1912 Republican National Convention

The 1912 National Convention of the Republican Party of the United States was held at the Chicago Coliseum, Chicago, Illinois, from June 18 to June 22, 1912. The party nominated President William H. Taft and Vice President James S. Sherman for re-election.

Sherman died days before the election, and was replaced as Republican vice-presidential nominee by Nicholas M. Butler of New York.

1912 Republican National Convention
1912 presidential election
Taft and Sherman
Date(s)June 18–22, 1912
CityChicago, Illinois
VenueChicago Coliseum
Presidential nomineeWilliam H. Taft of Ohio
Vice Presidential nomineeJames S. Sherman of New York
Republican National Convention 1912
The 1912 Republican National Convention in session
Crowd being turned back at Coliseum LOC 2163131283
Crowd outside the convention hall

Party power struggle

This convention marked the beginning of a split in the party, resulting from a power struggle between incumbent Taft and former president Theodore Roosevelt. This was the first year for Republican primaries. Though Roosevelt had endorsed Taft as his successor, Taft's perceived drift to the right had alienated Roosevelt, who launched a challenge to Taft's re-nomination. Roosevelt overwhelmingly won the primaries — winning 9 out of 12 states (8 by landslide margins). Taft won only the state of Massachusetts (by a small margin); he even lost his home state of Ohio to Roosevelt. Senator Robert M. La Follette Sr., a reformer, won two states. Through the primaries, Senator La Follette won a total of 36 delegates; President Taft won 48 delegates; and Roosevelt won 278 delegates. However 36 states did not hold primaries, but instead selected delegates via state conventions.

Entering the convention, the Roosevelt and Taft forces seemed evenly matched, and a compromise candidate seemed possible.[1] The Taft and Roosevelt camps engaged in a fight for the delegations of various states, with Taft emerging victorious, and Roosevelt claiming that several delegations were fraudulently seated because of the machinations of conservative party leaders including William Barnes Jr. and Boies Penrose.[2] Following the seating of the anti-Roosevelt delegations, California Governor Hiram Johnson proclaimed that progressives would form a new party to nominate Roosevelt.[2] Though many of Roosevelt's delegates remained at the convention, most refused to take part in the presidential ballot in protest of the contested delegates.[3] Roosevelt ultimately ran a third party campaign as part of the Progressive Party (nicknamed the "Bull Moose Party"). Taft and Roosevelt both lost the 1912 election to the Democratic nominee, Woodrow Wilson.

Like Taft, Vice President James S. Sherman of New York was renominated by the party.[4] Though Taft and Sherman did not get along early in their tenure, the two became closer allies as Taft's split with Roosevelt deepened, and Taft did not object to the re-nomination of Sherman.[4] Taft's allies sought progressive leaders such as Idaho Senator William E. Borah and Vermont Governor John A. Mead to join the ticket, but both declined to be considered.[4] Missouri Governor Herbert S. Hadley and former Vice President Charles Fairbanks were also mentioned as possibilities.[4] Sherman died shortly before the election, and was not replaced on the ticket.[5] In January, after the election had already been decided, Republican leaders appointed Columbia University president Nicholas Butler to fill out the ticket for the purposes of receiving electoral votes.[5]

Detailed results

Presidential Ballot[6][7][8]
William Taft 561
Theodore Roosevelt 107
Robert La Follette 41
Albert B. Cummins 17
Charles Evans Hughes 2
Present, not voting 344
Absent 6

The balloting by states was as follows:[9]

