1892 Republican National Convention

The 1892 National Convention of the Republican Party of the United States was held at the Industrial Exposition Building, Minneapolis, Minnesota, from June 7 to June 10, 1892. The party nominated President Benjamin Harrison for re-election on the first ballot and Whitelaw Reid of New York for Vice President.[1]

James S. Clarkson of Iowa was the outgoing chairman of the Republican National Committee. J. Sloat Fassett of New York was Temporary Chairman, and Governor William McKinley Jr. of Ohio was the Permanent Chair of the convention.

Harrison's Secretary of State James G. Blaine, who had resigned from the cabinet on June 4, 1892, the eve of the convention, had his name submitted for consideration by the delegates, but drew little support. Future president William McKinley tied Blaine for second place among the delegates.

Although successful in his bid for renomination, President Harrison's performance was underwhelming for an incumbent due in part to the crushing defeat that the party's Congressional candidates had met in the 1890 off-year elections. He lost the fall 1892 election to former president Grover Cleveland.

The 1892 RNC was also the first convention where women were allowed to be delegates. Therese Alberta (Parkinson) Jenkins, delegate from Wyoming, cast the first vote by a woman for president. Wyoming had granted full suffrage for women at statehood in 1890.

1892 Republican National Convention
1892 presidential election
Harrison and Reid
Date(s)June 7–10, 1892
CityMinneapolis, Minnesota
VenueIndustrial Exposition Building
ChairWilliam McKinley
Presidential nomineeBenjamin Harrison of Indiana
Vice Presidential nomineeWhitelaw Reid of New York
Other candidatesJames G. Blaine
William McKinley
Total delegates906
Votes needed for nomination462
Results (President)Harrison (IN): 536 (59.16%)
Blaine (ME): 183 (20.2%)
McKinley (OH): 182 (20.09%)
Reed (ME): 4 (0.44%)
Lincoln (IL): 1 (0.11%)


Presidential ballot

James G. Blaine cph.3b14325
Former Secretary of State
James G. Blaine
of Maine
(Draft Effort)
William McKinley by Courtney Art Studio, 1896
William McKinley
of Ohio
(Draft Effort)
John Sherman
of Ohio
(Declined to Contest)
Presidential Ballot Vice Presidential Ballot
Ballot 1st Ballot 1st
Benjamin Harrison 535.17 Whitelaw Reid 906
James G. Blaine 182.83
William McKinley 182
Thomas B. Reed 4
Robert Todd Lincoln 1

Source: US President - R Convention. Our Campaigns. (January 8, 2010). Source: US Vice President - R Convention. Our Campaigns. (September 7, 2009).

Vice presidential ballot

Incumbent Vice President Levi Morton was dumped from the ticket, as Harrison was not particularly fond of Morton and Morton was closer to Blaine supporters.[2] Morton was replaced by Ohioan and Ambassador, Whitelaw Reid. This was also the first and so far only time in U.S. Political History where the Presidential and Vice-Presidential nominees were both graduates from the same university. Harrison and Reid were graduates of Miami University located in Oxford, Ohio

Republican Party Platform

The Republican platform supported high tariffs, bimetallism, stiffer immigration laws, free rural mail delivery, and a canal across Central America. It also expressed sympathy for the Irish Home Rule Movement and the plight of Jews under persecution in czarist Russia.

