1895

1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1895th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 895th year of the 2nd millennium, the 95th year of the 19th century, and the 6th year of the 1890s decade. As of the start of 1895, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1895 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1895
MDCCCXCV
Ab urbe condita2648
Armenian calendar1344
ԹՎ ՌՅԽԴ
Assyrian calendar6645
Bahá'í calendar51–52
Balinese saka calendar1816–1817
Bengali calendar1302
Berber calendar2845
British Regnal year58 Vict. 1 – 59 Vict. 1
Buddhist calendar2439
Burmese calendar1257
Byzantine calendar7403–7404
Chinese calendar甲午(Wood Horse)
4591 or 4531
    — to —
乙未年 (Wood Goat)
4592 or 4532
Coptic calendar1611–1612
Discordian calendar3061
Ethiopian calendar1887–1888
Hebrew calendar5655–5656
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1951–1952
 - Shaka Samvat1816–1817
 - Kali Yuga4995–4996
Holocene calendar11895
Igbo calendar895–896
Iranian calendar1273–1274
Islamic calendar1312–1313
Japanese calendarMeiji 28
(明治28年)
Javanese calendar1824–1825
Julian calendarGregorian minus 12 days
Korean calendar4228
Minguo calendar17 before ROC
民前17年
Nanakshahi calendar427
Thai solar calendar2437–2438
Tibetan calendar阳木马年
(male Wood-Horse)
2021 or 1640 or 868
    — to —
阴木羊年
(female Wood-Goat)
2022 or 1641 or 869

Events

January–March

Erste Benzin-Omnibus der Welt
The first internal combustion bus, 1895 (Siegen to Netphen in Germany)
Shunpanrou interior
April 17: Shimonoseki treaty: Qing China renounces claim on Korea

April–June

July–September

October–December

Date unknown

Births

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

Date Unknown

Deaths

January–June

July–December

Date unknown

References

  1. ^ Derfler, Leslie (2002). The Dreyfus Affair. p. 2.
  2. ^ Ron Chernow (2010). "The House of Morgan: An American Banking Dynasty and the Rise of Modern Finance". Grove/Atlantic, Inc. Missing or empty |url= (help)
  3. ^ McCullough, David Willis (2000-10-08). "The Fairy Defense". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-03-23.
  4. ^ Weale, Bertram Lenox Putnam (1905). The Re-shaping of the Far East. pp. 431–437.
  5. ^ a b c The Story of the Grand Prix. (retrieved 11 June 2017)
  6. ^ Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0.
  7. ^ therfl.co.uk. "Key Dates". History & Heritage. Rugby Football League. Retrieved 27 May 2012.
  8. ^ Gottheimer, Josh; Bill Clinton, and Mary Frances Berry (2004). Ripples of Hope: Great American Civil Rights Speeches. p. 128.
  9. ^ "A Fundação". Flamengo's official site (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on April 10, 2017. Retrieved April 9, 2017.
  10. ^ Berger, Michael L. The automobile in American history and culture: a reference guide. p. 278.
  11. ^ The London, Edinburgh and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science April 1896. p. 237.
  12. ^ Statement Showing, in Chronological Order, the Date of Opening and the Mileage of Each Section of Railway, Statement No. 19, p. 183, ref. no. 200954-13
  13. ^ "Youngsters are odds on to uncover history of racecourse". Wales Online. 2009-02-13. Retrieved 2015-08-20.

Sources

  • Appletons' Annual Cyclopaedia and Register of Important Events of the Year 1895: Embracing Political, Military, and Ecclesiastical Affairs ; Public Documents ; Biography, Statistics, Commerce, Finance, Literature, Science, Agriculture, and Mechanical Industry (1896); highly detailed compilation of facts and primary documents; worldwide coverage. not online.
1894 and 1895 United States Senate elections

The United States Senate elections of 1894 and 1895 were a slight Republican victory. It was a different story in the House where Democrats suffered massive losses. The senators elected went on to serve in the 54th Congress.

As these elections were prior to the ratification of the seventeenth amendment, senators were chosen by state legislatures.

1895 United Kingdom general election

The 1895 United Kingdom general election was held between 13 July and 7 August 1895. It was won by the Conservatives led by Lord Salisbury who formed an alliance with the Liberal Unionist Party and had a large majority over the Liberals, led by Lord Rosebery. The Irish Parliamentary Party was split at this time, the majority of its MPs (the "Anti-Parnellites") following John Dillon whilst a rump (the "Parnellites") followed John Redmond.

1895 United States House of Representatives elections

There were seven special elections to the United States House of Representatives in 1895, during 53rd United States Congress and the 54th United States Congress.

