1906

1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1906th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 906th year of the 2nd millennium, the 6th year of the 20th century, and the 7th year of the 1900s decade. As of the start of 1906, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1906 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1906
MCMVI
Ab urbe condita2659
Armenian calendar1355
ԹՎ ՌՅԾԵ
Assyrian calendar6656
Bahá'í calendar62–63
Balinese saka calendar1827–1828
Bengali calendar1313
Berber calendar2856
British Regnal yearEdw. 7 – 6 Edw. 7
Buddhist calendar2450
Burmese calendar1268
Byzantine calendar7414–7415
Chinese calendar乙巳(Wood Snake)
4602 or 4542
    — to —
丙午年 (Fire Horse)
4603 or 4543
Coptic calendar1622–1623
Discordian calendar3072
Ethiopian calendar1898–1899
Hebrew calendar5666–5667
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1962–1963
 - Shaka Samvat1827–1828
 - Kali Yuga5006–5007
Holocene calendar11906
Igbo calendar906–907
Iranian calendar1284–1285
Islamic calendar1323–1324
Japanese calendarMeiji 39
(明治39年)
Javanese calendar1835–1836
Julian calendarGregorian minus 13 days
Korean calendar4239
Minguo calendar6 before ROC
民前6年
Nanakshahi calendar438
Thai solar calendar2448–2449
Tibetan calendar阴木蛇年
(female Wood-Snake)
2032 or 1651 or 879
    — to —
阳火马年
(male Fire-Horse)
2033 or 1652 or 880

Events

January–February

EcuadorLocation
January 31: Ecuador earthquake (8.6).

March–April

San francisco 1906 earthquake
The ruins of San Francisco following the April 18 earthquake and later fires

May–June

July–August

September–October

November–December

Date unknown

Births

January–February

Aisin-Gioro Puyi 01
Puyi, Last Emperor of China

March–April

May–June

July–August

September

October

November–December

Deaths

January–June

July–December

Nobel Prizes

Nobel medal

References

  1. ^ Stuart, J. (1913). History of the Zulu Rebellion 1906. London: Macmillan and Co. pp. 548–581.
  2. ^ "Hongkong Typhoon". Auckland Star. 37 (244). New Zealand. 1906-10-19. p. 5. Retrieved 2017-12-30. Over 1,000 bodies are recovered, but cabled statements are verified that the number of lives lost totalled about 10,000. Retrieved via Papers Past.
  3. ^ "About the club - Maccabi Tel Aviv Football Club". Maccabi Tel Aviv Football Club. Retrieved 2018-06-12.

Sources

Further reading

  • Gilbert, Martin. A History of the Twentieth Century: Volume 1 1900-1933 (1997); global coverage of politics, diplomacy and warfare; pp 123 – 42.
  • Hazell's Annual for 1907 (1907), worldwide events of 1906; 734pp online
1906 Intercalated Games

The 1906 Intercalated Games or 1906 Olympic Games was an international multi-sport event that was celebrated in Athens, Greece. They were at the time considered to be Olympic Games and were referred to as the "Second International Olympic Games in Athens" by the International Olympic Committee. Whilst medals were distributed to the participants during these games, the medals are not officially recognized by the IOC today and are not displayed with the collection of Olympic medals at the Olympic Museum in Lausanne, Switzerland.

1906 San Francisco earthquake

The 1906 San Francisco earthquake struck the coast of Northern California at 5:12 a.m. on Wednesday, April 18 with an estimated moment magnitude of 7.9 and a maximum Mercalli intensity of XI (Extreme). High intensity shaking was felt from Eureka on the North Coast to the Salinas Valley, an agricultural region to the south of the San Francisco Bay Area. Devastating fires soon broke out in the city and lasted for several days. Thousands of homes were dismantled. As a result, up to 3,000 people died and over 80% of the city of San Francisco was destroyed. The events are remembered as one of the worst and deadliest earthquakes in the history of the United States. The death toll remains the greatest loss of life from a natural disaster in California's history and high in the lists of American disasters.

1906 United Kingdom general election

The 1906 United Kingdom general election was held from 12 January to 8 February 1906.

