916 United States presidential election in New Hampshire1916 United States presidential election in Maine1916 United States presidential election in Massachusetts1916 United States presidential election in Maryland1916 United States presidential election in Delaware1916 United States presidential election in New Jersey1916 United States presidential election in Connecticut1916 United States presidential election in Rhode Island1916 United States presidential election in Massachusetts1916 United States presidential election in Vermont1916 United States presidential election in New HampshireElectoralCollege1916.svg
Presidential election results map. Blue denotes those won by Wilson/Marshall, red denotes states won by Hughes/Fairbanks. Numbers indicate the number of electoral votes allotted to each state.

President before election

Woodrow Wilson
Democratic

Elected President

Woodrow Wilson
Democratic

Nominations

Republican Party nomination

Republican Party Ticket, 1916
Charles Evans Hughes Charles W. Fairbanks
for President for Vice President
Governor Charles Evans Hughes
Charles W Fairbanks by Harris & Ewing
Associate Justice
of the U.S. Supreme Court

(1910–1916)
26th
Vice President of the United States
(1905–1909)
Campaign

Republican candidates:

Candidates gallery

Republican National Convention

The 1916 Republican National Convention was held in Chicago between June 7 and 10. A major goal of the party's bosses at the convention was to heal the bitter split within the party that had occurred in the 1912 presidential campaign. In that year, Theodore Roosevelt bolted the Republican Party and formed his own political party, the Progressive Party, which attracted most of the Republican liberals. William Howard Taft, the incumbent president, won the nomination of the regular Republican Party. This split in the Republican ranks divided the Republican vote and led to the election of Democrat Woodrow Wilson. Although several candidates were openly competing for the 1916 nomination—most prominently conservative Senator Elihu Root from New York and liberal Senator John W. Weeks from Massachusetts—the party's bosses wanted a moderate who would be acceptable to both factions of the party. They turned to Supreme Court Justice Charles Evans Hughes, who had been serving on the court since 1910 and had the advantage of not having publicly spoken about political issues in six years. Although he had not actively sought the nomination, Hughes made it known that he would not turn it down; he won the nomination on the third ballot. Former Vice President Charles W. Fairbanks was nominated as his running mate. Hughes was the only Supreme Court Justice to be nominated for president by a major political party.

ChiRepubConvention
Republican Convention, The Coliseum, Chicago
Ballot 1 2 3
Charles Evans Hughes 253 326 950
John W. Weeks 105 102 2
Elihu Root 103 89 9
Charles W. Fairbanks 89 75 7
Albert B. Cummins 85 77 2
Theodore Roosevelt 81 65 19
Theodore E. Burton 78 69 9
Lawrence Yates Sherman 66 59 5
Philander C. Knox 36 30 6
Henry Ford 32 29 9
Martin Grove Brumbaugh 29 22 2
Robert M. La Follette 25 25 23
William Howard Taft 14 4 0
T. Coleman du Pont 7 13 6
Henry Cabot Lodge 7 2 0
John Wanamaker 5 1 1
Frank B. Willis 1 2 2
William Borah 2 0 2
Warren G. Harding 1 0 1
Samuel W. McCall 0 1 1
Leonard Wood 0 1 1

Democratic Party nomination

Democratic Party Ticket, 1916
Woodrow Wilson Thomas R. Marshall
for President for Vice President
Woodrow Wilson-H&E
Thomas Riley Marshall headshot (3x4)
28th
President of the United States
(1913–1921)
28th
Vice President of the United States
(1913–1921)
Campaign

Democratic candidate:

Democratic National Convention

The 1916 Democratic National Convention was held in St. Louis, Missouri between June 14 and 16. Given Wilson's enormous popularity within the party as well as being an incumbent President, he was overwhelmingly re-nominated. Vice President Thomas R. Marshall was also re-nominated with no opposition.

In the campaign Edward M. House declined any public role, but was Wilson's top campaign advisor. Hodgson says, "he planned its structure; set its tone; guided its finance; chose speakers, tactics, and strategy; and, not least, handled the campaign's greatest asset and greatest potential liability: its brilliant but temperamental candidate."[5]

Progressive Party nomination

Candidates gallery

T Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
from New York
(Refused nomination)
VictorMurdock
Victor Murdock
from Kansas
(Not formally nominated)
Hiram Johnson
Governor
Hiram Johnson
of California
(Declined interest)
Gifford Pinchot 3c03915u
Gifford Pinchot
from Pennsylvania
(Declined interest)

The Progressives re-nominated former President Theodore Roosevelt and nominated John Parker of Louisiana as his running-mate; others suggested for the Vice-Presidency were California Governor and the 1912 Vice-Presidential nominee Hiram Johnson, and Chairman of the Party Convention Raymond Robins, but both withdrew their names in favor of Parker. However, Roosevelt later telegraphed the convention and declared that he could not accept their nomination and would be endorsing Republican nominee Charles Hughes for the Presidency. With Roosevelt refusing to be their candidate, the Progressive Party quickly fell into disarray; there was a temporary shout led by former Representative Victor Murdock from Kansas for a ticket consisting of three-time Democratic nominee William Jennings Bryan and industrialist Henry Ford but it amounted to little. Some like National Committeeman Harold L. Ickes refused to consider endorsing Hughes, and there was some talk of nominating an alternative candidate, such as Hiram Johnson or Gifford Pinchot, in Roosevelt's stead. However those discussed refused to consider the notion, and by this point, some leaders like Henry Justin Allen had started to follow Roosevelt's lead and endorsed the Republican ticket, and various state parties such as those in Iowa and Maine began to disband. Finally, when the Progressive Party National Committee met in Chicago on June 26, those in attendance begrudgingly endorsed Hughes; even those like Ickes who had vehemently refused to consider granting an endorsement to Hughes began to recognize that without Roosevelt the party had no electoral staying power. There had been a weak attempt to replace Roosevelt on the ticket with the former Representative Victor Murdock from Kansas, but the motion was defeated 31 to 15.