Total delegates
Not voting
Alabama 24 22 2
Arizona 6 6
Arkansas 18 17 1
California 26 2 24
Colorado 12 12
Connecticut 14 14
Delaware 6 6
Florida 12 12
Georgia 28 28
Idaho 8 1 7
Illinois 58 2 53 2 1
Indiana 30 20 3 7
Iowa 26 16 10
Kansas 20 2 18
Kentucky 26 24 2
Louisiana 20 20
Maine 12 12
Maryland 16 1 9 5 1
Massachusetts 36 20 16
Michigan 30 20 9 1
Minnesota 24 24
Mississippi 20 17 3
Missouri 36 16 20
Montana 8 8
Nebraska 16 2 14
Nevada 6 6
New Hampshire 8 8
New Jersey 28 2 26
New Mexico 8 7 1
New York 90 76 8 6
North Carolina 24 1 1 22
North Dakota 10 10
Ohio 48 14 34
Oklahoma 20 4 1 15
Oregon 10 8 2
Pennsylvania 76 9 2 2 62 1
Rhode Island 10 10
South Carolina 18 16 1 1
South Dakota 10 5 5
Tennessee 24 23 1
Texas 40 31 8 1
Utah 8 8
Vermont 8 6 2
Virginia 24 22 1 1
Washington 14 14
West Virginia 16 16
Wisconsin 26 26
Wyoming 6 6
Alaska 2 2
District of Columbia 2 2
Hawaii 6 6
Philippines 2 2
Puerto Rico 2 2
Total 1078 561 107 17 41 2 344 6
Vice Presidential Ballot
James S. Sherman 596
William Borah 21
Charles Edward Merriam 20
Herbert S. Hadley 14
Albert J. Beveridge 2

See also


  1. ^ "Taft Victory in the First Clash; Root Chosen Chairman, 558 to 502". The New York Times. 19 June 1912. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
  2. ^ a b "Roosevelt, Beaten, to Bolt Today; Gives the Word in Early Morning; Taft's Nomination Seems Assured". The New York Times. 20 June 1912. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
  3. ^ "Taft Renominated by the Republican Convention; Roosevelt Named as Candidate by Bolters". The New York Times. 23 June 1912. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
  4. ^ a b c d "Plan is to Nominate Taft Tonight; Roosevelt Orders Name Withheld; He Shifts on Third Party Plans". The New York Times. 22 June 1912. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
  5. ^ a b "James S. Sherman, 27th Vice President (1909-1912)". US Senate. US Senate. Retrieved 9 October 2015.
  6. ^ "Taft Is Nominated On First Ballot". Santa Cruz News. Santa Cruz, CA. June 22, 1912. Retrieved January 7, 2018.
  7. ^ "Taft Wins With 561". The Courier. Harrisburg, PA. June 23, 1912. Retrieved January 7, 2018.
  8. ^ Pietrusza, David (2007). 1920: The Year of the Six Presidents. New York: Carroll & Graf. ISBN 0-7867-1622-3.
  9. ^ "Vote That Renominated President Taft". The New York Times. New York, NY. June 23, 1912. Retrieved January 7, 2018.

Further reading

External links

Preceded by
Chicago, Illinois
Republican National Conventions Succeeded by
Chicago, Illinois
1912 Progressive National Convention

Angered at the renomination of President William Howard Taft over their candidate at the 1912 Republican National Convention, supporters of former president Theodore Roosevelt convened in Chicago and endorsed the formation of a national progressive party. When formally launched later that summer, the new Progressive Party acclaimed Roosevelt as its presidential nominee and Governor Hiram Johnson of California as his running mate. Questioned by reporters, Roosevelt said he felt as strong as a "bull moose". Henceforth known as the " Bull Moose Party", the Progressives promised to increase federal regulation and protect the welfare of ordinary people.

The party was funded by publisher Frank Munsey and its executive secretary George Walbridge Perkins, an employee of banker J. P. Morgan and International Harvester. Perkins blocked an anti-trust plank, shocking reformers who thought of Roosevelt as a true trust-buster. The delegates to the convention sang the hymn "Onward, Christian Soldiers" as their anthem. In a famous acceptance speech, Roosevelt compared the coming presidential campaign to the Battle of Armageddon and stated that the Progressives were going to "battle for the Lord."