British Indian Army

The Indian Army (IA), often known since 1947 (but rarely during its existence) as the British Indian Army to distinguish it from the current Indian Army, was the principal military of the British Indian Empire before its decommissioning in 1947. It was responsible for the defence of both British Indian Empire and the princely states, which could also have their own armies. The Indian Army was an important part of the British Empire's forces, both in India and abroad, particularly during the First World War and the Second World War.

The term "Indian Army" appears to have been first used informally, as a collective description of the Presidency armies (the Bengal Army, the Madras Army and the Bombay Army) of the Presidencies of British India, particularly after the Indian Rebellion. The first army officially called the "Indian Army" was raised by the government of India in 1895, existing alongside the three long-established presidency armies. However, in 1903 the Indian Army absorbed these three armies. The Indian Army should not be confused with the "Army of India" (1903–1947) which was the Indian Army itself plus the "British Army in India" (British units sent to India).

Cuban War of Independence

The Cuban War of Independence (Spanish: Guerra de Independencia cubana, 1895–98) was the last of three liberation wars that Cuba fought against Spain, the other two being the Ten Years' War (1868–1878) and the Little War (1879–1880). The final three months of the conflict escalated to become the Spanish–American War, with United States forces being deployed in Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippine Islands against Spain. Historians disagree as to the extent that United States officials were motivated to intervene for humanitarian reasons but agree that yellow journalism exaggerated atrocities attributed to Spanish forces against Cuban civilians.

First-class cricket

First-class cricket is an official classification of the highest-standard international or domestic matches in the sport of cricket. A first-class match is of three or more days' scheduled duration between two sides of eleven players each and is officially adjudged to be worthy of the status by virtue of the standard of the competing teams. Matches must allow for the teams to play two innings each although, in practice, a team might play only one innings or none at all.

First-class cricket (which for this purpose includes all "important matches" played before 1895), along with historical single-wicket and the modern limited-overs forms of List A and Twenty20, is one of the highest-standard forms of cricket. The origin of the term "first-class cricket" is unknown but it was used loosely before it acquired an official status, effective in 1895, following a meeting of leading English clubs in May 1894. Subsequently, at a meeting of the Imperial Cricket Conference (ICC) in May 1947, it was formally defined on a global basis. A significant omission of the ICC ruling was any attempt to define first-class cricket retrospectively. This has left historians, and especially statisticians, with the problem of how to categorise earlier matches, especially those played before 1895 in Great Britain. The solution put forward by the Association of Cricket Statisticians and Historians (ACS) is to classify all pre-1895 matches of a high standard as important matches.

Test cricket, the highest standard of cricket, is statistically a form of first-class cricket, though the term "first-class" is mainly used to refer to domestic competition. A player's first-class statistics include any performances in Test matches.

First Sino-Japanese War

The First Sino-Japanese War (25 July 1894 – 17 April 1895) was fought between China and Japan primarily over influence in Korea. After more than six months of unbroken successes by Japanese land and naval forces and the loss of the port of Weihaiwei, the Qing government sued for peace in February 1895.

The war demonstrated the failure of the Qing Dynasty's attempts to modernize its military and fend off threats to its sovereignty, especially when compared with Japan's successful Meiji Restoration. For the first time, regional dominance in East Asia shifted from China to Japan; the prestige of the Qing Dynasty, along with the classical tradition in China, suffered a major blow. The humiliating loss of Korea as a tributary state sparked an unprecedented public outcry. Within China, the defeat was a catalyst for a series of political upheavals led by Sun Yat-sen and Kang Youwei, culminating in the 1911 Xinhai Revolution.

The war is commonly known in China as the War of Jiawu (Chinese: 甲午戰爭; pinyin: Jiǎwǔ Zhànzhēng), referring to the year (1894) as named under the traditional sexagenary system of years. In Japan, it is called the Japan–Qing War (Japanese: 日清戦争, Hepburn: Nisshin sensō). In Korea, where much of the war took place, it is called the Qing–Japan War (Korean: 청일전쟁; Hanja: 淸日戰爭).

Fortuna Düsseldorf

Fortuna Düsseldorf [fɔɐ̯ˈtuːnaː ˈdʏsl̩dɔɐ̯f] (listen) is a German football club in Düsseldorf, North Rhine-Westphalia. Founded in 1895, Fortuna entered the league in 1913 and was a fixture in the top flight from the early 1920s up to the creation of the Bundesliga in 1963. 2018–19 will be their 24th season in the Bundesliga, and their first since 2012–13.

