1916 Democratic National Convention

The 1916 Democratic National Convention was held at the St. Louis Coliseum in St. Louis, Missouri from June 14 to June 16, 1916. It resulted in the nomination of President Woodrow Wilson and Vice President Thomas R. Marshall for reelection.

1916 Democratic National Convention St Louis
Review of reviews and world's work (1890) (14598159317)
St. Louis (4295271045) (cropped)
1916 Democratic National Convention
1916 presidential election
President Woodrow Wilson portrait December 2 1912 (3x4)
Thomas Riley Marshall headshot (3x4 b)
Wilson and Marshall
Date(s)June 14–16, 1916
CitySt. Louis, Missouri
VenueSt. Louis Coliseum
Presidential nomineeWoodrow Wilson of New Jersey
Vice Presidential nomineeThomas R. Marshall of Indiana

See also

External links

Preceded by
Baltimore, Maryland
Democratic National Conventions Succeeded by
San Francisco, California
1916 Democratic Party presidential primaries

The 1916 Democratic presidential primaries were the selection process by which voters of the Democratic Party chose its nominee for President of the United States in the 1916 U.S. presidential election. Incumbent President Woodrow Wilson was selected as the nominee through a series of primary elections and caucuses culminating in the 1916 Democratic National Convention held from June 14 to June 16, 1916, in St. Louis, Missouri.

1916 Republican National Convention

The 1916 Republican National Convention was held in Chicago from June 7 to June 10. A major goal of the party's bosses at the convention was to heal the bitter split within the party that had occurred in the 1912 presidential campaign. In that year, Theodore Roosevelt bolted the GOP and formed his own political party, the Progressive Party, which contained most of the GOP's liberals. William Howard Taft, the incumbent president, won the nomination of the regular Republican Party. This split in the GOP ranks divided the Republican vote and led to the election of Democrat Woodrow Wilson. Although several candidates were openly competing for the 1916 nomination—most prominently conservative Senator Elihu Root of New York, Senator John W. Weeks of Massachusetts, and liberal Senator Albert Cummins of Iowa—the party's bosses wanted a moderate who would be acceptable to all factions of the party. They turned to Supreme Court Justice Charles Evans Hughes, who had served on the court since 1910 and thus had the advantage of not having publicly spoken about political issues in six years. Although he had not sought the nomination, Hughes made it known that he would not turn it down; he won the nomination on the third ballot. Former Vice-President Charles W. Fairbanks was nominated as his running mate. Hughes was the only Supreme Court Justice to be nominated for president by a major political party. Fairbanks (as of 2016) was the last former vice president, to be nominated for vice president.

Then-Senator Warren G. Harding is credited with coining the phrase "Founding Fathers" during his keynote address.

1916 United States presidential election

The United States presidential election of 1916 was the 33rd quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 7, 1916. Incumbent Democratic President Woodrow Wilson defeated Supreme Court Justice Charles Evans Hughes, the Republican candidate. Wilson was the only sitting Democratic president to win re-election between 1832 and 1936.

Wilson was re-nominated without opposition at the 1916 Democratic National Convention. The 1916 Republican National Convention chose Hughes as a compromise between the conservative and progressive wings of the party. Hughes defeated John W. Weeks, Elihu Root, and several other candidates on the third ballot of the convention, becoming the only Supreme Court Justice to serve as a major party's presidential nominee. While conservative and progressive Republicans had been divided in the 1912 election between the candidacies of then-incumbent President William Howard Taft and former President Theodore Roosevelt, they largely united around Hughes in his bid to oust Wilson.

The election took place during the time of the Mexican Revolution and World War I. Although officially neutral in the European conflict, public opinion in the United States leaned towards the Allied forces headed by Great Britain and France against the German Empire and Austria-Hungary, due in large measure to the harsh treatment of civilians by the German Army in Belgium and northern France and the militaristic character of the German and Austrian monarchies, but in spite of their sympathy with the Allied forces most American voters wanted to avoid involvement in the war and preferred to continue a policy of neutrality. Wilson's campaign used the popular slogans "He kept us out of war" and "America First" to appeal to those voters who wanted to avoid a war in Europe or with Mexico. Hughes criticized Wilson for not taking the "necessary preparations" to face a conflict, which only served to strengthen Wilson's image as an anti-war candidate. Ironically, the United States would enter the war in April 1917, one month after Wilson's inauguration as president.

After a hard-fought contest, Wilson defeated Hughes by nearly 600,000 votes in the popular vote. The 1916 election saw an increase in Wilson's popular vote from the four-way election of 1912, but a major decline in the number of electoral votes won. Wilson secured a narrow majority in the Electoral College by sweeping the Solid South and winning several swing states with razor-thin margins. Wilson won California by just 3,773 votes; had he lost California, he would have lost the election. Allan L. Benson of the Socialist Party and Frank Hanly of the Prohibition Party each finished with greater than 1% of the popular vote.

