1904

1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1904th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 904th year of the 2nd millennium, the 4th year of the 20th century, and the 5th year of the 1900s decade. As of the start of 1904, the Gregorian calendar was 13 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1904 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1904
MCMIV
Ab urbe condita2657
Armenian calendar1353
ԹՎ ՌՅԾԳ
Assyrian calendar6654
Bahá'í calendar60–61
Balinese saka calendar1825–1826
Bengali calendar1311
Berber calendar2854
British Regnal yearEdw. 7 – 4 Edw. 7
Buddhist calendar2448
Burmese calendar1266
Byzantine calendar7412–7413
Chinese calendar癸卯(Water Rabbit)
4600 or 4540
    — to —
甲辰年 (Wood Dragon)
4601 or 4541
Coptic calendar1620–1621
Discordian calendar3070
Ethiopian calendar1896–1897
Hebrew calendar5664–5665
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1960–1961
 - Shaka Samvat1825–1826
 - Kali Yuga5004–5005
Holocene calendar11904
Igbo calendar904–905
Iranian calendar1282–1283
Islamic calendar1321–1322
Japanese calendarMeiji 37
(明治37年)
Javanese calendar1833–1834
Julian calendarGregorian minus 13 days
Korean calendar4237
Minguo calendar8 before ROC
民前8年
Nanakshahi calendar436
Thai solar calendar2446–2447
Tibetan calendar阴水兔年
(female Water-Rabbit)
2030 or 1649 or 877
    — to —
阳木龙年
(male Wood-Dragon)
2031 or 1650 or 878

Events

January

Baltimore fire aftermath
February 7: Aftermath of the Great Baltimore Fire.

February

Port Arthur from Gold Hill
Port Arthur from Gold Hill

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

President Theodore Roosevelt, 1904
November 8: Republican Theodore Roosevelt is elected President of the United States by defeating Democrat Alton B. Parker.

December

Date unknown

Births

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

Date unknown

Deaths

January

February

March

April

May

Frederick William, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz and Blessed Marta Anna Wiecka died on May 30, 1904

1819 Friedrich Wilhelm
MartaAnnaWiecka

June

July

August

Portrait of Murad V
Sultan Murad V

September

October

Isabelle Eberhardt and Braulio Orue-Vivanco died on October 21, 1904

Isabelle Eberhardt
Braulio Orue Vivanco

November

December

Date Unknown

Nobel Prizes

Nobel medal

References

  1. ^ Grant, Neil (1993). Chronicle of 20th Century Conflict. New York City: Reed International Books Ltd. & Smithmark Publishers Inc. pp. 18–19. ISBN 0-8317-1371-2.
  2. ^ Alpers, A. F. G. (1966). "Pelorus Jack". An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 2006-12-29.
  3. ^ "IFK - 1904-1908". www.ifkgoteborg.se (in Swedish). Archived from the original on April 1, 2014. Retrieved November 3, 2017.
  4. ^ Headland, R. K. (1984). The Island of South Georgia. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-25274-1.

Further reading

  • Gilbert, Martin. A History of the Twentieth Century: Volume 1 1900-1933 (1997); global coverage of politics, diplomacy and warfare; pp 89–104.

External links

1904 Summer Olympics

The 1904 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the III Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event which was celebrated in St. Louis, Missouri, United States from August 29 until September 3, 1904, as part of an extended sports program lasting from July 1 to November 23, 1904, at what is now known as Francis Field on the campus of Washington University in St. Louis. It was the first time that the Olympic Games were held outside Europe.Tensions caused by the Russo–Japanese War and the difficulty of getting to St. Louis in 1904 may have contributed to the fact that very few top ranked athletes from outside the US and Canada took part in these Games. Only 62 of the 651 athletes who competed came from outside North America, and only 12–15 nations were represented in all. Some events combined the U.S. national championship with the Olympic championship.The current three-medal (gold, silver and bronze for first, second and third places) format was introduced at the 1904 Olympics.