French Open

The French Open (French: Championnats Internationaux de France de Tennis), also called Roland-Garros (French: [ʁɔlɑ̃ ɡaʁos]), is a major tennis tournament held over two weeks between late May and early June at the Stade Roland-Garros in Paris, France. The venue is named after the French aviator Roland Garros. It is the premier clay court tennis championship event in the world and the second of four annual Grand Slam tournaments, the other three being the Australian Open, Wimbledon and the US Open. The French Open is currently the only Grand Slam event held on clay, and it is the zenith of the spring clay court season. Because of the seven rounds needed for a championship, the slow-playing surface and the best-of-five-set men's singles matches (without a tiebreak in the final set), the event is widely considered to be the most physically demanding tennis tournament in the world.

French West Africa

French West Africa (French: Afrique occidentale française, AOF) was a federation of eight French colonial territories in Africa: Mauritania, Senegal, French Sudan (now Mali), French Guinea, Ivory Coast, Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso), Dahomey (now Benin) and Niger. The capital of the federation was Dakar. The federation existed from 1895 until 1960.

George VI

George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth from 11 December 1936 until his death in 1952. He was the last Emperor of India and the first Head of the Commonwealth.

Known publicly as Albert until his accession, and "Bertie" among his family and close friends, George VI was born in the reign of his great-grandmother Queen Victoria, and was named after his great-grandfather Albert, Prince Consort. As the second son of King George V, he was not expected to inherit the throne and spent his early life in the shadow of his elder brother, Edward. He attended naval college as a teenager, and served in the Royal Navy and Royal Air Force during the First World War. In 1920, he was made Duke of York. He married Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon in 1923 and they had two daughters, Elizabeth and Margaret. In the mid-1920s, he had speech therapy for a stammer, which he never fully overcame.

George's elder brother ascended the throne as Edward VIII upon the death of their father in 1936. However, later that year Edward revealed his desire to marry divorced American socialite Wallis Simpson. British prime minister Stanley Baldwin advised Edward that for political and religious reasons he could not marry a divorced woman and remain king. Edward abdicated to marry Simpson, and George ascended the throne as the third monarch of the House of Windsor.

During George's reign, the break-up of the British Empire and its transition into the Commonwealth of Nations accelerated. The parliament of the Irish Free State removed direct mention of the monarch from the country's constitution on the day of his accession. The following year, a new Irish constitution changed the name of the state to Ireland and established the office of President. From 1939, the Empire and Commonwealth – except Ireland – was at war with Nazi Germany. War with Italy and Japan followed in 1940 and 1941, respectively. Though Britain and its allies were ultimately victorious in 1945, the United States and the Soviet Union rose as pre-eminent world powers and the British Empire declined. After the independence of India and Pakistan in 1947, George remained king of both countries, but relinquished the title of Emperor of India in June 1948. Ireland formally declared itself a republic and left the Commonwealth in 1949, and India became a republic within the Commonwealth the following year. George adopted the new title of Head of the Commonwealth. He was beset by smoking-related health problems in the later years of his reign. He was succeeded by his elder daughter, Elizabeth II.

List of ministerial by-elections to the Parliament of the United Kingdom

Ministerial by-elections to the Parliament of the United Kingdom at Westminster were held from 1801 to the 1920s when a member of parliament (MP) was appointed as a minister in the government. Unlike most Westminster by-elections, ministerial by-elections were often a formality, uncontested by opposition parties. Re-election was required under the Succession to the Crown Act 1707. This was in line with the principle established in 1624 that accepting an office of profit from the Crown would precipitate resignation from the House, with the option of standing for re-election. Typically a minister sought re-election in the same constituency he had just vacated, but occasionally contested another seat which was also vacant. In 1910 The Times newspaper noted that the relevant Act had been passed in the reign of Queen Anne "to prevent the Court from swamping the House of Commons with placemen and pensioners", and described the process as "anomalous" and "indefensible" in the 20th century. The Re-Election of Ministers Act 1919 ended the necessity to seek re-election within nine months of a general election, and the Re-Election of Ministers Act (1919) Amendment Act 1926 ended the practice in all other cases.

O. Henry

William Sydney Porter (September 11, 1862 – June 5, 1910), better known by his pen name O. Henry, was an American short story writer. His stories are known for their surprise endings.

Oklahoma Sooners football

The Oklahoma Sooners football program is a college football team that represents the University of Oklahoma (variously "Oklahoma" or "OU"). The team is a member of the Big 12 Conference, which is in Division I Football Bowl Subdivision (formerly Division I-A) of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). The program began in 1895 and is one of the most successful programs since World War II with the most wins (606) and the highest winning percentage (.762) since 1945. The program has 7 national championships, 48 conference championships, 162 First Team All-Americans (80 consensus), and seven Heisman Trophy winners. In addition, the school has had 23 members (five coaches and 18 players) inducted into the College Football Hall of Fame and holds the record for the longest winning streak in Division I history with 47 straight victories. Oklahoma is also the only program that has had four coaches with 100+ wins. They became the sixth NCAA FBS team to win 850 games when they defeated the Kansas Jayhawks on November 22, 2014. The Sooners play their home games at Gaylord Family Oklahoma Memorial Stadium in Norman, Oklahoma. Lincoln Riley is currently the team's head coach.

