1906 Intercalated Games

The 1906 Intercalated Games or 1906 Olympic Games was an international multi-sport event that was celebrated in Athens, Greece.[1] They were at the time considered to be Olympic Games and were referred to as the "Second International Olympic Games in Athens" by the International Olympic Committee.[2] Whilst medals were distributed to the participants during these games, the medals are not officially recognized by the IOC today[3] and are not displayed with the collection of Olympic medals at the Olympic Museum in Lausanne, Switzerland.

1906 Intercalated Games
1906 Intercalated Games logo.jpeg
Contemporary artwork for the 1906 Intercalated Games
Nations20
Athletes854 (848 men, 6 women)
Opened by
St. Louis 1904 London 1908

Origin

The first Intercalated Games had been scheduled by the International Olympic Committee in 1901 as part of a new schedule, where every four years, in between the internationally organized games, there would be intermediate games held in Athens. This was apparently a compromise: after the successful games of Athens 1896, the Greeks suggested they could organize the games every four years. Since they had the accommodation and had proven they could hold well-organized games, they received some support. However, Pierre de Coubertin, the founder of the International Olympic Committee, opposed this. Coubertin had intended the first games to be in Paris in 1900. After Paris lost the premiere Olympics, Coubertin did not want the games to be permanently hosted elsewhere.

When the 1900 Olympic Games failed to meet expectations and were overshadowed by the Exposition Universelle, the IOC supported the Greek idea by granting them a second series of quadrennial games in between the first series. All of the games would be International Olympic Games; the difference was that half of them would follow Coubertin's idea of "organisation internationale", while the other half would follow the Greeks' idea of a permanent home with the Greek NOC as experienced organizers. This was a departure from the ancient schedule, but it was expected that, if the ancient Greeks could keep a four-year schedule, the modern Olympic Movement could keep a two-year schedule. As 1902 was now too close, and Greece experienced internal difficulties, the 2nd Olympic Games in Athens were scheduled for 1906. The IOC as a whole gave the Greek NOC full support for the organization.

First Intercalated Games

Olympic Committee 1906
The Organizing Committee of the 1906 Games

The 1906 games were quite successful. Unlike the 1900, 1904 or 1908 games, they were neither stretched out over months nor overshadowed by an international exhibition. Their crisp format was most likely instrumental in the continued existence of the games.

These Games also were the first games to have all athlete registration go through the NOCs. They were the first to have the Opening of the Games as a separate event: an event at which for the first time the athletes marched into the stadium in national teams, each following its national flag. They were also the first with an Olympic Village, at the Zappeion. They introduced the closing ceremony, the raising of national flags for the victors, and several less visible changes now accepted as tradition.

Games

1906 Athens stadium
Panathinaiko Stadium in 1906
Review of reviews and world's work (1890) (14781699331)
Panathinaiko Stadium

The Games were held from 22 April to 2 May 1906, in Athens, Greece. They took place in the Panathenaic Stadium, which had already hosted the 1896 Games and the earlier Zappas Olympics of 1870 and 1875. The games excluded several disciplines that had occurred during the past two games; it was unclear whether they ought to have been part of the Olympic Games. Added to the program were the javelin throw and the pentathlon.

Opening

The games included a real opening ceremony, watched by a large crowd. The athletes, for the first time, entered the stadium as national teams, marching behind their flags. The official opening of the games was done by King George I.

Highlights

THE FINISH OF THE MARATHON RACE
The finish of the Marathon
  • There were only two standing jump events in Athens, but Ray Ewry successfully defended his titles in both of them, bringing his total up to 8 gold medals. In 1908 he would successfully defend them one last time for a total of 10 Olympic titles, a feat unparalleled until 2008 when Michael Phelps pushed his Olympic gold medal total to 14.
  • Paul Pilgrim won both the 400 and 800 metres, a feat that was first repeated during Montreal 1976 by Alberto Juantorena.
  • Canadian Billy Sherring lived in Greece for two months, to adjust to the local conditions. His efforts paid off as he unexpectedly won the Marathon. Prince George[4] accompanied him on the final lap.
  • Finland made its Olympic debut, and immediately won a gold medal, as Verner Järvinen won the Discus (Greek style) event.
  • Peter O'Connor of Ireland won gold in the hop, step and jump (triple jump) and silver in the long jump. In protest at being put on the British team, O'Connor scaled the flagpole and hoisted the Irish flag, while the pole was guarded by Irish and American athletes and supporters.
  • Martin Sheridan of the Irish American Athletic Club, competing for the U.S. team, won gold in the 16-pound Shot put and the Freestyle Discus throw and silver in the Standing high jump, Standing long jump and Stone throw. He scored the greatest number of points of any athlete at the Games. For his accomplishments he was presented with a ceremonial javelin by King Georgios I. This javelin is still on display in a local pub near Sheridan's hometown in Bohola, County Mayo, Ireland.