Most of its members would return to the Republican Party, although a substantial minority supported Wilson for his efforts in keeping the United States out of World War I. Roosevelt had turned down the Progressive nomination for both personal and political reasons; he had become convinced that running for president on a third-party ticket again would merely give the election to the Democrats, a result he was loath to make possible since he had developed a strong dislike for President Wilson. He also believed Wilson was allowing Germany and other warring nations in Europe to "bully" and intimidate the United States.[6][7][8]

"Middle-Road" Progressive Party nomination

"Middle-Road" Progressive ticket

T Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
from New York
(Vacant Upon Refusal)

However many in the party, notably the Vice-Presidential nominee John Parker and Bainbridge Colby, remained steadfast in their refusal to back the Republican ticket, though they differed in their ultimate aims; Parker for example desired for a Progressive ticket to be put into the Presidential race (himself now being the major contender for the top of the ticket among the bolters), whereas Colby, while opposed to the endorsement of Hughes, considered a Progressive ticket at this point impractical and privately supported Wilson for the Presidency. Still it appeared likely for a time that another convention would be called in early August until a Conference held among the remaining representatives of the party in Indianapolis decided against it, while also narrowly voting against filling the vacancy that had been caused by Roosevelt's refusal to be placed on the ticket (though Parker remained the Vice-Presidential nominee). Electoral tickets would still be put in place where the Progressive Party remained organized in the hopes of electing enough electors so as to possibly hold the balance of power in a close contest between the Democratic and Republican candidates.

While running as the Vice-Presidential nominee, John Parker would endorse Woodrow Wilson for the Presidency.[9][10][10]

Socialist Party nomination

Socialist candidates

Allan Louis Benson (1871–1940) circa 1915
Newspaper Editor
Allan L. Benson
from New York
LeSueur-Arthur-1914
Newspaper Editor
Arthur LeSueur
from North Dakota

While the initial frontrunner for the nomination was the popular Eugene V. Debs, he opted to instead run for Congress in his native Indiana, leaving the field open to other contenders. Allan Benson, a newspaper editor from New York, within a short time came to dominate the field through his fervent opposition to militarism, running on the proposal that all future participation in wars should be voted upon in a national referendum. The vote for the nomination was conducted through a mail-order ballot, with Benson capturing 16,639 out of a total of 32,398 cast (to 12,264 for Maurer and 3,495 for Le Sueur). A vote for the Vice-Presidential nomination was jointly held with George Ross Kirkpatrick, a lecturer from New Jersey, winning the nomination 20,607 to 11,388 over Kate Richards O'Hare of Missouri.[11]

General election

The fall campaign

The Democrats built their campaign around the slogan, "He Kept Us Out of War," saying a Republican victory would mean war with both Mexico and Germany. Wilson's position was probably critical in winning the Western states.[12] Charles Evans Hughes insisted on downplaying the war issue. He advocated a program of greater mobilization and preparedness.[13] With Wilson having successfully pressured the Germans to suspend unrestricted submarine warfare, it was difficult for Hughes to attack Wilson's peace platform. Instead, Hughes criticized Wilson's military interventions in Mexico, where the U.S. was supporting various factions in the Mexican civil war. Hughes also attacked Wilson for his support of various "pro-labor" laws (such as limiting the workday to eight hours), on the grounds that they were harmful to business interests. His criticisms gained little traction, however, especially among factory workers who supported such laws. Hughes was helped by the vigorous support of popular former President Theodore Roosevelt, and by the fact that the Republicans were still the nation's majority party at the time. Hughes made a key mistake in California. Just before the election, Hughes made a campaign swing through the state, but he never met with the powerful Republican Governor Hiram Johnson to seek his support. Johnson took this as a snub and never gave Hughes his full support. Wilson carried California by 3,420 votes (0.3%) and with it the presidency.

Results

PresidentialCounty1916Colorbrewer
Results by county explicitly indicating the percentage for the winning candidate. Shades of blue are for Wilson (Democratic), shades of red are for Hughes (Republican), shades of green are for "No Candidate" (Progressive), grey indicates zero recorded votes and white indicates territories not elevated to statehood.[14]

The result was exceptionally close and the outcome remained in doubt for several days, partially because of the wait for returns from California in the west. The electoral vote was one of the closest in U.S. history – with 266 votes needed to win, Wilson took thirty states for 277 electoral votes, while Hughes won eighteen states and 254 electoral votes. Wilson was the second of just four presidents in US history to win re-election with a lower percentage of the electoral vote than in their prior elections, following James Madison in 1812. As the number of electors had increased during Madison's first term, but held steady throughout Wilson's, Wilson was also the first of only three successfully reelected presidents to receive fewer total electoral votes. This result would be experienced again only by Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1940 and 1944 and by Barack Obama in 2012.

The key state proved to be California, which Wilson won by only 3,800 votes out of nearly a million cast. Although New Hampshire may not have been a deciding state in the election, the margin of victory for Wilson there was the second smallest ever recorded in an American presidential election at just 56 votes, behind Franklin Pierce's 25 vote victory in Delaware in 1852.[15][a] If Hughes had carried California and its thirteen electoral votes, he would have won the election. A popular legend from the 1916 campaign states that Hughes went to bed on election night thinking that he was the newly elected president. When a reporter tried to telephone him the next morning to get his reaction to Wilson's comeback, someone (stories vary as to whether this person was his son or a butler or valet) answered the phone and told the reporter that "the president is asleep". The reporter retorted, "When he wakes up, tell him he isn't the president."

Wilson's popular vote margin of 3.1 percent was the smallest attained by a victorious sitting president until 2004. By defeating Hughes, Woodrow Wilson became the first Democratic president to win a second consecutive term since Andrew Jackson in 1832. Vice-President Thomas R. Marshall also earned the distinction of becoming the first vice-president elected to a second term since John C. Calhoun in 1828. Wilson and Marshall became the first incumbent presidential ticket to win re-election, since James Monroe and Daniel D. Tompkins in 1820.

The total popular vote cast in 1916 exceeded that of 1912 by 3,500,000. The very large total vote was an indication of an aroused public interest in the campaign. It was larger in every section, notably in the East North Central section. Some of this was due to the extension of suffrage to women in individual states. In Illinois, for example, the total vote was one million greater than in 1912. It increased by more than two hundred and sixty thousand in Kansas, and in Montana, it more than doubled.

Wilson's vote was 9,126,868, an increase of nearly three million. There was a gain in every section and in every state. Hughes, the nominee of the united Republican Party, polled more votes by nearly 1,000,000 than had ever been cast for a Republican candidate. In some of the states carried by Wilson, particularly in the South, the margin of popular vote was large. Considering the vote by sections, Wilson ran behind Hughes in New England, the (Northeastern) Mid-Atlantic states, and in the East North Central section.[16] His lead was not great in the West North Central, but was very large in the West South Central and Mountain as well as in the East South Central and South Atlantic sections.[17] 1/2 of Wilson's total vote was cast in the 18 states that he did not carry.