1904 United States House of Representatives elections

Elections to the United States House of Representatives were held in 1904 to elect members of the 59th Congress, and coincided with the election to a full term of President Theodore Roosevelt.

Roosevelt's popularity swept many Republican house candidates into office, cementing their majority over the opposition Democratic Party. Because Roosevelt came from a liberal wing of the Republican Party, his ideology was prevalent among freshman representatives. Progressive Republicanism mobilized a new base of support and proved to be especially popular among the Protestant middle-class workers who held jobs in business or in the front offices of industrial facilities.

1904 United States presidential election

The United States presidential election of 1904 was the 30th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 8, 1904. Incumbent Republican President Theodore Roosevelt defeated the Democratic nominee, Alton B. Parker. Roosevelt's victory made him the first president to win a term in his own right after having ascended to the presidency upon the death of a predecessor.

Roosevelt took the office in September 1901 following the assassination of his predecessor, William McKinley. After the February 1904 death of McKinley's ally, Senator Mark Hanna, Roosevelt faced little opposition at the 1904 Republican National Convention. The conservative Bourbon Democrat allies of former President Grover Cleveland temporarily regained control of the Democratic Party from the followers of William Jennings Bryan, and the 1904 Democratic National Convention nominated Alton B. Parker, Chief Judge of the New York Court of Appeals. Parker triumphed on the second ballot of the convention, defeating newspaper magnate William Randolph Hearst.

As there was little difference between the candidates' positions, the race was largely based on their personalities; the Democrats argued the Roosevelt presidency was "arbitrary" and "erratic." Republicans emphasized Roosevelt's success in foreign affairs and his record of firmness against monopolies. Roosevelt easily defeated Parker, sweeping every region in the nation except the South. Two third-party candidates, Eugene V. Debs of the Socialist Party and Silas C. Swallow of the Prohibition Party, each took over 1% of the popular vote. Roosevelt's popular vote margin of 18.8% was the largest since James Monroe's victory in the 1820 presidential election.

1904 and 1905 United States Senate elections

The United States Senate elections of 1904 and 1905 were elections that coincided with President Theodore Roosevelt's landslide election to a full term. Party share of seats remained roughly the same, when including vacancies and appointments, and the Republicans retained a significant majority over the Democrats.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the Seventeenth Amendment, senators were chosen by State legislatures.

This was the last election cycle until 1996 which featured a presidential candidate who won re-election without securing coattails in the Senate in either of his presidential runs.

Bayer 04 Leverkusen

Bayer 04 Leverkusen Fußball GmbH, also known as Bayer 04 Leverkusen [ˌbaɪ̯ɐ ˈleːvɐˌkuːzn̩], Bayer Leverkusen, Leverkusen or simply Bayer, is a German football club based in Leverkusen, North Rhine-Westphalia. The club plays in the Bundesliga, the top tier of German football, and hosts matches at the BayArena.The club was founded in 1904 by employees of the German pharmaceutical company Bayer, whose headquarters are in Leverkusen and from which the club draws its name. It was formerly the best-known department of TSV Bayer 04 Leverkusen, a sports club whose members also participate in athletics, gymnastics, basketball and other sports including the RTHC Bayer Leverkusen (rowing, tennis and hockey). In 1999 the football department was separated from the sports club and is now a separate entity formally called Bayer 04 Leverkusen GmbH.Bayer Leverkusen have won one DFB-Pokal and one UEFA Cup. Their local rivals are 1. FC Köln.

Electoral districts of New South Wales

The New South Wales Legislative Assembly is elected from 93 single-member electorates called districts.

FC Schalke 04

Fußballclub Gelsenkirchen-Schalke 04 e. V., commonly known as FC Schalke 04 (German: [ɛf tseː ˈʃalkə nʊl fiːɐ̯]), Schalke or abbreviated as S04 (German: [ˈɛs nʊl fiːɐ̯]), is a professional German football and multi-sports club originally from the Schalke district of Gelsenkirchen, North Rhine-Westphalia. The "04" in the club's name derives from its formation in 1904. Schalke has long been one of the most popular professional football teams and multi-sports club in Germany, even though the club's heyday was in the 1930s and 1940s. Schalke play in the Bundesliga, the top tier of the German football league system. As of June 2018, the club has 155,000 members, making it the second-largest sports club in Germany and the fourth-largest sports club in the world in terms of membership. Other activities offered by the club include athletics (track and field), basketball, handball, table tennis, winter sports and eSports.