Closing ceremony

Six thousand schoolchildren took part in possibly the first ever Olympic closing ceremony.

Participating nations

854 athletes, 848 men and 6 women, from 20 countries, competed at the 1906 Intercalated Games.[1]

1906 Summer Olympic games countries
Participants of the 1906 Games

Medals awarded

78 events in 14 disciplines, comprising 12 sports, were part of the 1906 Games.

Medal count

These medals were distributed but are no longer recognized by the International Olympic Committee.

  *   Host nation (Greece)

RankNationGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1 France1591640
2 United States126624
3 Greece*8131334
4 Great Britain811524
5 Italy76316
6  Switzerland56415
7 Germany46515
8 Norway4217
9 Austria3339
10 Denmark3216
11 Sweden25714
12 Hungary25310
13 Belgium2136
14Russia Finland2114
15 Canada1102
16 Netherlands0123
17 Mixed team0101
Ottoman Empire Turkey[b]0101
19 Australia0033
20 Bohemia0022
Totals (20 nations)788078236

The mixed team medal is for Belgian/Greek athletes in the Coxed Pairs 1 mile rowing event. In the football event, the silver medal for the team from Smyrna was won by footballers from various nationalities (English, French and Armenian), while the bronze medal for the team from Thessalonica was won by ethnic Greeks competing for Greece, despite both cities being Ottoman possessions at the time.

The only country that did not win medals—Egypt.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The Grand Duchy of Finland was part of the Russian Empire at the time, but was treated as a separate nation.
  2. ^ a b At the 1908 Olympics, the name "Turkey" was used to refer to the Ottoman Empire.

References

  1. ^ a b c "1906 Athina Summer Games". Sports Reference. Retrieved 29 January 2014.
  2. ^ Journal of Olympic History, Volume 10, December 2001/January 2002, The 2nd International Olympic Games in Athens 1906, by Karl Lennartz Archived 15 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ What Events are Olympic? Olympics at SportsReference.com. Accessed 7 Sep 2008.
  4. ^ The Olympic games at Athens, 1906 by James E. Sullivan, American commissioner to the Olympic games. Published 1906.

Further reading

Athletics at the 1906 Intercalated Games

At the 1906 Summer Olympics in Athens, 21 competitive events in athletics were held. A total of 65 medals (21 gold, 23 silver, 21 bronze) were awarded. Now called the Intercalated Games, the 1906 Games are no longer considered as an official Olympic Games by the International Olympic Committee (IOC).

The marathon distance was 41.775 km according to a contemporary Greek newspaper. The pentathlon event in the 1906 Games consisted of a standing long jump, discus throw (ancient style), javelin throw, 192 metre run, and a Greco-Roman wrestling match. A stone throw was held with a 6.4 kg weight.

Australia at the 1906 Intercalated Games

Australia competed at the 1906 Intercalated Games in Athens, Greece. Four athletes, all men, competed in nine events in two sports.

Austria at the 1906 Intercalated Games

Austria competed at the 1906 Intercalated Games in Athens, Greece. 31 athletes, all men, competed in 46 events in 9 sports.

Canada at the 1906 Intercalated Games

Canada competed at the 1906 Intercalated Games in Athens, Greece. Three athletes, all men, competed in four events in one sport. These games are not now considered as official Olympic games by the International Olympic Committee, and results are not included in official records and medal counts.

Cycling at the 1906 Intercalated Games

At the 1906 Summer Olympics in Athens, six cycling events were contested, all for men only. Now called the Intercalated Games, the 1906 Games are no longer considered as an official Olympic Games by the International Olympic Committee.

Federico Cesarano

Federico Cesarano (5 July 1886 – 22 January 1969) was an Italian fencer and sport shooter. He won a bronze medal in the individual sabre event at the 1906 Intercalated Games.

Football at the 1906 Intercalated Games

At the 1906 Summer Olympics in Athens (often referred to as the "Intercalated Games"), an unofficial football event was held. Only four teams competed, three of them were clubs from Greece and the Ottoman Empire. Medal tables gave the gold to Denmark and the silver and bronze to Turkey.The Athens team withdrew from the final at half time, and were then invited to play off in a match to decide second place, but declined and were promptly ejected from the tournament.