Of the 3,022 counties making returns, Wilson led in 2,039 counties (67.47%). Hughes managed to carry only 976 counties (32.30%), the smallest number in the Republican column in a two-party contest during the Fourth Party System. Two counties (0.07%) split evenly between Wilson and Hughes. Although the Progressive Party had no presidential candidate (just candidates for presidential electors who were unpledged for president), they carried five counties (0.17%), whilst nine counties – 0.30 percent and the same as in 1912 – inhabited either by Native Americans without citizenship or disenfranchised African Americans failed to return a single vote.

There was a shift of votes to the Democratic Party, at least for this election, which was in locality and degree a novel phenomenon in party voting for the Fourth Party System. Wilson carried 200 counties that had never voted Democratic in a two-party contest prior to that time.[18] This shift of votes led some to believe that the Democratic Party might have the position of decided advantage in the election of 1920, a judgment that later proved disastrously wrong.[18]

Wilson was the last Democrat to win an election without carrying Minnesota, Massachusetts and Rhode Island (although he had previously won the two latter states in 1912). He was also the last Democrat elected to two terms without carrying Michigan and Pennsylvania either time. Although other Democrats since have won elections without one or both states,[b] they either only served one term or they carried them both in another Presidential election.

To date this is the last presidential election in which North Dakota and South Dakota did not vote for the same candidate, with the only others being 1896 and 1912. This is the last time Illinois voted for an eventual losing candidate until 1976, the last time Minnesota voted for an eventual losing candidate until 1968, the last time West Virginia voted for a losing candidate until 1952, and the only time a Democrat was elected without West Virginia until 2008.

This was the last election in which the Democrats won New Hampshire until 1936 and the last in which the Democrats won Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Kansas, Maryland, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, North Dakota, Ohio, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming until 1932.

Presidential candidate Party Home state Popular vote Electoral
vote
Running mate
Count Percentage Vice-presidential candidate Home state Electoral vote
Woodrow Wilson (Incumbent) Democratic New Jersey 9,126,868 49.24% 277 Thomas R. Marshall Indiana 277
Charles Evans Hughes Republican New York 8,548,728 46.12% 254 Charles W. Fairbanks Indiana 254
Allan L. Benson Socialist New York 590,524 3.19% 0 George Ross Kirkpatrick New Jersey 0
Frank Hanly Prohibition Indiana 221,302 1.19% 0 Ira Landrith Tennessee 0
No Candidate Progressive (n/a) 33,406 0.18% 0 (n/a) (n/a) 0
Arthur E. Reimer Socialist Labor Massachusetts 15,295 0.08% 0 Caleb Harrison Illinois 0
Other 462 0.00% Other
Total 18,536,585 100% 531 531
Needed to win 266 266

Source (Popular Vote): Leip, David. "1916 Presidential Election Results". Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Retrieved July 28, 2005.

Source (Electoral Vote): "Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996". National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved July 31, 2005.

Popular vote
Wilson
49.24%
Hughes
46.12%
Benson
3.19%
Hanly
1.19%
Others
0.27%
Electoral vote
Wilson
52.17%
Hughes
47.83%

Geography of results

1916 Electoral Map
1916nationwidecountymapshadedbyvoteshare

Results by county, shaded according to winning candidate's percentage of the vote

Cartographic gallery

PresidentialCounty1916Colorbrewer

Map of presidential election results by county

DemocraticPresidentialCounty1916Colorbrewer

Map of Democratic presidential election results by county

RepublicanPresidentialCounty1916Colorbrewer

Map of Republican presidential election results by county

OtherPresidentialCounty1916Colorbrewer

Map of "other" presidential election results by county

CartogramPresidentialCounty1916Colorbrewer

Cartogram of presidential election results by county

CartogramDemocraticPresidentialCounty1916Colorbrewer

Cartogram of Democratic presidential election results by county

CartogramRepublicanPresidentialCounty1916Colorbrewer

Cartogram of Republican presidential election results by county

CartogramOtherPresidentialCounty1916Colorbrewer

Cartogram of "other" presidential election results by county

Results by state

[19]

