Striking southern Italy on September 8, the 1905 Calabria earthquake had a moment magnitude of 7.2 and a maximum Mercalli intensity of XI (Extreme). The first major earthquake of the 20th century, it severely damaged parts of Lipari and Messina Province, and killed between 557 and 2,500 people.
|1905 Calabria earthquake|
|UTC time||1905-09-08 01:43:02|
|Local date||September 8, 1905|
|Magnitude||7.2 Mw |
|Depth||15 km (9 mi) |
|Total damage||Severe |
|Max. intensity||XI (Extreme) |
|Tsunami||1.3 m (4 ft 3 in) |
|Casualties||557 to 2,500 dead |
On October 23, 1907, a magnitude 5.9 earthquake struck Calabria, at a depth of 33.0 km. in the area of Gerace-Siderno, on the southeast coast of Calabria. The event caused 167 deaths and major damage.The epicentral area included only one town (Ferruzzano), where many houses collapsed almost completely, and 158 persons, or 8% of its population, were killed. Ferruzano had been hit as well in the 1905 Calabria earthquake.Almost a month later, on November 17, 1907, the area of Ferruzzano, Brancaleone and Bianco was hit again. On January 23, 1908, the area was hit again by an earthquake. People had to camp in the fields or in nearby subterranean grottos. In Ferruzzano new houses built after the earthquakes of 1905 and 1907 resisted the shocks of the 1908 Messina earthquake.2nd Alpini Regiment
The 2nd Alpini Regiment (Italian: 2° Reggimento Alpini) is a light Infantry regiment of the Italian Army, specializing in mountain combat. The Alpini are a mountain infantry corps of the Italian Army, that distinguished itself in combat during World War I and World War II. The regiment was disbanded in 1943 due to losses on the Eastern Front, however one of its component battalions, the Saluzzo Battalion, was reformed in November 1945 after the end of hostilities in Europe. The regiment itself was reformed in 1963 as a training unit, however, following a restructuring of the Italian Army in 1974 it was disbanded once again. In 1992 the regiment was raised once again and today it consists of only the Saluzzo Battalion, based at Borgo San Dalmazzo as part of the Taurinense Brigade.Aiello Calabro
Aiello Calabro is a town and comune in the province of Cosenza in the Calabria region of Italy.Alessandro Fortis
Alessandro Fortis (16 September 1842 – 4 December 1909) was an Italian politician who served as the 18th Prime Minister of Italy from 1905 to 1906. He was Italy's first Jewish Prime Minister.Calabria
Calabria (Italian pronunciation: [kaˈlaːbrja]; Calàbbria in Calabrian; Calavría in Calabrian Greek; Καλαβρία in Greek; Kalavrì in Arbëresh/Albanian), known in antiquity as Bruttium, is a region in Southern Italy.
The capital city of Calabria is Catanzaro. The Regional Council of Calabria is based at the Palazzo Campanella in the city of Reggio Calabria. The region is bordered to the north by the Basilicata Region, to the west by the Tyrrhenian Sea, and to the east by the Ionian Sea. The region covers 15,080 km2 (5,822 sq mi) and has a population of just under 2 million. The demonym of Calabria is calabrese in Italian and Calabrian in English.
In ancient times the name Calabria referred, not as in modern times to the toe, but to the heel tip of Italy, from Tarentum southwards, a region nowadays known as Salento.Ferruzzano
Ferruzzano is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Reggio Calabria in the Italian region of Calabria, located about 110 kilometres (68 mi) southwest of Catanzaro and about 40 kilometres (25 mi) east of Reggio Calabria. As of 31 December 2004, it had a population of 863 and an area of 19.1 square kilometres (7.4 sq mi).Ferruzzano borders the following municipalities: Bianco, Bruzzano Zeffirio, Caraffa del Bianco, Sant'Agata del Bianco. It is the home town of Giuseppe Zangara, the man who tried to assassinate Franklin Delano Roosevelt.
On October 23, 1907, a magnitude 5.9 earthquake struck Calabria, at a depth of 33.0 km. The epicentral area included Ferruzzano, where many houses collapsed almost completely, and 158 persons, or 8% of its population, were killed. Ferruzano had been hit as well in the 1905 Calabria earthquake. Several aftershocks followed: on November 17, 1907, Ferruzzano was hit by an earthquake again, as well as on January 23, 1908. New houses built after the earthquakes of 1905 and 1907 resisted the shocks of the 1908 Messina earthquake.Karl Bernhard Zoeppritz
Karl Bernhard Zoeppritz (22 October 1881 – 20 July 1908) was a German geophysicist who made important contributions to seismology, in particular the formulation of the Zoeppritz equations.
These equations relate the amplitudes of P-waves and S-waves at each side of an interface, between two arbitrary elastic media, as a function of the angle of incidence and are largely used in reflection seismology for determining structure and properties of the subsurface.List of 20th-century earthquakes
This list of 20th-century earthquakes is a global list of notable earthquakes that occurred in the 20th century. After 1900 most earthquakes have some degree of instrumental records and this means that the locations and magnitudes are more reliable than for earlier events. To prevent this list becoming unmanageable, only those of magnitude 6 and above are included unless they are notable for some other reason.List of deadly earthquakes since 1900
The following list compiles known earthquakes that have caused one or more fatalities since 1900. The list incorporates high quality earthquake source (i.e., origin time, location and earthquake magnitude) and fatality information from several sources.