The Liberals, led by Prime Minister Henry Campbell-Bannerman, won a landslide majority at the election. The Conservatives led by Arthur Balfour, who had been in government until the month before the election, lost more than half their seats, including party leader Balfour's own seat in Manchester East, leaving them with their lowest-ever number of seats. The election saw a 5.4% swing from the Conservative Party to the Liberal Party, the largest-ever seen at the time (however, if only looking at seats contested in both 1900 and 1906, the Conservative vote fell by 11.6%). This has resulted in the 1906 general election being dubbed the "Liberal landslide", and is now ranked alongside the 1931, 1945, 1983 and 1997 general elections as one of the largest landslide election victories.The Labour Representation Committee was far more successful than at the 1900 general election and after the election would be renamed the Labour Party with 29 MPs and Keir Hardie as leader. The Irish Parliamentary Party, led by John Redmond, achieved its seats with a relatively low number of votes, as 73 candidates stood unopposed.

This election was a landslide defeat for the Conservative Party and their Liberal Unionist allies, with the primary reason given by historians as the party's weakness after its split over the issue of free trade (Joseph Chamberlain had resigned from government in September 1903 in order to campaign for Tariff Reform, which would allow "preferential tariffs"). Many working-class people at the time saw this as a threat to the price of food, hence the debate was nicknamed "Big Loaf, Little Loaf". The Liberals' landslide victory of 125 seats over all other parties led to the passing of social legislation known as the Liberal reforms.

This was the last general election in which the Liberals won an absolute majority in the House of Commons, and the last general election in which they won the popular vote. It was also the last peacetime election held more than five years after the previous one prior to passage of the Parliament Act 1911, which limited the duration of Parliaments in peacetime to five years. The Conservative Party's seat total of 156 MPs remains its worst result ever in a general election.

1906 United States House of Representatives elections

Elections to the United States House of Representatives in 1906 were held for members of the 60th Congress, in the middle of President Theodore Roosevelt's second term.

As in many midterm elections, the President's Republican Party lost seats to the opposition Democratic Party, but retained a large overall majority. Dissatisfaction with working conditions and resentment toward union busting among industrial laborers in the Mid-Atlantic and Midwest caused these groups to turn out to the polls in large numbers in support of the Democratic Party. However, gains in these regions were not enough to remove the Republican majority or the firm support that the party held among the middle class.

1906 and 1907 United States Senate elections

The United States Senate elections of 1906 and 1907 were elections which had the Republican Party gain three seats in the United States Senate, expanding their majority to more twice that of the opposing Democratic Party.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

Bar and Bat Mitzvah

Bar Mitzvah (Hebrew: בַּר מִצְוָה‬) is a Jewish coming of age ritual for boys. Bat Mitzvah (Hebrew: בַּת מִצְוָה‬; Ashkenazi pronunciation: Bas Mitzvah) is a Jewish coming of age ritual for girls. The plural is B'nai Mitzvah for boys, and B'not Mitzvah (Ashkenazi pronunciation: B'nos Mitzvah) for girls.

According to Jewish law, when Jewish boys become 13 years old, they become accountable for their actions and become a bar mitzvah. A girl becomes a bat mitzvah at the age of 12 according to Orthodox and Conservative Jews, and at the age of 13 according to Reform Jews. Prior to reaching bar mitzvah age, the child's parents hold the responsibility for the child's actions. After this age, the boys and girls bear their own responsibility for Jewish ritual law, tradition, and ethics, and are able to participate in all areas of Jewish community life. Traditionally, the father of the bar mitzvah gives thanks to God that he is no longer punished for the child's sins. In addition to being considered accountable for their actions from a religious perspective, a thirteen-year-old male may be counted towards a prayer quorum and may lead prayer and other religious services in the family and the community.

Bar mitzvah is mentioned in the Mishnah (Ethics of the Fathers, 5:21) and in the Talmud. In some classic sources the age of 13 appears for instance as the age from which males must fast on the Day of Atonement, while females fast from the age of 12. The age of b'nai mitzvah roughly coincides with physical puberty. The bar or bat mitzvah ceremony is usually held on the first Shabbat after a boy's thirteenth and a girl's twelfth birthday (or thirteenth in Reform congregations).