States won by Wilson/Marshall
States won by Hughes/Fairbanks
Woodrow Wilson
Democratic
Charles Evans Hughes
Republican
Allan Benson
Socialist
James Hanly
Prohibition
No Candidate
Progressive
Arthur Reimer
Socialist Labor
Margin State Total
State electoral
votes
# % electoral
votes
# % electoral
votes
# % electoral
votes
# % electoral
votes
# % electoral
votes
# % electoral
votes
# % #
Alabama 12 99,409 76.04 12 28,662 21.92 - 1,916 1.47 - 741 0.57 - - - - - - - 70,747 54.12 130,728 AL
Arizona 3 33,170 57.17 3 20,524 35.37 - 3,174 5.47 - 1,153 1.99 - - - - - - - 12,646 21.80 58,021 AZ
Arkansas 9 112,211 65.97 9 48,879 28.73 - 6,999 4.11 - 2,015 1.18 - - - - - - - 63,332 37.23 170,104 AR
California 13 466,289 46.65 13 462,516 46.27 - 42,898 4.29 - 27,713 2.77 - - - - - - - 3,773 0.38 999,603 CA
Colorado 6 178,816 60.74 6 102,308 34.75 - 10,049 3.41 - 2,793 0.95 - 409 0.14 - - - - 76,508 25.99 294,375 CO
Connecticut 7 99,786 46.66 - 106,514 49.80 7 5,179 2.42 - 1,789 0.84 - - - - 606 0.28 - -6,728 -3.15 213,874 CT
Delaware 3 24,753 47.78 - 26,011 50.20 3 480 0.93 - 566 1.09 - - - - - - - -1,258 -2.43 51,810 DE
Florida 6 55,984 69.34 6 14,611 18.10 - 5,353 6.63 - 4,786 5.93 - - - - - - - 41,373 51.25 80,734 FL
Georgia 14 127,754 79.51 14 11,294 7.03 - 941 0.59 - - - - 20,692 12.88 - - - - 107,062 66.63 160,681 GA
Idaho 4 70,054 52.04 4 55,368 41.13 - 8,066 5.99 - 1,127 0.84 - - - - - - - 14,686 10.91 134,615 ID
Illinois 29 950,229 43.34 - 1,152,549 52.56 29 61,394 2.80 - 26,047 1.19 - - - - 2,488 0.11 - -202,320 -9.23 2,192,707 IL
Indiana 15 334,063 46.47 - 341,005 47.44 15 21,855 3.04 - 16,368 2.28 - 3,898 0.54 - 1,659 0.23 - -6,942 -0.97 718,848 IN
Iowa 13 218,699 42.55 - 280,439 54.57 13 10,973 2.14 - 3,371 0.66 - - - - 460 0.09 - -61,740 -12.01 513,942 IA
Kansas 10 314,588 49.95 10 277,658 44.09 - 24,685 3.92 - 12,882 2.05 - - - - - - - 36,930 5.86 629,813 KS
Kentucky 13 269,990 51.91 13 241,854 46.50 - 4,734 0.91 - 3,039 0.58 - 129 0.02 - 332 0.06 - 28,136 5.41 520,078 KY
Louisiana 10 79,875 85.90 10 6,466 6.95 - 292 0.31 - - - - 6,349 6.83 - - - - 73,409 78.95 92,982 LA
Maine 6 64,033 46.97 - 69,508 50.99 6 2,177 1.60 - 596 0.44 - - - - - - - -5,475 -4.02 136,314 ME
Maryland 8 138,359 52.80 8 117,347 44.78 - 2,674 1.02 - 2,903 1.11 - - - - 756 0.29 - 21,012 8.02 262,039 MD
Massachusetts 18 247,885 46.61 - 268,784 50.54 18 11,058 2.08 - 2,993 0.56 - - - - 1,097 0.21 - -20,899 -3.93 531,823 MA
Michigan 15 286,775 44.05 - 339,097 52.09 15 16,120 2.48 - 8,139 1.25 - - - - 842 0.13 - -52,322 -8.04 650,973 MI
Minnesota 12 179,152 46.25 - 179,544 46.35 12 20,117 5.19 - 7,793 2.01 - 290 0.07 - 468 0.12 - -392 -0.10 387,364 MN
Mississippi 10 80,422 92.78 10 4,253 4.91 - 1,484 1.71 - - - - 520 0.60 - - - - 76,169 87.87 86,679 MS
Missouri 18 398,032 50.59 18 369,339 46.94 - 14,612 1.86 - 3,884 0.49 - - - - 902 0.11 - 28,693 3.65 786,769 MO
Montana 4 101,063 56.88 4 66,750 37.57 - 9,564 5.38 - - - - 302 0.17 - - - - 34,313 19.31 177,679 MT
Nebraska 8 158,827 55.28 8 117,771 40.99 - 7,141 2.49 - 2,952 1.03 - - - - 624 0.22 - 41,056 14.29 287,315 NE
Nevada 3 17,776 53.36 3 12,127 36.40 - 3,065 9.20 - 348 1.04 - - - - - - - 5,649 16.96 33,316 NV
New Hampshire 4 43,781 49.12 4 43,725 49.06 - 1,318 1.48 - 303 0.34 - - - - - - - 56 0.06 89,127 NH
New Jersey 14 211,018 42.68 - 268,982 54.40 14 10,405 2.10 - 3,182 0.64 - - - - 855 0.17 - -57,964 -11.72 494,442 NJ
New Mexico 3 33,527 50.20 3 31,152 46.64 - 1,996 2.99 - 112 0.17 - - - - - - - 2,375 3.56 66,787 NM
New York 45 759,426 44.51 - 879,238 51.53 45 45,944 2.69 - 19,031 1.12 - - - - 2,666 0.16 - -119,812 -7.02 1,706,305 NY
North Carolina 12 168,383 58.10 12 120,890 41.71 - 509 0.18 - 55 0.02 - - - - - - - 47,493 16.39 289,837 NC
North Dakota 5 55,206 47.84 5 53,471 46.34 - 5,716 4.95 - 997 0.86 - - - - - - - 1,735 1.50 115,390 ND
Ohio 24 604,161 51.86 24 514,753 44.18 - 38,092 3.27 - 8,080 0.69 - - - - - - - 89,408 7.67 1,165,086 OH
Oklahoma 10 148,113 50.59 10 97,233 33.21 - 45,527 15.55 - 1,646 0.56 - 234 0.08 - - - - 50,880 17.38 292,753 OK
Oregon 5 120,087 45.90 - 126,813 48.47 5 9,711 3.71 - 4,729 1.81 - 310 0.12 - - - - -6,726 -2.57 261,650 OR
Pennsylvania 38 521,784 40.22 - 703,823 54.26 38 42,638 3.29 - 28,525 2.20 - - - - 419 0.03 - -182,039 -14.03 1,297,189 PA
Rhode Island 5 40,394 46.00 - 44,858 51.08 5 1,914 2.18 - 470 0.54 - - - - 180 0.20 - -4,464 -5.08 87,816 RI
South Carolina 9 61,846 96.71 9 1,550 2.42 - 135 0.21 - - - - 162 0.25 - - - - 60,296 94.28 63,952 SC
South Dakota 5 59,191 45.91 - 64,217 49.80 5 3,760 2.92 - 1,774 1.38 - - - - - - - -5,026 -3.90 128,942 SD
Tennessee 12 153,280 56.31 12 116,223 42.70 - 2,542 0.93 - 145 0.05 - - - - - - - 37,057 13.61 272,190 TN
Texas 20 286,514 76.92 20 64,999 17.45 - 18,969 5.09 - 1,985 0.53 - - - - - - - 221,515 59.47 372,467 TX
Utah 4 84,145 58.78 4 54,137 37.82 - 4,460 3.12 - 149 0.10 - 111 0.08 - 144 0.10 - 30,008 20.96 143,146 UT
Vermont 4 22,708 35.22 - 40,250 62.43 4 798 1.24 - 709 1.10 - - - - - - - -17,542 -27.21 64,475 VT
Virginia 12 101,840 66.99 12 48,384 31.83 - 1,056 0.69 - 678 0.45 - - - - 67 0.04 - 53,456 35.16 152,025 VA
Washington 7 183,388 48.13 7 167,208 43.89 - 22,800 5.98 - 6,868 1.80 - - - - 730 0.19 - 16,180 4.25 380,994 WA
West Virginia 8 140,403 48.44 1 143,124 49.38 7 6,150 2.12 - 175 0.06 - - - - - - - -2,721 -0.94 289,852 WV
Wisconsin 13 191,363 42.80 - 220,822 49.39 13 27,631 6.18 - 7,318 1.64 - - - - - - - -29,459 -6.59 447,134 WI
Wyoming 3 28,316 54.62 3 21,698 41.86 - 1,453 2.80 - 373 0.72 - - - - - - - 6,618 12.77 51,840 WY
TOTALS: 531 9,126,868 49.24 277 8,548,728 46.12 254 590,524 3.19 - 221,302 1.19 - 33,406 0.18 - 15,295 0.08 - 578,140 3.12 18,536,585 US