The August convention opened with great enthusiasm. Over 2,000 delegates attended, including many women. In 1912, neither the Republican candidate, President Taft, nor the Democratic nominee Woodrow Wilson, had endorsed women's suffrage on the national level and the famed suffragette and social worker Jane Addams gave a seconding speech for Roosevelt's nomination.

Although Roosevelt insisted on excluding African-American Republicans from the South (whom he regarded as a corrupt and ineffective element), he did include black delegates from all other parts of the country, and he further alienated white southern supporters on the eve of the election by publicly dining with black people at a Rhode Island hotel. Roosevelt said at the end of his speech " We stand at Armageddon, and we battle for the Lord.”

1912 Republican Party presidential primaries

The 1912 Republican presidential primaries were the selection process by which the voters of the Republican Party chose its nominee for President of the United States in the 1912 presidential election. Incumbent President William Howard Taft was chosen as the party's nominee through a series of primaries and caucuses culminating in the 1912 Republican National Convention.

1912 United States elections

The 1912 United States elections elected the members of the 63rd United States Congress, occurring during the Fourth Party System. Amidst a division between incumbent Republican President William Howard Taft and former Republican President Theodore Roosevelt, the Democratic Party won the Presidency and both chambers of Congress, the first time they accomplished that feat since the 1892 election.

In the Presidential election, Democratic Governor Woodrow Wilson of New Jersey defeated Republican President William Howard Taft and former president and Progressive Party nominee Theodore Roosevelt. Socialist union leader Eugene Debs, running his fourth campaign, took six percent of the vote. At the 1912 Democratic National Convention, Wilson took the nomination on the 46th ballot, defeating Speaker Champ Clark and several other candidates. Roosevelt left the Republican Party after an unsuccessful challenge to Taft at the 1912 Republican National Convention. Though Wilson carried just over 40% of the popular vote, he dominated the electoral college and won a greater share of the electoral vote than any candidate since Ulysses S. Grant in 1872. Wilson's election made him the first Democratic president since Grover Cleveland left office in 1897. Roosevelt's candidacy finished second in the popular vote and the electoral college, the only time a third party candidate accomplished either feat.

Following the 1910 census, 41 seats were added to the House, setting the House at 435 seats. Democrats made major gains in the House, further strengthening their majority, while the new Progressive Party won ten seats.In the last Senate election before the ratification of the 17th Amendment, Democrats made moderate gains and won control of the chamber for the first time since the 1892 election.

Ann Allebach

Ann Jemima Allebach (May 8, 1874 – April 27, 1918) was an American minister, educator and suffragette. She was the first woman ordained as a Mennonite minister in North America, on January 15, 1911. There was not another Mennonite woman ordained until 1973.Allebach was the first woman ever chosen from Kings County, New York, to be a delegate to a national political convention. She was chosen for the 1912 Republican National Convention held in Chicago but was not allowed to attend. She was a delegate from the Eighteenth Assembly District of the State Convention of the Progressive Party at Syracuse.

Charles M. Floyd

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Ernest M. Pollard

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He was born in Nehawka, Nebraska on April 15, 1869, and graduated from University of Nebraska-Lincoln in 1893. He farmed near Nehawka until he was elected to the Nebraska State house of representatives in 1896. He served until 1899 and then became president of the Nebraska Republican League in 1900.

In 1905 he was elected to the Fifty-ninth United States Congress after the resignation of Elmer J. Burkett who had been elected to the United States Senate. He was reelected to the Sixtieth United States Congress but failed in his 1908 bid for reelection to the Sixty-first United States Congress.

He farmed some and was a delegate to the 1912 Republican National Convention and a member of the Nebraska constitutional convention in 1920 and 1921. He moved to Lincoln, Nebraska and was appointed secretary of the State department of welfare and labor by Nebraska Governor Arthur J. Weaver in January 1929 serving until January 1931. He died there on September 24, 1939, and is buried in Mount Pleasant Cemetery in Nehawka.

