1916 Summer Olympics

The 1916 Summer Olympics (German: Olympische Sommerspiele 1916), officially known as the Games of the VI Olympiad, were scheduled to be held in Berlin, Germany, but were eventually cancelled due to the outbreak of World War I. Berlin was selected as the host city during the 14th IOC Session in Stockholm on 4 July 1912,[1] defeating bids from Alexandria, Amsterdam, Brussels, Budapest and Cleveland.[2] After the 1916 Games were cancelled, Berlin would eventually host the 1936 Summer Olympics, twenty years later.

Games of the VI Olympiad
Host cityBerlin, Germany
StadiumDeutsches Stadion
Stockholm 1912 Antwerp 1920
Parade of Turners at opening of the 1916 Summer Olympics (Berlin)
Parade for the opening of the stadium on 8 June 1913

History

Work on the stadium, the Deutsches Stadion ("German Stadium"), began in 1912 at what was the Grunewald Race Course. It was planned to seat more than 18,000 spectators.[3] On 8 June 1913, the stadium was dedicated with the release of 10,000 pigeons. 60,000 people were in attendance.[4]

At the outbreak of World War I in 1914, organization continued as no one expected that the war would continue for several years. Eventually, though, the Games were cancelled.[5]

A winter sports week with speed skating, figure skating, ice hockey and Nordic skiing was planned; the concept of this week eventually gave rise to the first Winter Olympic Games. The central venue was to have been the Deutsches Stadion.

Berlin returned to Olympic bidding in 1931, when it beat Barcelona, Spain, for the right to host the 1936 Summer Olympics, the last Olympics before the outbreak of World War II.[6]

See also

References

  1. ^ Bill Mallon and Jeroen Heijmans, Historical Dictionary of the Olympic Movement (Scarecrow Press, 2011) xiv
  2. ^ "Past Olympic host city election results". GamesBids. Archived from the original on 17 March 2011. Retrieved 17 March 2011.
  3. ^ "Berlin Stadium Is Begun. Olympic Meeting Place to be at the Grunewald Race Course" (PDF). New York Times. 11 August 1912. Retrieved 23 July 2009. Work has already been begun on the Olympic Stadium for 1916. Its opening will take place next year, when sports will be held there to celebrate the ...
  4. ^ "60,000 Dedicate Berlin Stadium. Ten Thousand Pigeons Carry Address on Athletics and Patriotism to All Parts of Empire" (PDF). New York Times. 9 June 1913. Retrieved 23 July 2009. In the presence the Kaiser and his sons and a great concourse of notables, the Berlin Stadium was opened today. ...
  5. ^ Pelle, Kimberly D.; Findling, John E. (1996). Historical dictionary of the modern Olympic movement. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press. pp. 47–53. ISBN 0-313-28477-6.
  6. ^ Guttmann, Allen (2002). The Olympics, a history of the modern games. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. p. 53. ISBN 0-252-07046-1.
Preceded by
Stockholm
Summer Olympic Games
Berlin (abandoned)