Founded in 1904, Schalke has won seven German championships, five DFB-Pokals, one DFL-Supercup and one UEFA Cup.

Schalke also succeeded as the first German club to win a cup double in 1937.

Since 2001, Schalke's stadium has been the Veltins-Arena. Schalke holds a long-standing rivalry with Ruhr neighbours Borussia Dortmund, arguably one of the most widespread and well-known rivalries in German football, and matches between the two teams are referred to as the Revierderby.

Schalke was ranked as the seventh-best football team in Europe by UEFA's 2015 UEFA club rankings.In terms of operating income, Schalke possesses the seventh-highest operating income of any football club at "$64.4 million or £38.2 million (€48 million)", and 0% debt as of August 2014. Schalke also generates the 14th-highest revenue of any football club, at "$265.6 million or £157.8 million (€198 million)".In May 2014, Schalke 04 were ranked by Forbes magazine as the 14th-most valuable football club, at "£355 million or $599 million (€446 million)", an increase of 16% from the previous year.

FIFA

The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA FEEF-ə; French for 'International Federation of Association Football') is an organization which describes itself as an international governing body of association football, fútsal, beach soccer, and eFootball. FIFA is responsible for the organization of football's major international tournaments, notably the World Cup which commenced in 1930 and the Women's World Cup which commenced in 1991.

FIFA was founded in 1904 to oversee international competition among the national associations of Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland. Headquartered in Zürich, its membership now comprises 211 national associations. Member countries must each also be members of one of the six regional confederations into which the world is divided: Africa, Asia, Europe, North & Central America and the Caribbean, Oceania, and South America.

Although FIFA does not control the rules of football, that being the responsibility of the International Football Association Board, it is responsible for both the organization of a number of tournaments and their promotion, which generate revenue from sponsorship. In 2017, FIFA had revenues of over US $734 million, for a net loss of $189 million, and had cash reserves of over US$930 million.Reports by investigative journalists have linked FIFA leadership with corruption, bribery, and vote-rigging related to the election of FIFA president Sepp Blatter and the organization's decision to award the 2018 and 2022 World Cups to Russia and Qatar, respectively. These allegations led to the indictments of nine high-ranking FIFA officials and five corporate executives by the U.S. Department of Justice on charges including racketeering, wire fraud, and money laundering. On 27 May 2015, several of these officials were arrested by Swiss authorities, who were launching a simultaneous but separate criminal investigation into how the organization awarded the 2018 and 2022 World Cups. Those among these officials who were also indicted in the U.S. are expected to be extradited to face charges there as well. Many officials were suspended by FIFA's ethics committee including Sepp Blatter and Michel Platini. In early 2017 reports became public about FIFA president Gianni Infantino attempting to prevent the re-elections of both chairmen of the ethics committee, Cornel Borbély and Hans-Joachim Eckert, during the FIFA congress in May 2017. On May 9, 2017, following Infantino's proposal, FIFA Council decided not to renew the mandates of Borbély and Eckert. Together with the chairmen, 11 of 13 committee members were removed.

French Open

The French Open (French: Championnats Internationaux de France de Tennis), also called Roland-Garros (French: [ʁɔlɑ̃ ɡaʁos]), is a major tennis tournament held over two weeks between late May and early June at the Stade Roland-Garros in Paris, France. The venue is named after the French aviator Roland Garros. It is the premier clay court tennis championship event in the world and the second of four annual Grand Slam tournaments, the other three being the Australian Open, Wimbledon and the US Open. The French Open is currently the only Grand Slam event held on clay, and it is the zenith of the spring clay court season. Because of the seven rounds needed for a championship, the slow-playing surface and the best-of-five-set men's singles matches (without a tiebreak in the final set), the event is widely considered to be the most physically demanding tennis tournament in the world.