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Frank B. Weeks

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Harry C. Ransley

Harry Clay Ransley (February 5, 1863 – November 7, 1941) was a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives from Pennsylvania.

Harry Ransley was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He served in the Pennsylvania State House of Representatives from 1891 to 1894. He was a member of the Select Council of Philadelphia for sixteen years and president for eight years. He was a delegate to the 1912 Republican National Convention. He served as sheriff of Philadelphia County from 1916 to 1920. He was chairman of the Republican city committee 1916 to 1919.

He was elected in 1920 as a Republican to the 66th United States Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of J. Hampton Moore. He was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1936.

John McCarthy (Nebraska politician)

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He was elected prosecuting attorney of Dixon County in 1890, 1892, and 1894. In 1898 and 1900 he was elected as a member of the Nebraska House of Representatives. In 1902 he was elected as a Republican to the Fifty-eighth and Fifty-ninth Congresses and served Nebraska's 3rd district from March 4, 1903 to March 3, 1907. He ran in the 1906 primary and lost to John Frank Boyd. He continued with his law practice in Ponca, Nebraska, not serving in any other elected office, though he was a delegate to the 1912 Republican National Convention. He died in Ponca on March 30, 1943 and is buried in Ponca Cemetery.

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Oren S. Copeland

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He served as city commissioner in the department of public safety from 1935 to 1937 when he was elected mayor of Lincoln. He resigned as mayor to run for congress and was elected to the Seventy-seventh United States Congress. He was unsuccessful in being renominated and returned to the retail fuel business. He was a delegate to the 1912 Republican National Convention. He died in Lincoln on April 10, 1958, and is buried there in Wyuka Cemetery.

Philip Allen Bennett

Philip Allen Bennett (March 5, 1881 – December 7, 1942) was a Republican politician from the state of Missouri. He served as a member of the United States House of Representatives for Missouri's 6th District during the 77th Congress. Prior to that Bennett was the 31st Lieutenant Governor of Missouri and served in the Missouri Senate.

Philip A. Bennett was born near Buffalo, Missouri to Marion F. and Mary Jane (O'Bannon) Bennett, the eighth of fourteen children. Following his graduation from Buffalo High School Bennett attended Springfield Normal and Business College (now Missouri State University), earning his degree in 1902. He taught two years in Missouri public schools and worked for the Frisco Railroad before purchasing the Buffalo Reflex newspaper in 1904. Bennett would serve as editor and publisher of the Reflex until 1921 when he entered politics full-time. Bennett served as a delegate to the 1912 Republican National Convention. Philip Bennett married Mary B. Tinsley in 1912 and they would have two children, a son and a daughter. Son Marion Tinsley Bennett would follow in his father's footsteps as a Missouri politician.In 1920 he was elected to the Missouri Senate. Bennett would serve only one term as he ran for, and won election as, Missouri Lieutenant Governor in 1924. He was not successful in a bid for Missouri Governor in 1928 and returned to the private business sector. Bennett ran for U.S. Senate in 1938 and was again defeated. However two years later, in 1940, he was elected to represent the 6th district of Missouri in the U.S. Congress. Reelected in November 1942, Bennett died before he could begin his second term. His son, Marion Tinsley Bennett, completed the term. Philip Bennett died in Washington D.C. on December 7, 1942 shortly before the beginning of his second term in Congress.