VI Olympiad (1916)
Succeeded by
Antwerp
1936 Summer Olympics medal table

The 1936 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XI Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event held in Berlin, Germany, from 1 August to 16 August. Berlin had previously been chosen to host the 1916 Summer Olympics, which were subsequently cancelled due to the First World War. The 1936 Games had 3,963 athletes from 49 National Olympic Committees (NOCs) participating in a total of 129 events in 19 sports. This was the highest number of nations represented at any Games to date. Athletes from 32 NOCs won medals, of which 21 secured at least one gold medal. As a result, 17 NOCs were left without any medal. The host NOC, Germany, received a total of 89 medals, a record for a united German team, although East Germany broke that record in 1976, 1980 and 1988.A boycott by the United States was suggested due to Germany's National Socialist regime, but it was not implemented. The other NOCs which threatened to boycott the Games for the same reason were the United Kingdom, France, Sweden, Czechoslovakia and the Netherlands. An alternative People's Olympiad was planned to take place in Barcelona, Spain, but was cancelled at the last moment following the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War after the athletes had already begun to arrive. The civil war also meant that Spain's NOC did not compete at the 1936 Games. While no NOCs ended up boycotting the Games on anti-Nazi grounds, a multinational Jewish-led boycott of the Games took place, with individual athletes refusing to take part. Also, the IAAFs' refusal to allow athletes from Northern Ireland to compete for the Irish Olympic Council in athletics events led the Irish Free State to boycott.Marjorie Gestring became the youngest Olympic champion ever at the age of 13, winning a gold medal in the women's 3 meter springboard. As Korea was under Japanese rule, Korean athletes who hoped to compete in the Games were required to qualify for the Japanese team. Sohn Kee-chung, competing as Kitei Son, won gold in the marathon, which made him Japan's first gold medalist at these Games and the first Korean ever to win a medal. His fellow countryman Nam Sung-yong won the bronze medal in the same event.

Archery at the 1920 Summer Olympics

Archery at the 1920 Summer Olympics in Antwerp marked the return of the sport after a 12-year absence following it not being contested in the 1912 Summer Olympics and the cancellation of the 1916 Summer Olympics due to World War I. The only competitors were men, and from only three countries. Belgium sent 14 archers, while France and the Netherlands each sent 8.

Deutsches Stadion (Berlin)

Deutsches Stadion was a multi-use sports stadium in Berlin, Germany. It was located in the present-day Westend quarter on the northern rim of the large Grunewald forest. Built according to plans designed by Otto March, it was opened on 8 June 1913, on the occasion of Emperor Wilhelm's II silver jubilee, due to host the 1916 Summer Olympics that were cancelled after the outbreak of World War I. The stadium was demolished 20 years later and replaced by the current Olympiastadion.

Sailing at the 1920 Summer Olympics

Sailing/Yachting is an Olympic sport starting from the Games of the 1st Olympiad (1896 Olympics in Athens, Greece). With the exception of 1904 and the canceled 1916 Summer Olympics, sailing has always been included on the Olympic schedule.

The Sailing program of 1920 was open for a total of sixteen sailing classes (disciplines), but actually only fourteen Sailing events were contested, because of at the 8.5 metre and 9 metre classes there were no entrants. For each class three races were scheduled from 7 July 1920 to 10 July 1920 off the coast of Ostend at the North Sea.

Sailing at the 1924 Summer Olympics

Sailing/Yachting is an Olympic sport starting from the Games of the 1st Olympiad (1896 Olympics in Athens, Greece). With the exception of 1904 and the canceled 1916 Summer Olympics, sailing has always been included on the Olympic schedule.

The Sailing program of 1924 consisted of a total of three sailing classes (disciplines). For each of the classes the event an elimination round, semi-finals and finals were scheduled. The French National Monotype 1924 was on the program from 10 to 13 July. The Metre classes (6 and 8) had their races from the 21 to 26 July.

Sailing at the 1936 Summer Olympics

Sailing/Yachting is an Olympic sport starting from the Games of the 1st Olympiad (1896 Olympics in Athens, Greece). With the exception of 1904 and the canceled 1916 Summer Olympics, sailing has always been included on the Olympic schedule.

The Sailing program of 1936 consisted of a total of four sailing classes (disciplines). For each class seven races were scheduled from 29 August 1936 to 8 September 1936 at the Firth of Kiel.

Sailing at the 1956 Summer Olympics

Sailing/Yachting is an Olympic sport starting from the Games of the 1st Olympiad (1896 Olympics in Greece. With the exception of 1904 and the canceled 1916 Summer Olympics, sailing has always been included on the Olympic schedule.

The Sailing program of 1956 consisted of a total of five sailing classes (disciplines). For each class seven races were scheduled from 26 November to 5 December 1956 at Port Phillip Bay.