Close states

PostcardPickTheWinnerWilsonHughesPresidentialElection1916
Business advertising postcard exploiting public interest in the election; parts of Wilson's and Hughes' faces can be seen in this image, with the U.S. Capitol building in the background

Margin of victory of less than 1% (52 electoral votes):

  1. New Hampshire, 0.06%
  2. Minnesota, 0.10%
  3. California, 0.38% (tipping point state)
  4. West Virginia, 0.94%
  5. Indiana, 0.97%

Margin of victory of less than 5% (77 electoral votes):

  1. North Dakota, 1.50%
  2. Delaware, 2.43%
  3. Oregon, 2.57%
  4. Connecticut, 3.15%
  5. New Mexico, 3.56%
  6. Missouri, 3.65%
  7. South Dakota, 3.90%
  8. Massachusetts, 3.93%
  9. Maine, 4.02%
  10. Washington, 4.25%

Margin of victory of between 5% and 10% (162 electoral votes):

  1. Rhode Island, 5.08%
  2. Kentucky, 5.41%
  3. Kansas, 5.86%
  4. Wisconsin, 6.59%
  5. New York, 7.02%
  6. Ohio, 7.67%
  7. Maryland, 8.02%
  8. Michigan, 8.04%
  9. Illinois, 9.23%

Statistics

Counties with Highest Percent of Vote (Democratic)

  1. Dillon County, South Carolina 100.00%
  2. Hampton County, South Carolina 100.00%
  3. Jasper County, South Carolina 100.00%
  4. Tunica County, Mississippi 100.00%
  5. Echols County, Georgia 100.00%

Counties with Highest Percent of Vote (Republican)

  1. Leslie County, Kentucky 91.55%
  2. Sevier County, Tennessee 90.42%
  3. Zapata County, Texas 89.17%
  4. Jackson County, Kentucky 87.90%
  5. Johnson County, Tennessee 87.33%

Counties with Highest Percent of Vote (Other)

  1. Lafourche Parish, Louisiana 59.38%
  2. Glascock County, Georgia 53.79%
  3. Paulding County, Georgia 53.52%
  4. Fannin County, Georgia 51.29%
  5. Iberia Parish, Louisiana 47.59%

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Theodore Roosevelt won Maryland in 1904 by just fifty-one votes, but voters voted for individual presidential electors and only one Republican elector, Charles Bonaparte, survived the tally. Likewise, Henry Clay won Maryland by only four votes in 1832, but Maryland chose electors by district.
  2. ^ Franklin Roosevelt in 1940, Harry Truman in 1948 and Jimmy Carter in 1976 won without Michigan; FDR in 1932 and Truman in 1948 won for the Democrats whilst losing Pennsylvania.

References

  1. ^ "Voter Turnout in Presidential Elections". The American Presidency Project. UC Santa Barbara.
  2. ^ "Wilson for 'America First'", The Chicago Daily Tribune (October 12, 1915).
  3. ^ Cooper, John Milton. Woodrow Wilson: A Biography, p. 278 (Vintage Books 2011).
  4. ^ Garrett, Garet. Defend America First: The Antiwar Editorials of the Saturday Evening Post, 1939-1942, p. 13 (Caxton Press 2003).
  5. ^ Godfrey Hodgson (2006). Woodrow Wilson's right hand: the life of Colonel Edward M. House. Yale University Press. p. 126.
  6. ^ "MOOSE ANGRY AND BITTER - Convention Ends in Gloom After Long Fight for Roosevelt. NAME HIM AMID CHEERS Three Minutes Afterward They Hear of the Republican Stampede to Hughes. COLONEL'S LETTER A BOMB Delegates Disperse Sadly When They Hear That He Conditionally Declines to Run. MOOSE CONVENTION CLOSES IN GLOOM" (PDF). The New York Times. June 11, 1916. Retrieved August 18, 2016.
  7. ^ "BULL MOOSE CHIEFS GOING TO OYSTER BAY - Gov. Johnson and Others to Visit Roosevelt This Week to Discuss Party's Plans. DIVIDED ON THE FUTURE Some Leaders Insist on Third Ticket - - Henry Allen Announces He Will Support Hughes" (PDF). The New York Times. June 12, 1916. Retrieved August 18, 2016.
  8. ^ Special to The New York Times. (June 27, 1916). "HUGHES INDORSED BY MOOSE COMMITTEE - National Body Adopts Suggestion of Roosevelt, 32 to 6, With 9 Members Not Voting. MOOSE INDORSES, HUGHES ACCEPTS" (PDF). The New York Times. Retrieved August 18, 2016.
  9. ^ "MOOSE CONVENTION MAY NAME WILSON - Second Progressive National Gathering Will Meet at Chicago Aug. 5. LOOK TO COLBY TO LEAD Insurgents Get Democratic Assurances That They Will Have No Reason to Regret Flop" (PDF). The New York Times. July 25, 1916. Retrieved August 18, 2016.
  10. ^ a b "MOOSE WON'T NAME ANOTHER CANDIDATE - Leaders at Indianapolis Conference, However, Severely Criticise Indorsement of Hughes. CALL ACTION A BETRAYAL Plan to Name Electoral Tickets in Some States and Unite with Other Parties After Election MOOSE WON'T NAME ANOTHER CANDIDATE" (PDF). The New York Times. August 4, 1916. Retrieved August 18, 2016.
  11. ^ "A.L. BENSON HEADS SOCIALIST TICKET - Yonkers Man Nominated for the Presidency in Primary Taken by Mail. BALLOTS TOTALED 32,398 G.R. Kirkpatrick Chosen for Vice President - Berger and Hillquit Also Win" (PDF). The New York Times. March 12, 1916. Retrieved August 18, 2016.
  12. ^ John Milton Cooper, Jr., Woodrow Wilson (2009) pp 341-2, 352, 360
  13. ^ Merlo J. Pusey, Charles Evans Hughes (1951) vol 1 p 356
  14. ^ The Presidential Vote, 1896-1932 – Google Books. Stanford University Press. 1934. Retrieved August 12, 2014.
  15. ^ David Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections; 1916 Election Statistics
  16. ^ The Presidential Vote, 1896-1932, Edgar E. Robinson, pg. 17
  17. ^ The Presidential Vote, 1896-1932, Edgar E. Robinson, pg. 17-19
  18. ^ a b The Presidential Vote, 1896-1932, Edgar E. Robinson, pg. 19
  19. ^ "1916 Presidential General Election Data - National". Uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved April 15, 2013.