Earthquake locations are taken from the Centennial Catalog and the updated Engdahl, van der Hilst and Buland earthquake catalog, which is complete to December 2005. From January 2006, earthquake locations are from the United States Geological Survey’s Preliminary Determination of Epicenters (PDE) monthly listing. Preferred magnitudes are moment magnitudes taken from the Global Centroid Moment Tensor Database and its predecessor, the Harvard Centroid Moment Tensor Database. Where these magnitude estimates are unavailable, the preferred magnitude estimate is taken from the Centennial Catalog and the PDE.
Five columns of fatality estimates are provided. The first two columns are derived from the PDE monthly catalog and indicate deaths resulting from earthquake shaking only (i.e., from partial or total building collapse), and total fatalities resulting from earthquake shaking and secondary effects, such as tsunami, landslide, fire, liquefaction or other factors (e.g., heart failure). Where these secondary effects are reported, they are indicated by “T”, “L”, “F” or “Lq”, respectively. Fatality estimates in the PDE are generally obtained from official sources (e.g., local or national government officials, humanitarian agencies, emergency management agencies, etc.) or media reports within days to weeks after the earthquake. The PDE catalog is not updated if more detailed information becomes available after its final publication, usually four months after the earthquake.
The third fatality column is taken from the Utsu catalog of deadly earthquakes, and generally represents the total deaths resulting from an earthquake. The Utsu catalog is complete up until late 2003. The fourth column is derived from the Emergency Events Database (EM-DAT). EM-DAT has been developed and maintained by the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters at the Brussels campus of the University of Louvain, Belgium and is a global, multi-hazard (e.g., earthquake, cyclone, drought, flood, volcano, extreme temperatures, etc.) database of human impacts and economic losses. Earthquake source parameters in the EM-DAT are often absent, incomplete, or erroneous. Consequently, several events may be missed in the automated catalog associations. Furthermore, where the impact of an earthquake spans political boundaries, database entries are often subdivided by country. For significant events, the observed fatalities are aggregated and manually associated.
The final fatality column is for other sources of shaking deaths and indicates improved fatality estimates from official reports and detailed scholarly studies, where available.
The death tolls presented below vary widely in quality and in many cases are estimates only, particularly for the most catastrophic events that result in high fatalities. Note that in some cases, fatalities have been documented, but no numerical value of deaths is given. In these cases, fatality estimates are left blank. Many of the events listed with no numerical value are aftershocks where additional fatalities are aggregated with the main shock.
* Most fatalities attributed to tsunamiList of earthquakes in 1905
This is a list of earthquakes in 1905. Only magnitude 6.0 or greater earthquakes appear on the list. Exceptions to this are earthquakes which have caused death, injury or damage. Events which occurred in remote areas will be excluded from the list as they wouldn't have generated significant media interest. All dates are listed according to UTC time. Several events during the year provided some interest. The most notable was a devastating quake which struck India in April. With 19,000 deaths this was the deadliest quake in the infancy of the 20th Century. Mongolia was shaken during July by a pair of great magnitude 8.3 events which caused no deaths.Province of Vibo Valentia
The province of Vibo Valentia (Italian: provincia di Vibo Valentia; Vibonese: pruvincia i Vibbu Valenzia) is a province in the Calabria region of southern Italy, set up by a national law of 6 March 1992 which came into effect on 1 January 1996, and formerly part of the Province of Catanzaro. Its capital is the city of Vibo Valentia and its vehicle licence plate code is VV. The province has an area of 1,139 square kilometres (440 sq mi) (7.6% of the total surface of Calabria), and a total population of 168,894 (ISTAT 2005); the city Vibo Valentia has a population of 35,405. There are 50 comuni (singular: comune) in the province, see list of communes of the Province of Vibo Valentia.
It was first settled by Italic tribe the Sicels and Vibo Valentia was established as a city in the 6th or 7th century, known as Hipponion by the Greeks of Messina and Reggio. Following this, the city was later recolonised by people from town Locri in the region of Calabria. Dionysius I of Syracuse had the city of Hipponion destroyed, and authority of the city subsequently passed to Ancient Carthage, tribe Bruttii, Greek Agathocles of Syracuse, and then the Locrians, before being conquered by Ancient Rome in around 230 BCE. In around 400 CE it was attacked repeatedly before being destroyed by the Muslims. Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor had the town rebuilt in the 13th century, and in 1284 it passed to the Ruffo family. Ferdinand I of Naples had a fort constructed in Pizzo Calabro in 1486.In June 2010 a dormant volcano was discovered off the coast of the province on the fault line that led to the 1905 Calabria earthquake. It is a mountainous province and is situated on the Tyrrhenian Sea.
† indicates earthquake resulting in at least 30 deaths
‡ indicates the deadliest earthquake of the year