The sailing was done on the triangular type Olympic courses. The start was made in the center of a set of 8 numbered marks that were places in a circle. During the starting procedure the sequence of the marks was communicated to the sailors. By picking the mark that was most upwind the start could always be made upwind. This system is, at least in certain German lakes, still in use.

Sailing at the 1960 Summer Olympics

Sailing/Yachting is an Olympic sport starting from the Games of the 1st Olympiad (1896 Olympics in Athens, Greece). With the exception of 1904 and the canceled 1916 Summer Olympics, sailing has always been included on the Olympic schedule.

The Sailing program of 1960 consisted of a total of five sailing classes (disciplines). For each class seven races were scheduled from 29 August 1960 to 7 September 1960 off the coast of Naples at the Gulf of Naples.

The sailing was done on the triangular type Olympic courses. The start was made in the center of a set of 8 numbered marks that were places in a circle. During the starting procedure the sequence of the marks was communicated to the sailors. By picking the mark that was most upwind the start could always be made upwind. This system is, at least in certain German lakes, still in use.

Sailing at the 1964 Summer Olympics

Sailing/Yachting is an Olympic sport starting from the Games of the 1st Olympiad (1896 Olympics in Athens Greece. With the exception of 1904 and the canceled 1916 Summer Olympics, sailing has always been included on the Olympic schedule.

The Sailing program of 1964 consisted of a total of five sailing classes (disciplines). For each class, seven races were scheduled; these took place from 12 October to 23 October 1964 off the coast of Enoshima in Sagami Bay.

The sailing was done on the triangular type Olympic courses.

Sailing at the 1968 Summer Olympics

Sailing/Yachting is an Olympic sport starting from the Games of the 1st Olympiad (1896 Olympics) in Athens, Greece. With the exception of 1904 and the canceled 1916 Summer Olympics, sailing has always been included on the Olympic schedule.

The Sailing program of 1968 consisted of a total of five sailing classes (disciplines). For each class seven races were scheduled from 14 October 1968 to 21 October 1968 off the coast of Acapulco in the Bay of Acapulco.

The sailing was done on the triangular type Olympic courses.

Sailing at the 1972 Summer Olympics

Sailing/Yachting is an Olympic sport starting from the Games of the 1st Olympiad (1896 Olympics in Athens, Greece). With the exception of 1904 and the canceled 1916 Summer Olympics, sailing has always been included on the Olympic schedule.

The Sailing program of 1972 consisted of a total of six sailing classes (disciplines). For each class seven races were scheduled from 29 August 1972 to 8 September 1972 of the coast of Kiel-Schilksee in the Bay of Kiel. Kiel hosted the Olympic sailing competitions for the second time, having previously done so during the 1936 Summer Olympics.

The sailing was done on the triangular type Olympic courses.

Sailing at the 1976 Summer Olympics

Sailing/Yachting is an Olympic sport starting from the Games of the 1st Olympiad (1896 Olympics in Athens, Greece). With the exception of 1904 and the canceled 1916 Summer Olympics, sailing has always been included on the Olympic schedule.

The sailing program of 1976 consisted of six sailing classes (disciplines). For each class, seven races were scheduled from 19 July 1976 to 27 July 1976 off the coast of Kingston, Ontario, on Lake Ontario.

The sailing was done on the triangular-type Olympic courses.

Sailing at the 1980 Summer Olympics

Sailing/Yachting is an Olympic sport starting from the Games of the 1st Olympiad (1896 Olympics in Athens, Greece). With the exception of 1904 and the canceled 1916 Summer Olympics, sailing has always been included on the Olympic schedule.

The Sailing program of 1980 consisted of a total of six sailing classes (disciplines). For each class seven races were scheduled from 19 to 29 July 1980 of the coast of Tallinn (district of Pirita), in that time an annexed part of the USSR at the Baltic Sea.

The sailing was done on the triangular type Olympic courses.