Bibliography

  • Cooper, Jr., John Milton. Woodrow Wilson (2009), ch 16.
  • Davies, Gareth, and Julian E. Zelizer, eds. America at the Ballot Box: Elections and Political History (2015) pp. 118–38.
  • Gould, Lewis L. The First Modern Clash Over Federal Power: Wilson Versus Hughes in the Presidential Election of 1916 (University Press of Kansas; 2016) 178 pages.
  • Leary, William M., Jr. (1967). "Woodrow Wilson, Irish Americans, and the Election of 1916". The Journal of American History. 54 (1): 57–72. doi:10.2307/1900319. JSTOR 1900319.
  • Link, Arthur Stanley (1954). Woodrow Wilson and the Progressive Era, 1910–1917. New York: Harper.
  • Link, Arthur Stanley (1965). Wilson: Campaigns For Progressivism and Peace 1916–1917. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Lovell, S. D. (1980). The Presidential Election of 1916. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press. ISBN 0-8093-0965-3.
  • Pietrusza, David (2018). TR's Last War: Theodore Roosevelt, the Great War, and a Journey of Triumph and Tragedy. Guilford (CT): Lyons Press.
  • Pusey, Merlo J. (1951). Charles Evans Hughes. 1. New York: Macmillan. volume 1 ch 31-34

External links

1916 Democratic National Convention

The 1916 Democratic National Convention was held at the St. Louis Coliseum in St. Louis, Missouri from June 14 to June 16, 1916. It resulted in the nomination of President Woodrow Wilson and Vice President Thomas R. Marshall for reelection.

1916 United States presidential election in Arizona

The 1916 United States presidential election in Arizona took place on November 7, 1916, as part of the 1916 United States presidential election. Arizona voters chose three representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Arizona was won by incumbent President Woodrow Wilson (D–New Jersey), running with incumbent Vice President Thomas R. Marshall, with 57.17% of the popular vote, against Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court Charles Evans Hughes (R–New York), running with former Vice President Charles W. Fairbanks, with 35.37% of the popular vote.

1916 United States presidential election in California

The 1916 United States presidential election in California refers to how California participated in the 1916 United States presidential election. California narrowly voted for the Democratic incumbent, Woodrow Wilson, over the Republican nominee, Associate Justice Charles Evans Hughes.

Although very close, this was not as close as the previous election or the equally critical 1892 election in the Golden State, and was only the third-closest state in a thrilling election behind New Hampshire and Minnesota. Following on from breaking half-a-dozen county droughts in 1912, Wilson became the first Democrat to carry Santa Barbara County and Plumas County since Stephen A. Douglas in 1860, and the first to carry the counties of Santa Cruz and Placer since James Buchanan in 1856. Had Hughes won California, he would have won the election despite losing the popular vote. This is the last election in which a Republican candidate carried Los Angeles County but failed to carry the state of California. This is also the most recent election when California would decide the overall winner a presidential election, despite routinely having among the highest, or highest amount of electoral votes in future subsequent years.

1916 United States presidential election in Florida

The 1916 United States presidential election in Florida took place on November 7, 1916. All contemporary 48 states were part of the 1916 United States presidential election. Florida voters chose six electors to the Electoral College, which selected the President and Vice President.

Despite a rare four-way contest, the state was won handily by the incumbent Democratic President Woodrow Wilson. He garnered 69.34 percent of the vote, winning against the Republican nominee Charles Evans Hughes by a margin of 51.24 percent. He also won against Socialist candidate Allan L. Benson and Prohibition candidate Frank Hanly.

1916 United States presidential election in Georgia

The 1916 United States presidential election in Georgia took place on November 7, 1916, as part of the wider United States Presidential election. Voters chose fourteen representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

1916 United States presidential election in Illinois

The 1916 United States presidential election in Illinois was held on November 7, 1916. Illinois voters chose twenty-nine electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Illinois was won by the Republican nominee Charles Evans Hughes with 52.56% of the popular vote. Hughes was the first presidential candidate to garner over a million votes in a single state, due to Illinois having allowed women to cast votes for electors, though not yet for other offices.

With 52.56% of the vote, Illinois would proved to be Hughes' fifth strongest state in terms of popular votes percentage after Vermont, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Iowa.

1916 United States presidential election in Massachusetts

The 1916 United States presidential election in Massachusetts took place on November 7, 1916, as part of the 1916 United States presidential election, which was held throughout all contemporary 48 states. Voters chose eighteen representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Massachusetts was won by the Republican nominee, U.S. Supreme Court Justice Charles Evans Hughes of New York, and his running mate Senator Charles W. Fairbanks of Indiana. Hughes and Fairbanks defeated the Democratic nominees, incumbent Democratic President Woodrow Wilson and Vice President Thomas R. Marshall.

Hughes carried the state with 50.54 percent, to Wilson's 46.61 percent, a Republican victory margin of 3.93 percent. Coming in a distant third was Socialist candidate Allan L. Benson, who took 2.08%.

Massachusetts had long been a typical Yankee Republican bastion in the wake of the Civil War, having voted Republican in every election from 1856 through 1908. However, in 1912, former Republican President Theodore Roosevelt had run as a third party candidate against incumbent Republican President William Howard Taft, splitting the Republican vote and allowing Woodrow Wilson as the Democratic candidate to win Massachusetts with a plurality of only 35.53 percent of the vote. With the Republican base re-united behind Hughes in 1916, Massachusetts was returned to the Republican column.