The representatives of the Republicans of the United States, assembled in general convention on the shores of the Mississippi River, the everlasting bond of an indestructible Republic, whose most glorious chapter of history is the record of the Republican Party, congratulate their countrymen on the majestic march of the nation under the banners inscribed with the principles of our platform of 1888, vindicated by victory at the poll and prosperity in our fields, workshops and mines, and make the following declaration of principles:
We reaffirm the American doctrine of protection. We call attention to its growth abroad. We maintain that the prosperous condition of our country is largely due to the wise revenue legislation of the Republican Congress.
We believe that all articles which cannot be produced in the United States, except luxuries, should be admitted free of duty, and that all imports coming into competition with the products of American labor, there should be levied duties equal to the difference between wages abroad and at home. We assert that the prices of manufactured articles of general consumption have been reduced under the operations of the tariff act of 1890.
We denounce the efforts of the Democratic majority of the House of Representatives to destroy our tariff laws by piecemeal, as manifested by their attacks upon wool, lead and lead ores, the chief products of a number of States, and we ask the people for their judgement thereon.
We point to the success of the Republican policy of reciprocity, under which our export trade has vastly increased and new and enlarged markets have been opened for the products of our farms and workshops. We remind the people of the bitter opposition of the Democratic party to this practical business measure, and claim that, executed by a Republican administration, our present laws will eventually give us control of the trade of the world.
The American people, from tradition and interest, favor bi-metallism, and the Republican party demands the use of both gold and silver as standard money, with such restrictions and under such provisions, to be determined by legislation, as will secure the maintenance of the parity of values of the two metals so that the purchasing and debt-paying power of the dollar, whether of silver, gold, or paper, shall be at all times equal. The interests of the producers of the country, its farmers and its workingmen, demand that every dollar, paper or coin, issued by the government, shall be as good as any other.
We commend the wise and patriotic steps already taken by our government to secure an international conference, to adopt such measures as will insure a parity of value between gold and silver for use as money throughout the world.
We demand that every citizen of the United States shall be allowed to cast one free and unrestricted ballot in all public elections, and that such ballot shall be counted and returned as cast; that such laws shall be enacted and enforced as will secure to every citizen, be he rich or poor, native or foreign-born, white or black, this sovereign right, guaranteed by the Constitution. The free and honest popular ballot, the just and equal representation of all the people, as well as their just and equal protection under the laws, are the foundation of our Republican institutions, and the party will never relax its efforts until the integrity of the ballot and the purity of elections shall be fully guaranteed and protected in every State.
We denounce the continued inhuman outrages perpetrated upon American citizens for political reasons in certain Southern States of the Union.
We favor the extension of our foreign commerce, the restoration of our mercantile marine by home-built ships, and the creation of a navy for the protection of our National interests and the honor of our flag; the maintenance of the most friendly relations with all foreign powers; entangling alliances with none; and the protection of the rights of our fishermen.
We reaffirm our approval of the Monroe Doctrine and believe in the achievement of the manifest destiny of the Republic in its broadest sense.
We favor the enactment of stringent laws and regulations for the restriction of criminal, pauper and contract immigration.
We favor efficient legislation by Congress to protect the life and limbs of employees of transportation companies engaged in carrying inter-State commerce, and recommend legislation by the respective States that will protect employees engaged in State commerce, in mining and manufacturing.
The Republican party has always been the champion of the oppressed and recognizes the dignity of manhood, irrespective of faith, color, or nationality; it sympathizes with the cause of home rule in Ireland, and protests against the persecution of the Jews in Russia.
The ultimate reliance of free popular government is the intelligence of the people, and the maintenance of freedom among men. We therefore declare anew our devotion to liberty of thought and conscience, of speech and press, and approve all agencies and instrumentalities which contribute to the education of the children of the land, but while insisting upon the fullest measure of religious liberty, we are opposed to any union of Church and State.
We reaffirm our opposition, declared in the Republican platform of 1888, to all combinations of capital organized in trusts or otherwise, to control arbitrarily the condition of trade among our citizens.
We heartily indorse the action already taken upon this subject, and ask for further such legislation as may be required to remedy any defects in existing laws, and to render their enforcement more complete and effective.
We approve the policy of extending to towns, villages and rural communities the advantages of the free delivery service, now enjoyed by the larger cities of the country, and reaffirm the declaration contained in the Republican platform of 1888, pledging the reduction of letter postage to 1 cent at the earliest possible moment consistent with the maintenance of the Post Office Department and the highest class of postal service.
We commend the spirit and evidence of reform in the civil service, and the wise and consistent enforcement by the Republican party of the laws regulating the same.
The construction of the Nicaragua Canal is of the highest importance to the American people, both as a measure of National defense and to build up and maintain American commerce, and it should be controlled by the United States Government.
We favor the admission of the remaining Territories at the earliest practicable date, having due regard to the interests of the people of the Territories and of the United States. All the Federal officers appointed for the Territories should be selected from bona-fide residents thereof, and the right of self-government should be accorded as far as practicable.
We favor the cession, subject to the homestead laws, of the arid public lands, to the States and Territories in which they lie, under such Congressional restrictions as to disposition, reclamation and occupancy of settlers as will secure the maximum benefits to the people.
The World's Columbian Exposition is a great national undertaking, and Congress should promptly enact such reasonable legislation in aid thereof as will insure a discharge of the expenses and obligations incident thereto, and the attainment of results commensurate with the dignity and progress of the Nation.
We sympathize with all wise and legitimate efforts to lessen and prevent the evils of intemperance and promote morality.
Ever mindful of the services and sacrifices of the men who saved the life of the Nation, we pledge anew to the veteran soldiers of the Republic a watchful care and recognition of their just claims upon a grateful people.
We commend the able, patriotic and thoroughly American administration of President Harrison. Under it the country has enjoyed remarkable prosperity and dignity and honor of the Nation, at home and abroad, have been faithfully maintained, and we offer the record of pledges kept as a guarantee of faithful performance in the future.