Smyrna and Thessaloniki, both then cities in the Ottoman Empire, played off instead. The Thessaloniki team composition was Greek from the group of "Friends of the Arts" (Omilos Philomuson, later Iraklis Thessaloniki F.C.). The Smyrna team consisted of English, French and Armenian players.

The Danish team was a selection of players from Copenhagen Football Association.The goalkeepers of this tournament are unknown.

Football at the 1906 Intercalated Games – Men's team squads

The following is a list of squads for each team competing in men's football at the 1906 Intercalated Games in Athens.Ages as of the start of the tournament, 23 April 1906.

Great Britain at the 1906 Intercalated Games

Great Britain competed at the 1906 Intercalated Games in Athens, Greece. 47 athletes, all men, competed in 42 events in 9 sports.

Greece at the 1906 Intercalated Games

Greece were the host nation at the 1906 Intercalated Games in Athens, Greece. 312 athletes, 307 men and 5 women, competed in 70 events in 13 sports.

Gymnastics at the 1906 Intercalated Games

At the 1906 Summer Olympics in Athens, four gymnastics events were contested, all for men only. Now called the Intercalated Games, the 1906 Games are no longer considered as an official Olympic Games by the International Olympic Committee.

Jim Lightbody

James Davies Lightbody (March 16, 1882 – March 2, 1953) was an American middle distance runner, winner of six Olympic medals (two of which are no longer recognized by the International Olympic Committee following its downgrading of the 1906 Intercalated Games) in the early 20th century.

Lightbody, born in Pittsburgh and graduating from high school in Muncie, Indiana, had great success at the 1904 Summer Olympics, held in St. Louis. He wasn't favoured in any of the three individual events in which he competed, but nevertheless won all three of them.

First, he won the 2590 metre steeplechase, sprinting to the 800 metres title days later. Finally, he won the 1500 metres in a new world record. Later that day, he added a second place to his tally, when he competed with the Chicago Athletic Association in the 4 mile team event.

In 1905, Lightbody won AAU titles in both the 800 and 1500 metres, and the following year he competed in his second Olympics, the 1906 Intercalated Games of in Athens. He successfully defended his 1500 metres title, and placed second in the 800 metres.

Lightbody competed again in the 1908 Summer Olympics. In the 800 metres, he placed only fourth in his first round heat. Lightbody lost a close race to fellow American James Sullivan in the first round of the 1500 metres, eliminating him from further competition. He was defeated by a mere ten yards by Harry Sewell in the first round of the 3200 metre steeplechase and did not qualify for the final.

Lightbody died in 1953, two weeks short of his 71st birthday in Charleston, South Carolina.

Netherlands at the 1906 Intercalated Games

Netherlands competed at the 1906 Intercalated Games in Athens, Greece. Sixteen athletes, all men, competed in eight events in two sports.

Norway at the 1906 Intercalated Games

Norway competed at the 1906 Intercalated Games in Athens, Greece. 32 athletes, all men, competed in 12 events in 3 sports.

Swimming at the 1906 Intercalated Games

At the 1906 Summer Olympics, only four swimming events were contested. Now called the Intercalated Games, the 1906 Games are no longer considered as an official Olympic Games by the International Olympic Committee.

Turkey at the 1906 Intercalated Games

Ottoman Turkey competed at the 1906 Intercalated Games in Athens, Greece. Two athletes, both men, competed in three events in two sports.

United States at the 1906 Intercalated Games

The United States competed at the 1906 Intercalated Games in Athens, Greece. 38 athletes, all men, competed in 28 events in 5 sports.

Wrestling at the 1906 Intercalated Games

At the 1906 Summer Olympics in Athens, four wrestling events were contested, all in Greco-Roman style for men. Now called the Intercalated Games, the 1906 Games are no longer considered as an official Olympic Games by the International Olympic Committee.

Xenophon Kasdaglis

Xenophon Emmanuel Kasdaglis, or Xenophon Casdagli, (Greek: Ξενοφών Εμμανουήλ Κάσδαγλης; 27 February 1880 – 2 May 1943) was a Greek-Egyptian tennis player. He competed in the 1906 Intercalated Games in Athens.

Events at the 1906 Intercalated Games (Athens)
Nations at the 1906 Intercalated Games in Athens, Greece
Summer
Games
Winter
Games
By year
Boycotts
Alternative
competitions
Events

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.