List of car manufacturers of the United Kingdom

This list is incomplete. You can help by adding correctly sourced information about other manufacturers.As of 2018 there are approximately 35 active British car manufacturers and over 500 defunct British car manufacturers. This page lists car manufacturers that build or built cars in the UK.

Louisiana Purchase Exposition

The Louisiana Purchase Exposition, informally known as the St. Louis World's Fair, was an international exposition held in St. Louis, Missouri, United States, from April 30 to December 1, 1904. Local, state, and federal funds totaling $15 million were used to finance the event. More than 60 countries and 43 of the 45 American states maintained exhibition spaces at the fair, which was attended by nearly 19.7 million people.

Historians generally emphasize the prominence of themes of race and empire, and the fair's long-lasting impact on intellectuals in the fields of history, art history, architecture and anthropology. From the point of view of the memory of the average person who attended the fair, it primarily promoted entertainment, consumer goods and popular culture.

Madama Butterfly

Madama Butterfly (IPA: [maˈdaːma ˈbatterflai]; Madam Butterfly) is an opera in three acts (originally two) by Giacomo Puccini, with an Italian libretto by Luigi Illica and Giuseppe Giacosa.

It is based on the short story "Madame Butterfly" (1898) by John Luther Long, which in turn was based on stories told to Long by his sister Jennie Correll and on the semi-autobiographical 1887 French novel Madame Chrysanthème by Pierre Loti. Long's version was dramatized by David Belasco as the one-act play Madame Butterfly: A Tragedy of Japan, which, after premiering in New York in 1900, moved to London, where Puccini saw it in the summer of that year.The original version of the opera, in two acts, had its premiere on 17 February 1904 at La Scala in Milan. It was poorly received, despite having such notable singers as soprano Rosina Storchio, tenor Giovanni Zenatello and baritone Giuseppe De Luca in lead roles, due in part to a late completion by Puccini, and thus inadequate time for rehearsals. Puccini revised the opera, splitting Act II in two, with the Humming Chorus as a bridge to what became Act III, and making other changes. Success ensued, starting with the first performance on 28 May 1904 in Brescia. Madama Butterfly has become a staple of the operatic repertoire around the world, ranked 6th by Operabase; Puccini's La bohème and Tosca rank 3rd and 5th.

OGC Nice

Olympique Gymnaste Club Nice Côte d'Azur (French pronunciation: ​[ɔlɛ̃pik ʒimnast nis kot dazyʁ]), commonly referred to as OGC Nice or simply Nice, is a French association football club based in Nice. The club was founded in 1904 and currently plays in Ligue 1, the top tier of French football. Nice plays its home matches at the Allianz Riviera. Nice are managed by former French international Patrick Vieira and captained by Brazilian defender Dante.

Nice was founded under the name Gymnaste Club de Nice and is one of the founding members of the first division of French football. The club has won Ligue 1 four times and the Coupe de France three times. Nice achieved most of its honours in the 1950s with the club being managed by coaches such as Numa Andoire, Englishman William Berry, and Jean Luciano. The club's last honour was winning the Coupe de France in 1997 after defeating Guingamp 4–3 on penalties in the final. Nice's colours are red and black.

During the club's successful run in the 1950s, Nice were among the first French clubs to successfully integrate internationals players into the fold. Notable players include Héctor De Bourgoing, Pancho Gonzales, Victor Nurenberg, and Joaquín Valle, the latter being the club's all-time leading goalscorer and arguably greatest player.

Pablo Picasso

Pablo Ruiz Picasso (; Spanish: [ˈpaβlo piˈkaso]; 25 October 1881 – 8 April 1973) was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, stage designer, poet and playwright who spent most of his adult life in France. Regarded as one of the most influential artists of the 20th century, he is known for co-founding the Cubist movement, the invention of constructed sculpture, the co-invention of collage, and for the wide variety of styles that he helped develop and explore. Among his most famous works are the proto-Cubist Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907), and Guernica (1937), a dramatic portrayal of the bombing of Guernica by the German and Italian airforces during the Spanish Civil War.