See also


  1. ^ "Different twin city, but a similar RNC tale 116 years later". Twin Cities. 2008-08-10. Retrieved 2018-05-29.
  2. ^ "Levi Parsons Morton, 22nd Vice President (1889-1893)". US Senate. US Senate. Retrieved 9 October 2015.
  3. ^ History of American Presidential Elections Volume II 1848-1896; Schlesinger; Pgs 1739-1741


External links

Preceded by
Chicago, Illinois
Republican National Conventions Succeeded by
St. Louis, Missouri
1892 United States elections

The 1892 United States elections was held on November 8, electing member to the 53rd United States Congress, taking place during the Third Party System. Democrats retained the House and won control of the Presidency and the Senate. Following the election, Democrats controlled the Presidency and a majority in both chambers of Congress for the first time since the 1858 elections.

In the Presidential election, Republican President Benjamin Harrison was defeated by former Democratic President Grover Cleveland. Cleveland won the popular vote by a margin of three percent, but won by a large margin in the electoral college. Populist James B. Weaver also carried five Western states and won a little over eight percent of the vote. At the 1892 Republican National Convention, Harrison fended off a challenge from supporters of former Secretary of State James G. Blaine and Governor William McKinley of Ohio. At the 1892 Democratic National Convention, Cleveland defeated Senator David B. Hill from New York and Governor Horace Boies of Iowa on the first ballot. Harrison had previously defeated Cleveland in 1888, and Cleveland's win made him the first President to serve non-consecutive terms. Cleveland's win in the popular vote also made him the second person, after Andrew Jackson, to win the popular vote in three presidential elections.

Reapportionment following the 1890 census added twenty four seats to the House. Republicans picked up several seats in the House, but Democrats continued to command a large majority in the chamber.In the Senate, Democrats made moderate gains to win a majority (including the Democratic Vice President) in the chamber for the first time since the 1880 elections.

1892 United States presidential election

The United States presidential election of 1892 was the 27th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 8, 1892. In a re-match of the closely contested 1888 presidential election, former Democratic President Grover Cleveland defeated incumbent Republican President Benjamin Harrison. Cleveland's victory made him the first and to date only person in American history to be elected to a non-consecutive second presidential term. It was also the first of two times that an incumbent was defeated in two consecutive elections (the other being Jimmy Carter's defeat of Gerald Ford in 1976 and subsequent loss to Ronald Reagan in 1980).Though some Republicans opposed Harrison's re-nomination, Harrison defeated James G. Blaine and William McKinley on the first presidential ballot of the 1892 Republican National Convention. Cleveland defeated challenges by David B. Hill and Horace Boies on the first presidential ballot of the 1892 Democratic National Convention, becoming the first Democrat to win his party's presidential nomination in three different elections. The new Populist Party, formed by groups from The Grange, the Farmers' Alliances, and the Knights of Labor, fielded a ticket led by former Congressman James B. Weaver of Iowa.

The campaign centered mainly on economic issues, especially the protectionist 1890 McKinley Tariff. Cleveland ran on a platform of lowering the tariff, and he opposed the Republicans' 1890 voting rights proposal. Cleveland was also a proponent of the gold standard, while the Republicans and Populists both supported bimetalism.

Cleveland swept the Solid South and won several important swing states, taking a majority of the electoral vote and a plurality of the popular vote. Cleveland was the first person since Andrew Jackson to win a significant number of electoral votes in three different elections, and only Jackson, Cleveland, and Franklin D. Roosevelt have won the popular vote in three different elections. Weaver won 8.5% of the popular vote and carried several Western states, while John Bidwell of the Prohibition Party won 2.2% of the popular vote. The Democrats would not win another presidential election until 1912.

Abraham X. Parker

Abraham X. Parker (November 14, 1831 Granville, Addison County, Vermont – August 9, 1909 Potsdam, St. Lawrence County, New York) was an American lawyer and politician from New York.