Sailing at the 1984 Summer Olympics

Sailing/Yachting is an Olympic sport starting from the Games of the 1st Olympiad (1896 Olympics in Athens, Greece). With the exception of 1904 and possibly the canceled 1916 Summer Olympics, sailing has always been included on the Olympic schedule. sailing was always a part of the Olympic program.

The Sailing program of 1984 consisted of a total of seven sailing classes (disciplines). For each class seven races were scheduled from 31 July 1984 to 8 August 1984 of the coast of Long Beach, Los Angeles County, California at the Pacific Ocean. Los Angeles hosted the Olympic sailing competitions for the second time, having previously done so during the 1932 Summer Olympics.

The sailing was done on the triangular type Olympic courses.

Sailing at the 1988 Summer Olympics

Sailing/Yachting is an Olympic sport starting from the 1896 Olympics in Athens, Greece). With the exception of 1904 and possibly the canceled 1916 Summer Olympics, sailing has always been included on the Olympic schedule.

The Sailing program of 1988 consisted of a total of eight sailing classes (disciplines). For each class seven races were scheduled from September 20, 1988 to September 27, 1988

of the coast of Busan and was the first time that a separate event was allocated exclusively for women (sailed in the 470 class).

The sailing was done on the triangular type Olympic courses.

Sailing at the 1992 Summer Olympics

Sailing/Yachting is an Olympic sport starting from the Games of the 1st Olympiad (1896 Olympics in Athens, Greece). With the exception of 1904 and possibly the canceled 1916 Summer Olympics, sailing has always been included on the Olympic schedule.

The Sailing program of 1992 consisted of a total of ten sailing classes (disciplines). For each class races were scheduled from July 27, 1992 to August 4, 1992 of the coast of Barcelona, Spain on the Mediterranean Sea

Sailing at the 1996 Summer Olympics

Sailing/Yachting is an Olympic sport starting from the Games of the 1st Olympiad (1896 Olympics in Athens, Greece). With the exception of 1904 and possibly the canceled 1916 Summer Olympics, sailing has always been included on the Olympic schedule.

The Sailing program of 1996 consisted of a total of ten sailing classes (disciplines). For each class, with the exception of the Soling, eleven races were scheduled from July 22 to August 2, 1996 off the coast of Savannah at the Wassaw Sound (an area of the Atlantic Ocean). For the Soling ten fleetraces were scheduled followed by a series of matchraces for the top 6 boats of the fleetrace result.

Sailing at the 2004 Summer Olympics

Sailing/Yachting is an Olympic sport that has been part of the Olympic programme starting from the Games of the 1st Olympiad (1896 Olympics in Athens, Greece). With the exception of 1904 and possibly the canceled 1916 Summer Olympics, sailing has always been included on the Olympic schedule. The Sailing program in 2004 consisted of eleven disciplines divided over nine sailing classes. For each discipline multiple races were scheduled between 14–28 August 2004 along the coast near Athens. Athens hosted the Olympic sailing competitions for the second time, having previously done so during the 1896 Summer Olympics. However, in 1896, the sailing competition was cancelled due to heavy storms and further bad weather conditions. This time the weather conditions were good. The sailing event was executed on the several types of Olympic courses in different course areas using the 'Fleetrace' and 'Matchrace' formats.

Sailing at the 2008 Summer Olympics

Sailing/Yachting is an Olympic sport starting from the Games of the 1st Olympiad (1896 Olympics in Athens, Greece). With the exception of 1904 and possibly the cancelled 1916 Summer Olympics, sailing has always been included on the Olympic schedule.

The Sailing program of 2008 consisted of a total of nine sailing classes (eleven disciplines). Eleven races are scheduled for each event except for the 49er class, for which 16 races are scheduled from 9 August 2008 to 21 August 2008 of the coast of the Qingdao International Sailing Centre facing the Yellow Sea. Of the 11 (16) races, 10 (15) are scheduled as opening races and one as a medal race. The sailing was done on four different types of courses.

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