Picasso demonstrated extraordinary artistic talent in his early years, painting in a naturalistic manner through his childhood and adolescence. During the first decade of the 20th century, his style changed as he experimented with different theories, techniques, and ideas. After 1906, the Fauvist work of the slightly older artist Henri Matisse motivated Picasso to explore more radical styles, beginning a fruitful rivalry between the two artists, who subsequently were often paired by critics as the leaders of modern art.Picasso's work is often categorized into periods. While the names of many of his later periods are debated, the most commonly accepted periods in his work are the Blue Period (1901–1904), the Rose Period (1904–1906), the African-influenced Period (1907–1909), Analytic Cubism (1909–1912), and Synthetic Cubism (1912–1919), also referred to as the Crystal period. Much of Picasso's work of the late 1910s and early 1920s is in a neoclassical style, and his work in the mid-1920s often has characteristics of Surrealism. His later work often combines elements of his earlier styles.

Exceptionally prolific throughout the course of his long life, Picasso achieved universal renown and immense fortune for his revolutionary artistic accomplishments, and became one of the best-known figures in 20th-century art.

Russo-Japanese War

The Russo-Japanese War (Russian: Русско-японская война, translit. Russko-japonskaja vojna; Japanese: 日露戦争, translit. Nichiro sensō; "Japanese-Russian War") was fought during 1904-1905 between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea. The major theatres of operations were the Liaodong Peninsula and Mukden in Southern Manchuria and the seas around Korea, Japan and the Yellow Sea.

Russia sought a warm-water port on the Pacific Ocean for its navy and for maritime trade. Vladivostok was operational only during the summer, whereas Port Arthur, a naval base in Liaodong Province leased to Russia by China, was operational all year. Since the end of the First Sino–Japanese War in 1895, Japan feared Russian encroachment on its plans to create a sphere of influence in Korea and Manchuria. Russia had demonstrated an expansionist policy in the Siberian Far East from the reign of Ivan the Terrible in the 16th century. Seeing Russia as a rival, Japan offered to recognize Russian dominance in Manchuria in exchange for recognition of Korea as being within the Japanese sphere of influence. Russia refused and demanded Korea north of the 39th parallel to be a neutral buffer zone between Russia and Japan. The Japanese government perceived a Russian threat to its plans for expansion into Asia and chose to go to war. After negotiations broke down in 1904, the Japanese Navy opened hostilities by attacking the Russian Eastern Fleet at Port Arthur, China, in a surprise attack.

Russia suffered multiple defeats by Japan, but Tsar Nicholas II was convinced that Russia would win and chose to remain engaged in the war; at first, to await the outcomes of certain naval battles, and later to preserve the dignity of Russia by averting a "humiliating peace". Russia ignored Japan's willingness early on to agree to an armistice and rejected the idea to bring the dispute to the Arbitration Court at The Hague. The war concluded with the Treaty of Portsmouth, mediated by US President Theodore Roosevelt. The complete victory of the Japanese military surprised world observers. The consequences transformed the balance of power in East Asia, resulting in a reassessment of Japan's recent entry onto the world stage. It was the first major military victory in the modern era of an Asian power over a European one. Scholars continue to debate the historical significance of the war.

S.L. Benfica

Sport Lisboa e Benfica ComC MHIH OM (Portuguese pronunciation: [spɔɾ liʒˈboɐ i bɐ̃ȷ̃ˈfikɐ]), commonly known as Benfica, is a sports club based in Lisbon, Portugal. It is best known for the professional football team playing in the Primeira Liga, the top flight of the Portuguese football league system, where they are the most successful club in terms of titles won.