Oldham Athletic A.F.C.

Oldham Athletic Association Football Club (nicknamed Latics) is a professional association football club based in the town of Oldham, Greater Manchester, England. The team compete in League Two, the fourth tier of English football, and play home matches at Boundary Park.The history of Oldham Athletic A.F.C. begins with the founding of Pine Villa F.C. in 1895, playing in the Manchester and Lancashire leagues. When rivals Oldham County F.C. folded in 1899, Pine Villa F.C. moved into their stadium and changed their name to Oldham Athletic. They were Football League runners-up in the 1914–15 season but were relegated from the Football League First Division in 1923. They reached the 1990 Football League Cup Final and won the Football League Second Division title in 1991, ending 68 years outside the top tier of English football. They secured their top division status a year later to become founder members of the new Premier League but were relegated in 1994. They are currently managed by former Manchester United midfielder Paul Scholes

Rugby Football League

The Rugby Football League is the governing body for professional rugby league in England. The name Rugby Football League previously also referred to the main league competition run by the organisation. This has since been supplanted by Super League, the Championship and League 1.

Based at Red Hall in Leeds, it administers the England national rugby league team, the Challenge Cup, Super League and the Rugby League Championships. The social and junior game is administered in association with the British Amateur Rugby League Association (BARLA). The Rugby Football League is a member of the Rugby League European Federation and as a senior Full Member has a combined veto power over the Council with France. The RFL is part of the Community Board, which also has representatives from BARLA, Combined Services, English Schools Rugby League and Student Rugby League.

Tony Adams will take over as the president in 2019, taking over from Andy Burnham.

Established as the Northern Rugby Football Union (often shortened to Northern Union) in August 1895 by representatives of twenty-one Rugby Football Union clubs at a meeting at the George Hotel, Huddersfield, it changed its name in 1922 to the Rugby Football League, mirroring its sister organisations overseas, the Australian Rugby Football League and New Zealand Rugby Football League.

The turnover of the RFL was reported as £27m in 2011.

Sultanate of Zanzibar

The Sultanate of Zanzibar (Swahili: Usultani wa Zanzibar, Arabic: سلطنة زنجبار‎, translit. Sulṭanat Zanjībār), also known as the Zanzibar Sultanate, comprised the territories over which the Sultan of Zanzibar was the sovereign. Those territories varied over time, and at one point included all of what is now Kenya as well as the Zanzibar Archipelago of the Swahili Coast. Later, the kingdom's realm included only a ten mile wide coastal strip of Kenya and Zanzibar. Under an agreement concluded on 8 October 1963, the Sultan relinquished sovereignty over his remaining territory in Kenya. On 12 January 1964, Sultan Jamshid bin Abdullah was deposed and lost sovereignty over the last of his dominions, Zanzibar.

Swiss Football Association

The Swiss Football Association (German: Schweizerischer Fussballverband, French: Association Suisse de Football, Italian: Associazione Svizzera di Football/Calcio, Romansh: Associaziun Svizra da Ballape) is the governing body of football in Switzerland. It organizes the football league, the Swiss Football League and the Switzerland national football team. It is based in Bern.

It was formed in 1895, was a founder member of FIFA in 1904 and joined UEFA during its foundation year, 1954. FIFA is now based in Switzerland at Zürich. Also UEFA is based in the Swiss city of Nyon.

ASF-SFV is the abbreviation of the associations name in three of the national languages of Switzerland. ASF stands for both French (Association Suisse de Football) and Italian (Associazione Svizzera di Football), while SFV is the German (Schweizerischer Fussballverband).- Romansh - It is abbreviated as ASB (Associaziun Svizra da Ballape).

X-ray

X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation. Most X-rays have a wavelength ranging from 0.01 to 10 nanometers, corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 petahertz to 30 exahertz (3×1016 Hz to 3×1019 Hz) and energies in the range 100 eV to 100 keV. X-ray wavelengths are shorter than those of UV rays and typically longer than those of gamma rays. In many languages, X-radiation is referred to with terms meaning Röntgen radiation, after the German scientist Wilhelm Röntgen who discovered these on November 8, 1895, who usually is credited as its discoverer, and who named it X-radiation to signify an unknown type of radiation. Spelling of X-ray(s) in the English language includes the variants x-ray(s), xray(s), and X ray(s).

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