Ed Gein

Edward Theodore Gein (; August 27, 1906 – July 26, 1984), also known as The Butcher of Plainfield, was an American murderer and body snatcher. His crimes, committed around his hometown of Plainfield, Wisconsin, gathered widespread notoriety after authorities discovered that Gein had exhumed corpses from local graveyards and fashioned trophies and keepsakes from their bones and skin. Gein confessed to killing two women – tavern owner Mary Hogan in 1954, and a Plainfield hardware store owner, Bernice Worden, in 1957. Gein was initially found unfit to stand trial and confined to a mental health facility. In 1968, Gein was found guilty but legally insane of the murder of Worden, and was remanded to a psychiatric institution. He died at Mendota Mental Health Institute of cancer-induced liver and respiratory failure at age 77 on July 26, 1984. He is buried next to his family in the Plainfield Cemetery, in a now-unmarked grave.

Fauvism

Fauvism is the style of les Fauves (French for "the wild beasts"), a group of early twentieth-century modern artists whose works emphasized painterly qualities and strong color over the representational or realistic values retained by Impressionism. While Fauvism as a style began around 1904 and continued beyond 1910, the movement as such lasted only a few years, 1905–1908, and had three exhibitions. The leaders of the movement were André Derain and Henri Matisse.

Florida Gators football

The Florida Gators football program represents the University of Florida in American college football. Florida competes in the Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) and the Eastern Division of the Southeastern Conference (SEC). They play their home games in Steve Spurrier-Florida Field at Ben Hill Griffin Stadium (nicknamed "The Swamp") on the university's Gainesville campus. The team's current head coach is Dan Mullen. The Gators have won three national championships and eight SEC titles in the 111-season history of Florida football.

French Open

The French Open (French: Championnats Internationaux de France de Tennis), also called Roland-Garros (French: [ʁɔlɑ̃ ɡaʁos]), is a major tennis tournament held over two weeks between late May and early June at the Stade Roland-Garros in Paris, France. The venue is named after the French aviator Roland Garros. It is the premier clay court tennis championship event in the world and the second of four annual Grand Slam tournaments, the other three being the Australian Open, Wimbledon and the US Open. The French Open is currently the only Grand Slam event held on clay, and it is the zenith of the spring clay court season. Because of the seven rounds needed for a championship, the slow-playing surface and the best-of-five-set men's singles matches (without a tiebreak in the final set), the event is widely considered to be the most physically demanding tennis tournament in the world.

Leviathan

Leviathan (; Hebrew: לִוְיָתָן‬, Livyatan) is a creature with the form of a sea monster from Jewish belief, referenced in the Hebrew Bible in the Book of Job, Psalms, the Book of Isaiah, and the Book of Amos.

The Leviathan of the Book of Job is a reflection of the older Canaanite Lotan, a primeval monster defeated by the god Hadad. Parallels to the role of Mesopotamian Tiamat defeated by Marduk have long been drawn in comparative mythology, as have been wider comparisons to dragon and world serpent narratives such as Indra slaying Vrtra or Thor slaying Jörmungandr, but Leviathan already figures in the Hebrew Bible as a metaphor for a powerful enemy, notably Babylon (Isaiah 27:1), and some scholars have pragmatically interpreted it as referring to large aquatic creatures, such as the crocodile. The word later came to be used as a term for "great whale" as well as of sea monsters in general.

List of the oldest living people

This is a list of the 100 oldest people who have been verified to be alive within the last year and whose death has not been reliably reported. It is estimated that there are between 150 and 600 living people who have reached the age of 110. The true number is uncertain as not all supercentenarians are known to researchers at a given time and some claims cannot be validated or are fraudulent. Since all the people on this list have ostensibly lived to at least the age of 110, all of them are supercentenarians.

Upon the death of Chiyo Miyako of Japan on 22 July 2018, Kane Tanaka, also of Japan, became the world's verified oldest living person.