Founded on 28 February 1904 as Sport Lisboa, Benfica is one of the "Big Three" clubs in Portugal that have never been relegated from the Primeira Liga, along with rivals Sporting CP and FC Porto. The Benfica team is nicknamed Águias (Eagles), for the symbol atop the club's crest, and Encarnados (Reds), for the shirt colour. Since 2003, their home ground has been the Estádio da Luz, which replaced the larger, original one, built in 1954. Benfica is the most supported Portuguese club, with an estimated 14 million supporters worldwide, and the European club with the highest percentage of supporters in its own country, reportedly having 206,437 members. The club's anthem, "Ser Benfiquista", refers to its supporters, who are called benfiquistas. Águia Vitória is their mascot. Benfica is honoured with three Portuguese Orders: those of Christ (Commander), of Prince Henry (Honorary Member) and of Merit (Officer).

With a total of 81 major trophies won – 82 including the Latin Cup – Benfica is the most decorated club in Portugal. They have won 79 domestic trophies: a record 36 Primeira Liga titles, a record 26 Taça de Portugal, a record 7 Taça da Liga, 7 Supertaça Cândido de Oliveira and 3 Campeonato de Portugal. Internationally, they won back-to-back European Cups in 1961 and 1962 – a unique feat in Portuguese football – and were runners-up at the Intercontinental Cup in 1961 and '62, at the European Cup in 1963, '65, '68, '88 and '90, and at the UEFA Cup/Europa League in 1983, 2013 and '14. Benfica's ten European finals are a domestic record and ranked seventh all-time among UEFA clubs in 2014. Moreover, Benfica hold the European record for the most consecutive wins in domestic league and the record for the longest unbeaten run in Primeira Liga, where they became the first undefeated champions, in 1972–73.

Benfica was ranked twelfth in FIFA Club of the Century and ninth in IFFHS Top 200 European clubs of the 20th century. Currently, Benfica is ranked 21st in the UEFA club coefficient rankings and has the second most participations in the European Cup/UEFA Champions League (38). In this tournament, they hold the overall record for the biggest aggregate win, achieved in 1965–66.

Southern League (baseball)

The Southern League is a Minor League Baseball league that operates in the Southern United States. Classified a Double-A league, it is headquartered in the Atlanta suburb of Marietta. The league acquired its name in 1964, after the South Atlantic League, which had started in 1936, renamed itself to Southern League.

Summer Olympic Games

The Summer Olympic Games (French: Jeux olympiques d'été) or the Games of the Olympiad, first held in 1896, is a major international multi-sport event held once every four years. The most recent Olympics were held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The International Olympic Committee (IOC) organises the Games and oversees the host city's preparations. In each Olympic event, gold medals are awarded for first place, silver medals are awarded for second place, and bronze medals are awarded for third place; this tradition began in 1904. The Winter Olympic Games were created due to the success of the Summer Olympics.

The Olympics have increased in scope from a 42-event competition with fewer than 250 male competitors from 14 nations in 1896, to 306 events with 11,238 competitors (6,179 men, 5,059 women) from 206 nations in 2016.

The Summer Olympics has been hosted on five continents by a total of nineteen countries. The Games have been held four times in the United States (in 1904, 1932, 1984 and 1996); three times in the United Kingdom (in 1908, 1948 and 2012); twice each in Greece (1896, 2004), France (1900, 1924), Germany (1936, 1972) and Australia (1956, 2000); and once each in Sweden (1912), Belgium (1920), Netherlands (1928), Finland (1952), Italy (1960), Japan (1964), Mexico (1968), Canada (1976), Soviet Union (1980), South Korea (1988), Spain (1992), China (2008) and Brazil (2016).

The IOC has selected Tokyo, Japan, to host the Summer Olympics for a second time in 2020. The 2024 Summer Olympics will be held in Paris, France, for a third time, exactly one hundred years after the city's last Summer Olympics in 1924. The IOC has also selected Los Angeles, California, to host its third Summer Games in 2028.

To date, only five countries have participated in every Summer Olympic Games – Australia, France, Great Britain, Greece and Switzerland. The United States leads the all-time medal table for the Summer Olympics.

Vladimir Bourmeister

Vladimir Bourmeister was a Soviet choreographer best known for his choreography of Swan Lake by Peter Tchaikovsky.

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