Progressive Party (United States, 1912)

The Progressive Party was a third party in the United States formed in 1912 by former President Theodore Roosevelt after he lost the presidential nomination of the Republican Party to his former protégé, incumbent President William Howard Taft. The new party was known for taking advanced positions on progressive reforms and attracting some leading reformers. After the party's defeat in the 1912 presidential election, it went into rapid decline, disappearing by 1918. The Progressive Party was popularly nicknamed the "Bull Moose Party" since Roosevelt often said that he felt "strong as a bull moose" both before and after an assassination attempt on the campaign trail.As a member of the Republican Party, Roosevelt had served as President from 1901 to 1909, becoming increasingly progressive in the later years of his presidency. In the 1908 presidential election, Roosevelt helped ensure that he would be succeeded by Secretary of War Taft. Although Taft entered office determined to advance Roosevelt's Square Deal domestic agenda, he stumbled badly during the Payne–Aldrich Tariff Act debate and the Pinchot–Ballinger controversy. The political fallout of these events divided the Republican Party and alienated Roosevelt from his former friend. Progressive Republican leader Robert La Follette had already announced a challenge to Taft for the 1912 Republican nomination, but many of his supporters shifted to Roosevelt after the former President decided to seek a third presidential term, which was permissible under the Constitution prior to the ratification of the Twenty-second Amendment. At the 1912 Republican National Convention, Taft narrowly defeated Roosevelt for the party's presidential nomination. After the convention, Roosevelt, Frank Munsey, George Walbridge Perkins and other progressive Republicans established the Progressive Party and nominated a ticket of Roosevelt and Hiram Johnson of California at the 1912 Progressive National Convention. The new party attracted several Republican officeholders, although nearly all of them remained loyal to the Republican Party—in California, Johnson and the Progressives took control of the Republican Party.

The party's platform built on Roosevelt's Square Deal domestic program and called for several progressive reforms. The platform asserted that "to dissolve the unholy alliance between corrupt business and corrupt politics is the first task of the statesmanship of the day". Proposals on the platform included restrictions on campaign finance contributions, a reduction of the tariff and the establishment of a social insurance system, an eight-hour workday and women's suffrage. The party was split on the regulation of large corporations, with some party members disappointed that the platform did not contain a stronger call for "trust-busting". Party members also had different outlooks on foreign policy, with pacifists like Jane Addams opposing Roosevelt's call for a naval build-up.

In the 1912 election, Roosevelt won 27.4% of the popular vote compared to Taft's 23.2%, making Roosevelt the only third party presidential nominee to finish with a higher share of the popular vote than a major party's presidential nominee. Both Taft and Roosevelt finished behind Democratic nominee Woodrow Wilson, who won 41.8% of the popular vote and the vast majority of the electoral vote. The Progressives elected several Congressional and state legislative candidates, but the election was marked primarily by Democratic gains. The 1916 Progressive National Convention was held in conjunction with the 1916 Republican National Convention in hopes of reunifying the parties with Roosevelt as the presidential nominee of both parties. The Progressive Party collapsed after Roosevelt refused the Progressive nomination and insisted his supporters vote for Charles Evans Hughes, the moderately progressive Republican nominee. Most Progressives joined the Republican Party, but some converted to the Democratic Party and Progressives like Harold L. Ickes would play a role in President Franklin D. Roosevelt's administration. In 1924, La Follette set up another Progressive Party for his presidential run. A third Progressive Party was set up in 1948 for the presidential campaign of former Vice President Henry A. Wallace.

Robert E. Evans

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He defeated incumbent Dan V. Stephens to represent the 3rd Congressional District of Nebraska in the Sixty-sixth Congress. He was re-elected for a second term to the Sixty-seventh Congress. He served from March 4, 1919 to March 3, 1923. He lost to Edgar Howard in 1922. He resumed his law practice in Dakota City. He was elected Judge of the Supreme Court from the Third District of Nebraska in 1924. He served until his death on July 8, 1925. He died in Lincoln, Nebraska where he had previously moved to serve on the Supreme Court. He is buried in Graceland Park Cemetery in Sioux City, Iowa.

Seth Taft

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Wilbur E. Hurlbut

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William Joseph Deboe

William Joseph DeBoe (June 30, 1849 – June 15, 1927) was a U.S. Senator representing Kentucky from 1897 to 1903.

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