New Hebrides

New Hebrides, officially the New Hebrides Condominium (French: Condominium des Nouvelles-Hébrides, lit. "Condominium of the New Hebrides") and named for the Hebrides Scottish archipelago, was the colonial name for the island group in the South Pacific Ocean that is now Vanuatu. Native people had inhabited the islands for three thousand years before the first Europeans arrived in 1606 from a Spanish expedition led by Pedro Fernandes de Queirós. The islands were colonised by both the British and French in the 18th century, shortly after Captain James Cook visited.

The two countries eventually signed an agreement making the islands an Anglo-French condominium that divided the New Hebrides into two separate communities: one Anglophone and one Francophone. This divide continues even after independence, with schools teaching in either one language or the other, and with different political parties. The condominium lasted from 1906 until 1980, when the New Hebrides gained their independence as the Republic of Vanuatu.

Samson

Samson (; שִׁמְשׁוֹן‬, Shimshon‎, "man of the sun") was the last of the judges of the ancient Israelites mentioned in the Book of Judges in the Hebrew Bible (chapters 13 to 16) and one of the last of the leaders who "judged" Israel before the institution of the monarchy. He is sometimes considered to be an Israelite version of the popular Near Eastern folk hero also embodied by the Sumerian Enkidu and the Greek Heracles.

The biblical account states that Samson was a Nazirite, and that he was given immense strength to aid him against his enemies and allow him to perform superhuman feats, including slaying a lion with his bare hands and massacring an entire army of Philistines using only the jawbone of a donkey. However, if Samson's long hair was cut, then his Nazirite vow would be violated and he would lose his strength.Samson was betrayed by his lover Delilah, who ordered a servant to cut his hair while he was sleeping and turned him over to his Philistine enemies, who gouged out his eyes and forced him to grind grain in a mill at Gaza. When the Philistines took Samson into their temple of Dagon, Samson asked to rest against one of the support pillars; after being granted permission, he prayed to God and miraculously recovered his strength, allowing him to grasp hold of the columns and tear them down, killing himself and all the Philistines with him. In some Jewish traditions, Samson is believed to have been buried in Tel Tzora in Israel overlooking the Sorek valley.

Samson has been the subject of both rabbinic and Christian commentary, with some Christians viewing him as a type of Jesus, based on similarities between their lives. Notable depictions of Samson include John Milton's closet drama Samson Agonistes and Cecil B. DeMille's 1949 Hollywood film Samson and Delilah. Samson also plays a major role in Western art and traditions.

Southend United F.C.

Southend United Football Club is a professional association football club based in Southend-on-Sea, Essex, England. The team competes in League One, the third tier of English football. Southend are known as "The Shrimpers", a reference to the area's maritime industry included as one of the quarterings on the club badge.

Founded on 19 May 1906 in the Blue Boar pub, Southend has been a member of the Football League since 1920. The club has spent most of its League career in the English lower divisions, with seven seasons in the League's second tier (Division 2/Championship).

The club is based at Roots Hall Stadium in Prittlewell, with plans to move to a new stadium at Fossetts Farm.

Sporting CP

Sporting Clube de Portugal ComC MHIH OM (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈspɔɾtĩɡ(ɨ) ˈkluβ(ɨ) ðɨ puɾtuˈɣaɫ]) (Euronext: SCP), or Sporting CP, is a sports club based in Lisbon, Portugal, that is best known for its football team. The club is usually referred to simply as Sporting in Portuguese-speaking countries, and it is often called Sporting Lisbon in other countries.

Founded on 1 July 1906, Sporting is one of the "Três Grandes" (Big Three) clubs in Portugal, along with rivals S.L. Benfica and FC Porto, that have never been relegated from the top flight of Portuguese football, Primeira Liga, since 1934. Sporting are nicknamed Leões (Lions) and Verde e Brancos (Green and Whites). The club's anthem, "A Marcha do Sporting" (Sporting's March), was written in 1955. As of August 2018, Sporting has 90,000 members, with around 50,000 being eligible to vote in the club's elections.Sporting are the third most decorated Portuguese football team, with a total of 48 trophies, including one international title, the 1963–64 European Cup Winners' Cup. Domestically, they have won 18 Primeira Liga titles, 16 Portuguese Cups (Taça de Portugal), 4 Championship of Portugal (a record tied with Porto), 2 Taça da Liga and 8 Portuguese Super Cup trophies. Internationally, Sporting are currently ranked 33rd in UEFA club rankings.