American Commission to Negotiate Peace

The American Commission to Negotiate Peace, successor to The Inquiry, participated in the peace negotiations at the Treaty of Versailles from January 18 to December 9, 1919. Frank Lyon Polk headed the commission in 1919. The peace conference was superseded by the Council of Ambassadors (1920–1931), which was organized to deal with various political questions regarding the implementation of provisions of the Treaty, after the end of World War I. Members of the commission appointed by President Woodrow Wilson included:

Clive Day, an American college professor and writer on economics history at the University of California.

Donald Paige Frary, an American college professor with Yale University, an expert on International Affairs, and author; served as a secretary to Edward M. House.

Edward M. House, a diplomat, politician and presidential foreign policy advisor to President Wilson.

Vance C. McCormick, an American politician and prominent businessman from Harrisburg, Pennsylvania.

Sidney Edward Mezes, an American philosopher and college professor, former president of the City College of New York.

Charles Seymour, an American college professor at Yale University.

William Linn Westermann, then a professor at the University of Wisconsin, who later taught at Cornell and Columbia and became president of the American Historical Association. At the conference, Westermann advised on policy regarding the Near East.

George Louis Beer, colonial historian and Chief of the Colonial Division.

August Lueders

August W. Lueders (August 24, 1853 - December 18, 1929) was an author. He served as the chairman of the Board of Election Commissioners in Chicago, Illinois. He was a delegate to the 1916 Democratic National Convention.

B. F. Morgan

B. F. Morgan was a member of the South Dakota Senate.

Bryan–Chamorro Treaty

The Bryan–Chamorro Treaty was signed between Nicaragua and The United States on August 5, 1914. The Wilson administration changed the treaty by adding a provision similar in language to that of the Platt Amendment, which would have authorized United States military intervention in Nicaragua. The United States Senate opposed the new provision; in response, it was dropped and the treaty was formally ratified on June 19, 1916.

From 1912 to 1925, the United States had amicable relations with the Nicaraguan government because of friendly conservative party presidents Adolfo Diaz, Emiliano Chamorro, and Diego Manuel Chamorro. In exchange for political concessions from the presidents, the United States provided the military strength to ensure the Nicaraguan government internal stability.

The Treaty was named after the principal negotiators: William Jennings Bryan, U. S. Secretary of State; and then General Emiliano Chamorro, representing the Nicaraguan government. By the terms of the treaty, the United States acquired the rights to any canal built in Nicaragua in perpetuity, a renewable 99 year option to establish a naval base in the Gulf of Fonseca and a renewable 99-year lease to the Great and Little Corn Islands in the Caribbean. For those concessions, Nicaragua received three million dollars.

Most of the three million dollars was paid back to foreign creditors by the United States officials in charge of Nicaraguan financial affairs, which allowed the Nicaraguan government to avoid having to pay from its internal revenue the loans it acquired from foreign banks. The debt was amassed by the Nicaraguan government for internal development due to the devastation inflicted from several civil wars waged years prior.

At the request of Nicaragua, the United States under Richard Nixon and Nicaragua under Anastasio Somoza Debayle, held a convention, on July 14, 1970, which officially abolished the treaty and all its provisions.

Federal Employees' Compensation Act

The Federal Employees' Compensation Act (FECA), is a United States federal law, enacted on September 7, 1916. Sponsored by Sen. John W. Kern (D) of Indiana and Rep. Daniel J. McGillicuddy (D) of Maine, it established compensation to federal civil service employees for wages lost due to job-related injuries. This act became the precedent for "disability insurance" across the country and the precursor to broad-coverage health insurance.President Woodrow Wilson signed H.R. 15316 into law on September 7, 1916.The Federal Employees' Compensation Commission was the original administrator of the FECA. However, the Commission did not exist at the time the FECA went into effect and claims accumulated for more than six months while members were selected and sworn into office. The Federal Employees' Compensation Commission officially began its duties on March 14, 1917. The Commission was abolished on May 16, 1946 by President Harry S. Truman as part of the Reorganization Act of 1939. Its duties were transferred to the Federal Security Agency on July 16, 1946.

First inauguration of Woodrow Wilson

The first inauguration of Woodrow Wilson as the 28th President of the United States was held on Tuesday, March 4, 1913, at the east portico of the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C.. The inauguration marked the commencement of the first four-year term of Woodrow Wilson as President and of Thomas R. Marshall as Vice President. Chief Justice Edward D. White administered the presidential oath of office to Wilson.