Hughes won twelve out of fourteen counties in the State of Massachusetts, while Wilson won only two. The race was kept close statewide by the fact that Wilson carried Suffolk County, home to the state's capital and largest city, Boston. Wilson's only other county victory was the small island of Nantucket. However both candidates had fair levels of support across the state, as neither got more than 60% of the vote in any county. As Wilson narrowly won re-election nationwide, Massachusetts ended weighing in as about 7% more Republican than the national average.

Wilson is the last Democrat to win a presidential election while losing either Massachusetts or neighboring Rhode Island, although he had previously carried both states in 1912.

1916 United States presidential election in Michigan

The 1916 United States presidential election in Michigan took place on November 7, 1916, as part of the 1916 United States presidential election. Michigan voters chose fifteen representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Michigan voted for Republican candidate Charles E. Hughes over Democratic incumbent Woodrow Wilson, carrying over 52% of the popular vote.

1916 United States presidential election in Minnesota

The 1916 United States presidential election in Minnesota took place on November 7, 1916, in Minnesota as part of the 1916 United States presidential election.

The Republican candidate, former Associate Justice of the Supreme Court Charles Evans Hughes won the state over incumbent President Woodrow Wilson by a margin of just 392 votes, or 0.1011968% (one vote in 988). This is the fifteenth-closest statewide presidential election on record, and although it was only the second-closest result in 1916, there was not to be a closer result until Adlai Stevenson II won Kentucky by 700 of 993,148 votes in 1952.

Wilson’s performance was the closest any Democrat had come to carrying Republican stronghold Minnesota since Minnesota's statehood inception in 1858 – he was almost five percent ahead of his losing margin in 1912 when the state was won by Progressive Theodore Roosevelt. Wilson comfortably won the urban counties of Ramsey, Hennepin and St. Louis, which became rigid strongholds for the Democratic Party. Wilson also led Hughes in the socialist strongholds of the forestry- and mining-dominated northern counties. Nevertheless, Hughes won the state with dominance of the farming districts in the south and his ability to carry fifty-three of eighty-seven state counties. Wilson was however the first Democrat to ever carry Lake, Kandiyohi, Saint Louis, Norman, Todd, Lyon, Murray and Martin Counties, the first to carry Carlton County since Winfield S. Hancock in 1880, and the first to win Hubbard County since Grover Cleveland in 1888.Nationally, Wilson won the election, with 277 electoral votes and a tight 3.12% lead over Hughes in the popular vote. Wilson’s re-election was the first instance in which a Democratic President was elected to a second consecutive term since Andrew Jackson’s 1832 re-election.

As of the 2016 presidential election, this would be the last time that a Democrat would win the presidency without carrying Minnesota.

Minnesota held its first Presidential Primary on March 14, 1916.

1916 United States presidential election in Montana

The 1916 United States presidential election in Montana took place on November 7, 1916. Voters chose four representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Montana overwhelmingly voted for the Democratic nominee, President Woodrow Wilson, over the Republican nominee, U.S. Supreme Court Justice and former New York Governor Charles Evans Hughes. Wilson won Montana by a large margin of 19.31 percent.

1916 United States presidential election in New Hampshire

The 1916 United States presidential election in New Hampshire took place on November 7, 1916, as part of the 1916 United States presidential election which was held throughout all contemporary 48 states. Voters chose four representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

New Hampshire was won by the Democratic nominees, incumbent Democratic President Woodrow Wilson and Vice President Thomas R. Marshall. They defeated Republican nominee, U.S. Supreme Court Justice Charles Evans Hughes of New York, and his running mate Senator Charles W. Fairbanks of Indiana.

Wilson won New Hampshire by a very narrow margin of just 0.06283 percent (one vote in 1,592) and fifty-six popular votes. In terms of popular vote margin, this is the third-closest state presidential election race on record, behind two in Maryland from 1832 and 1904. In terms of percentage, it stands as the ninth-closest behind the two Maryland elections above, two from California in 1892 and 1912, Kentucky in 1896, Hawaii’s inaugural 1960 election, and the 2000 Florida and New Mexico elections.

The giant Rexall drugstore chain made an early opinion poll that predicted Wilson’s narrow victory in the Granite State and in California almost perfectly, leading to a reputation for accuracy that was to be lost twenty years subsequently.

This was the first time since 1852 that Sullivan County voted for a Democratic candidate.

1916 United States presidential election in New York

The 1916 United States presidential election in New York took place on November 7, 1916. All contemporary 48 states were part of the 1916 United States presidential election. New York voters chose forty-five electors to the Electoral College, which selected the president and vice president.

New York was won by the Republican nominee, U.S. Supreme Court Justice Charles Evans Hughes of New York, and his running mate Indiana Senator Charles W. Fairbanks. Hughes and Fairbanks defeated the Democratic nominees, incumbent Democratic President Woodrow Wilson and Vice President Thomas R. Marshall.

A former Governor of New York, Hughes won his home state fairly comfortably, taking 51.53 percent of the vote to Wilson’s 44.51 percent, a victory margin of 7.02 percent. Coming in a distant third was Socialist candidate Allan L. Benson, who took 2.69 percent, mainly among Jewish Americans in New York City.New York in this era was a Republican state in presidential elections; however in 1912, a strong third party run by former Republican President Theodore Roosevelt against the incumbent Republican President William Howard Taft had split the Republican vote, and had enabled Woodrow Wilson as the Democratic candidate to win New York State’s electoral votes in 1912 with a plurality of only 41 percent. With the Republicans re-united behind Charles Evans Hughes in 1916, and criticism of Wilson’s politicize already emanating from the Democrats’ Irish-American base,. New York returned to the Republican column, and delivered a fairly comfortable win to Hughes even as Wilson won re-election nationwide. Hughes’ seven percent margin of victory made New York State a strong ten percent more Republican than the national average in the 1916 election.

Nonetheless, this was the last occasion until 1964 that the Democratic Party carried Hamilton County, Schoharie County, Otsego County and Chemung County. Except for Chemung these were historically German or Dutch and usually Democratic rural counties that would turn permanently to the GOP amidst the fallout from World War I.Hughes' victory in the state made him the second Republican presidential candidate to win New York without winning the election, the first was John C. Frémont in 1856 and the third was Thomas E. Dewey in 1948. Hughes also became the first losing candidate to win the state since Samuel J. Tilden in 1876.