Abram Halstead Ellis

Abram Halstead Ellis (May 21, 1847–September 25, 1902) was a Justice of the Kansas Supreme Court from January 15, 1901 to September 25, 1902. He was the first justice of the Kansas Supreme Court to die while still a sitting member.

Edward Glines

Edward Glines (1849–1917) was a Massachusetts politician who served as the eleventh Mayor of Somerville, Massachusetts.

Glines was a delegate to the 1892 Republican National Convention. Glines was chosen as a Presidential elector in 1892 and he voted for Benjamin Harrison and Whitelaw Reid in the Electoral College.

Fredrick McGhee

Fredrick L. McGhee (October 28, 1861 – September 9, 1912) was a black civil rights activist and one of America’s first African American lawyers. McGhee, born as a slave but who later was able to achieve a substantial career as an attorney and become one of the civil rights pioneers, was a contemporary of Booker T. Washington and W. E. B. Du Bois.

McGhee was born in Aberdeen, Mississippi, to Abraham McGhee and Sarah Walker, who were slaves. His father, from Blount County, Tennessee, was a literate black slave who learned how to read and write without being formally educated, and later became a Baptist preacher. Abraham McGhee taught his three children, Mathew, Barclay and Fredrick, how to read and write. Abraham McGhee died in 1873 and soon Fredrick’s mother died leaving her three sons orphans.

McGhee was able to attend Knoxville College in Tennessee, and graduated with a degree in law in 1885. Although he began his legal career in Chicago, McGhee settled in St. Paul, Minnesota, where he became the first black lawyer admitted to the bar in that state. With a much smaller black population from which to attract clients, McGhee primarily represented whites, gaining a reputation for competence and oratory. He also became the first African American lawyer admitted to the bar in Tennessee and Illinois. He was one of the most highly skilled criminal lawyers of the Old Northwest.

In his law practice, McGhee once won a clemency from President Benjamin Harrison for a client who was a black soldier falsely accused of a crime.

In 1886, he married Mattie B. Crane. The couple had one daughter.

Despite his success as a criminal lawyer, he was primarily a race relations advocate. By the early 1900s, McGhee became interested in the national discussion concerning racial discrimination and social equality. In 1905, McGhee with Du Bois and others formed one of the first national civil rights organizations, the Niagara Movement, which was an attempt by more radical blacks to directly and honestly oppose the conservative actions and views of Booker T. Washington. The Niagara Movement was the forerunner of the NAACP. In September 1905, Du Bois went so far as to give McGhee full credit for creating the more radical entity, stating, "The honor of founding the organization belongs to F. L. McGhee, who first suggested it."

McGhee was very active politically. He was chosen to be a presidential elector by the Minnesota Republican party in the spring of 1892, but after protests by white Republicans, he was replaced before the start of the 1892 Republican National Convention, which was held in Minneapolis in June. McGhee remained a party member until the spring of 1893, when party bosses reneged on another political promise. Frustrated, McGhee changed his allegiance to the Democratic Party (United States), becoming one of the first nationally prominent black Democrats at a time when nearly all blacks were Republicans.

McGhee converted from the Baptist denomination to Catholicism at a time when the vast majority of African Americans were Baptists. He was very active in Saint Peter Claver Church, a Roman Catholic church in St. Paul, Minnesota.

McGhee died in 1912, at age 50, of pleurisy, three years after the founding of the NAACP.

George M. Curtis

George Martin Curtis (1 April 1844 – 9 February 1921) was a two-term Republican U.S. Representative from Iowa's 2nd congressional district.

Henry Clay McCormick

Henry Clay McCormick (June 30, 1844 – May 26, 1902) was a Republican member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania.

Henry C. McCormick was born in Washington Township, Lycoming County, Pennsylvania. He attended the common schools and Dickinson Seminary in Williamsport, Pennsylvania. He studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1866 and practiced in Williamsport.

McCormick was elected as a Republican to the Fiftieth and Fifty-first Congresses. He served as chairman of the United States House Committee on Railways and Canals during the Fifty-first Congress. He was a delegate to the 1892 Republican National Convention. He was elected president of the Williamsport & North Branch Railroad in 1892. He served as attorney general of Pennsylvania from 1895 to 1899. He resumed the practice of law and died in Williamsport in 1902. His body is interred at Wildwood Cemetery.

Industrial Exposition Building

The Industrial Exposition Building was located in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The building stood from 1886 to 1940 and was briefly the tallest structure in Minneapolis. In addition to smaller local exhibitions, it was the site of the 1892 Republican National Convention, the only major party convention to be held in Minnesota until the 2008 Republican National Convention.