Tabernacle

According to the Tanakh the tabernacle (Hebrew: מִשְׁכַּן‎, mishkan, meaning "residence" or "dwelling place") was the portable dwelling (temple) of Yahweh (God) used by the children of Israel from the Exodus until the conquest of Canaan. It was constructed of woven layers of curtains and wood and richly furnished with valuable materials taken from Egypt. Moses was instructed at Mount Sinai to construct and transport the tabernacle with the Israelites on their journey through the wilderness and their subsequent conquest of the Promised Land. After 440 years, Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem superseded it as the dwelling-place of God.

The main source describing the tabernacle is the biblical Book of Exodus, specifically Exodus 25–31 and 35–40. Those passages describe an inner sanctuary, the Holy of Holies, placed behind a veil suspended by four pillars. This sanctuary contained the Ark of the Covenant, covered by the decorated mercy seat. An outer sanctuary (the "Holy Place") contained a gold lamp-stand or candlestick. On the south side of the lamp stood a table, on which lay the showbread. On the north side was the Menorah, holding seven oil lamps to give light. On the west side, just before the veil, was the golden altar of incense.

This description is generally identified as part of the Priestly source ("P"), written in the sixth or fifth century BCE. However while the first Priestly source takes the form of instructions, the second is largely a repetition of the first in the past tense, i.e., it describes the execution of the instructions. Many scholars contend that it is of a far later date than the time of Moses, and that the description reflects the structure of Solomon's Temple, while some hold that the description derives from memories of a real pre-monarchic shrine, perhaps the sanctuary at Shiloh. Traditional scholars contend that it describes an actual tabernacle used in the time of Moses and thereafter. According to historical criticism, an earlier, pre-exilic source, the Elohist ("E"), describes the tabernacle as a simple tent-sanctuary.

Torino F.C.

Torino Football Club (Italian pronunciation: [toˈriːno]), commonly referred to as Torino or simply Toro, is a professional Italian football club based in Turin, Piedmont, that plays in Serie A.

Founded as Foot-Ball Club Torino in 1906, Torino are among the most successful clubs in Italy with seven league titles, including five consecutive league titles at the time of the Grande Torino, widely recognised as one of the strongest teams of the 1940s. That entire team was killed in the 1949 Superga air disaster. They have also won the Coppa Italia five times, the last of which was in the 1992–93 season. Internationally, Torino won the Mitropa Cup in 1991 and were finalists in the UEFA Cup in 1991–92.

Torino plays all of its home games at the Stadio Olimpico Grande Torino (also known as the Stadio Comunale "Vittorio Pozzo" until 2006). The club's colour is maroon, and its symbol is a rampant bull, the traditional symbol of the city of Turin, of which the club's nickname is derived, "Il Toro" (The Bull).

Xerox

Xerox Corporation (; also known as Xerox) is an American global corporation that sells print and digital document products and services in more than 160 countries. Xerox is headquartered in Norwalk, Connecticut (having moved from Stamford, Connecticut in October 2007), though its largest population of employees is based around Rochester, New York, the area in which the company was founded. The company purchased Affiliated Computer Services for $6.4 billion in early 2010. As a large developed company, it is consistently placed in the list of Fortune 500 companies.On December 31, 2016, Xerox separated its business process service operations into a new publicly traded company, Conduent. Xerox focuses on its document technology and document outsourcing business, and continues to trade on the NYSE. On January 31, 2018, Xerox announced that it would sell a controlling stake to Fujifilm, which has maintained a joint venture in the Asia-Pacific region known as Fuji Xerox.

Researchers at Xerox and its Palo Alto Research Center invented several important elements of personal computing, such as the desktop metaphor GUI, the computer mouse and desktop computing. These concepts were frowned upon by the then board of directors, who ordered the Xerox engineers to share them with Apple technicians. The concepts were adopted by Apple and later Microsoft. With the help of these innovations, Apple and Microsoft came to dominate the personal computing revolution of the 1980s, whereas Xerox was not a major player.

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