1916 United States presidential election in Pennsylvania

The 1916 United States presidential election in Pennsylvania took place on November 7, 1916 as part of the 1916 United States presidential election. Voters chose 38 representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Pennsylvania overwhelmingly voted for the Republican nominee, U.S. Supreme Court Justice and former New York Governor Charles Evans Hughes, over the Democratic nominee, President Woodrow Wilson. Hughes won Pennsylvania by a large margin of 14.04 percentage points.

With 56.26% of the vote, Pennsylvania would proved to be Hughes' third strongest state in terms of popular votes percentage after Vermont and neighboring New Jersey.

1916 United States presidential election in South Carolina

The 1916 United States presidential election in South Carolina took place on November 7, 1916, as part of the 1916 United States Presidential Election which was held throughout all contemporary 48 states. Voters chose nine representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

South Carolina was won by the Democratic nominees, incumbent Democratic President Woodrow Wilson and Vice President Thomas R. Marshall. They defeated Republican nominee, U.S. Supreme Court Justice Charles Evans Hughes of New York, and his running mate Senator Charles W. Fairbanks of Indiana.

Wilson won South Carolina by a landslide margin of 94.29 percent.

1916 United States presidential election in Vermont

The 1916 United States presidential election in Vermont took place on November 7, 1916, as part of the 1916 United States Presidential Election which was held throughout all contemporary 48 states. Voters chose 4 representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Vermont was won by the Republican nominee, U.S. Supreme Court Justice Charles Evans Hughes of New York, and his running mate Senator Charles W. Fairbanks of Indiana. Hughes and Fairbanks defeated the Democratic nominees, incumbent Democratic President Woodrow Wilson and Vice President Thomas R. Marshall.

Hughes won a decisive victory with 62.43 percent of the vote, to Wilson’s 35.22 percent, a Republican victory margin of 27.21 percentage points.

Vermont historically was a bastion of liberal Northeastern Republicanism, and by 1916 the Green Mountain State had gone Republican in every presidential election since the founding of the Republican Party. From 1856 to 1912, Vermont had had the longest streak of voting Republican of any state, having never voted Democratic before, and this tradition continued in 1916.

In 1912, Vermont had been one of only two states (along with Utah) to vote for incumbent Republican President William Howard Taft, who was pushed into third place nationally by the strong third party candidacy of Theodore Roosevelt, a former Republican president who had run in 1912 with his own Bull Moose Party. Taft and Roosevelt had split the Republican vote nationally in 1912, and in Vermont, Taft edged out Roosevelt 37-35, while Wilson had received only 24 percent of the vote. With the Republican base re-united behind Charles Evans Hughes in 1916, the GOP scored a landslide win in Vermont with over 62 percent of the vote, although Wilson also gained 11 points in support from his 1912 showing.

Hughes carried thirteen of the state’s fourteen counties, breaking sixty percent of the vote in 8 of them, and even breaking 70% in 2 counties. Wilson’s only county victory came from sparsely populated Grand Isle County in the far northwest of the state, which had also been the only county in the state to give Wilson a plurality win in 1912. This was the first election since 1852 in which a Democratic candidate earned more than forty percent of the vote in any Vermont county.

As Wilson narrowly won re-election nationally, Vermont weighed in as over 30% more Republican than the national average in the 1916 election, making it the most Republican state in the union.

1916 United States presidential election in Virginia

The 1916 United States presidential election in Virginia took place on November 7, 1916. Voters chose twelve representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Virginia voted for the Democratic nominee, incumbent President Woodrow Wilson, over the Republican nominee, former U.S. Supreme Court Justice Charles E. Hughes. Wilson ultimately won the national election with 49.24 percent of the vote.

1916 United States presidential election in West Virginia

The 1916 United States presidential election in West Virginia took place on November 7, 1916, as part of the 1916 United States Presidential Election which was held throughout all contemporary 48 states. Voters chose eight representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

West Virginia was won by the Republican nominee, U.S. Supreme Court Justice Charles Evans Hughes of New York, and his running mate Senator Charles W. Fairbanks of Indiana. Hughes and Fairbanks defeated the Democratic nominees, incumbent Democratic President Woodrow Wilson and Vice President Thomas R. Marshall.

Hughes won the Mountain state by a very narrow margin of 0.94%. Despite Hughes' win in the state, a faithless electoral gave Wilson one electoral vote. This was the first time that West Virginia had a faithless elector and it would be the only time so until 1988. This was also the first time a losing Republican presidential candidate would win the state and the only one until John McCain won West Virginia in 2008.

1916 United States presidential election in Wisconsin

The 1916 United States presidential election in Wisconsin was held on November 7, 1916. Wisconsin voters chose thirteen electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Republican Party candidate Charles Evans Hughes won the state with 49% of the popular vote, winning Wisconsin's thirteen electoral votes.

1916 United States presidential election in Wyoming

The 1916 United States presidential election in Wyoming took place on November 7, 1916, as part of the 1916 United States presidential election. Wyoming voters chose three representatives, or electors, to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

In 1912 Wyoming had been the eighth-best state for embattled Republican nominee William Howard Taft. However, in contrast to the East where supporters of Theodore Roosevelt's "Bull Moose" Party rapidly returned to the Republicans, in the Mountain States many if not most of these supporters turned to the Democratic Party not only in presidential elections, but also in state and federal legislative ones. Another factor helping Wilson was a powerful "peace vote" in the Western states due to opposition to participation in World War I, and a third was that a considerable part of the substantial vote for Eugene Debs from the previous election was turned over to Wilson owing to such Progressive reforms as the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Amendments.Consequently, Wilson was able not merely to hold Wyoming from 1912, but to increase his margin by over ten percentage points to carry the state by 12.76 percent. This is the third best Democratic performance in the history of presidential elections in Wyoming, behind Franklin Delano Roosevelt's landslide wins in 1932 and 1936. Wilson became the first Democratic presidential candidate to carry the counties of Carbon, Converse, Lincoln, Natrona, Niobrara, and Washakie. As of the 2016 presidential election, this election is the last time Wyoming has voted more Democratic than the nation at-large.

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