In his inaugural address, Wilson made clear his vision of the United States and its people as an exemplary moral force: "Nowhere else in the world have noble men and women exhibited in more striking forms the beauty and the energy of sympathy and helpfulness and counsel in their efforts to rectify wrong, alleviate suffering, and set the weak in the way of strength and hope". No inaugural balls were held to celebrate the occasion, as Wilson found them inappropriate for the occasion.

Four Minute Men

The Four Minute Men were a group of volunteers authorized by United States President Woodrow Wilson, to give four-minute speeches on topics given to them by the Committee on Public Information (CPI). In 1917-1918, around 7,555,190 speeches were given in 5,200 communities. The topics dealt with the American war effort in the First World War and were presented during the four minutes between reels changing in movie theaters across the country. Also, the speeches were made to be four minutes so that they could be given at town meetings, restaurants, and other places that had an audience. This is an instance of "viral marketing" before its time.

Francis Bowes Sayre Sr.

Francis Bowes Sayre Sr. (April 30, 1885 – March 29, 1972) was a professor at Harvard Law School, High Commissioner of the Philippines, and a son-in-law of President Woodrow Wilson.

Joseph H. Gainer

Joseph Henry Gainer (January 18, 1878 – December 15, 1945) was the 26th mayor of Providence, Rhode Island. He served seven terms, from 1913 until 1927.

Maurice Connolly

Maurice Connolly (March 13, 1877 – May 28, 1921) was elected in 1912 to a single term as a Democratic member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Iowa's 3rd congressional district. After giving up his House seat in an unsuccessful bid for election to the U.S. Senate in 1914, Connolly then served as an aviation officer in World War I and died in a plane crash in 1921.

National War Labor Board (1918–1919)

The National War Labor Board (NWLB) was an agency of the United States government established on April 8, 1918 to mediate labor disputes during World War I.

Philip H. Gilbert

Philip Henri Gilbert (October 25, 1870 – October 18, 1932) was a lawyer and Democratic politician from Napoleonville in Assumption Parish in South Louisiana.

Gilbert was the district attorney of the Louisiana 27th Judicial District from 1908 to 1916 and judge of the same district from 1916 to 1920. As the President of the Louisiana State Senate from 1924 to 1926, Gilbert succeeded to the lieutenant governorship on an interim basis until the expiration of the regular term in 1928.

Second inauguration of Woodrow Wilson

The second inauguration of Woodrow Wilson as President of the United States was held privately on Sunday, March 4, 1917, and publicly on Monday, March 5, 1917, at the east portico of the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C.. The inauguration marked the commencement of the second four-year term of Woodrow Wilson as President and of Thomas R. Marshall as Vice President. Chief Justice Edward D. White administered the presidential oath of office to Wilson.

Sedition Act of 1918

The Sedition Act of 1918 (Pub.L. 65–150, 40 Stat. 553, enacted May 16, 1918) was an Act of the United States Congress that extended the Espionage Act of 1917 to cover a broader range of offenses, notably speech and the expression of opinion that cast the government or the war effort in a negative light or interfered with the sale of government bonds.It forbade the use of "disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive language" about the United States government, its flag, or its armed forces or that caused others to view the American government or its institutions with contempt. Those convicted under the act generally received sentences of imprisonment for five to 20 years. The act also allowed the Postmaster General to refuse to deliver mail that met those same standards for punishable speech or opinion. It applied only to times "when the United States is in war." The U.S. was in a declared state of war at the time of passage, the First World War. The law was repealed on December 13, 1920.Though the legislation enacted in 1918 is commonly called the Sedition Act, it was actually a set of amendments to the Espionage Act.

Therefore, many studies of the Espionage Act and the Sedition Act find it difficult to report on the two "acts" separately. For example, one historian reports that "some fifteen hundred prosecutions were carried out under the Espionage and Sedition Acts, resulting in more than a thousand convictions." Court decisions do not use the shorthand term Sedition Act, but the correct legal term for the law, the Espionage Act, whether as originally enacted or as amended in 1918.

Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library

The Seeley G. Mudd Manuscript Library is the institutional archives of Princeton University and is part of the Princeton University Library's department of rare books and special collections. The Mudd Library houses two major collection areas: the history of Princeton and the history of twentieth century public policy.

The Mudd Library was designed by Hugh Stubbins and cost $2.5 million at the time of its construction. It was the first building to be designed under the University's energy conservation program and was dedicated on October 16, 1976. Its creation was supported by the Seeley G. Mudd Foundation. The Library currently holds 45,000 linear feet of archived material.

William F. Wolfe

William F. Wolfe was United States Attorney of the Western District of Wisconsin from 1916 to 1917. Previously, he had been a member of the Platform and Resolutions Committee of the 1912 Democratic National Convention and would go on to be a member of the Committee on Rules and Order of Business of the 1916 Democratic National Convention. Also in 1916, Wolfe was a candidate for the United States Senate. He lost to incumbent Robert M. La Follette, Sr..

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