The idea for an exposition in Minneapolis arose in 1885, when it became known that St. Paul had secured the permanent home of the Minnesota State Fair. Prominent citizens of Minneapolis such as Minneapolis Tribune owner Alden Blethen felt slighted, and an open meeting was called to gauge public support for an annual Minneapolis industrial fair, or exposition, to rival St. Paul's agricultural one. Supporters raised funds throughout the fall of 1885 and reached their goal of $250,000 on December 15.

The structure was built on the site of the Winslow House Hotel (today the area bounded by Bank Street SE, Central Avenue SE, Main Street SE, and Ortman Street SE). Designed by Isaac Hodgson, the building had eight stories. Its modified Renaissance exterior was dominated by a 240 foot corner tower. The exterior walls were masonry and the interior had metal support structures. The building's capacity was estimated at between 11,000 and 15,000.The entire building was completed in just over three months: the cornerstone was laid on April 29, 1886 and the building was finished on August 3. On August 23rd there was a grand celebration for the opening of the new building and its first exposition. 50,000 people were estimated to have attended and much of downtown was turned over to the celebration. Local dignitaries such as Senator Cushman K. Davis and Archbishop John Ireland spoke at the dedication. US President Grover Cleveland and his wife Frances could not attend. However, they sent a congratulatory telegram that was read publicly, and then in a dramatic moment, Mrs. Cleveland touched a special button in her New York location that started all of the machinery in the building.The initial 40-day exposition was very successful, attracting nearly 500,000 visitors. The latest technology and industrial developments were on display, along with a collection of art and sculpture estimated at $500,000 in value. But in the following years, excitement lessened and the exposition began to lose money. Minneapolis could not have attracted the Republican National Convention of 1892 without the Industrial Exposition Building, but the convention was not enough to halt the exposition's decline. By 1893, exhibitors had evaporated and the fair had fallen apart.

In 1896, Thomas B. Janney bought the building at public auction for $25,000, a fraction of what it cost to build. For the next seven years, the space was used sporadically as a performance venue. It hosted the first concerts of the Minneapolis Symphony Orchestra which later became the Minnesota Orchestra and welcomed famous musicians and performers including Johann Strauss and New York's Metropolitan Opera. In 1903, Marion Savage, owner of race horse Dan Patch, bought the building and turned it into the International Stock Food Company.

By the 1930s, it was used as a merchandise warehouse for a mail order company. The structure was finally torn down in 1940 for the construction of a Coca-Cola bottling plant. The bottling plant was torn down in the 1980s and the site has since been redeveloped into condominiums.

Isaac H. Taylor

Isaac Hamilton Taylor (April 18, 1840 – December 18, 1936) was a lawyer, judge, and single-term U.S. Representative from Ohio.

Taylor was born near New Harrisburg (later Hibbetts), Carroll County, Ohio. He was the son of James and Mary Ann (Highland) Taylor. Taylor attended the common schools and completed an academic course. He then studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1867, subsequently commencing practice in Carrollton, Ohio. He served as the clerk of courts in Carroll County, Ohio from 1870 to 1877.

Taylor was elected as a Republican to the Forty-ninth Congress (March 4, 1885 – March 3, 1887). He was not a candidate for renomination in 1886.

He then moved to Canton, Ohio, and resumed the practice of law. Taylor served as a delegate to the 1892 Republican National Convention. He was the judge of the Court of Common Pleas from 1889 to 1901, when he resigned. He engaged in the practice of his profession in Canton until 1922.

Taylor died at Congress Lake, near Hartville, Ohio, December 18, 1936, and was interred in West Lawn Cemetery in Canton.

Taylor was married November 1, 1860 to Sarah J. Elder. They had three children.

James Bain White

James Bain White (June 26, 1835 – October 9, 1897) was a United States Representative from Indiana.

James Monroe Gregory

James Monroe Gregory (January 23, 1849 – December 17, 1915) was a Professor of Latin and Dean at Howard University. During the American Civil War, he worked in Cleveland for the education and aid of escaped slaves. He initially attended Oberlin University. He transferred to Howard and was the valedictorian of Howard's first graduating class in 1872. He then became a member of faculty, where he served until the late 1880s. During that time he was active in civil rights, particularly related to the education of African American children. He fought to desegregate Washington D.C. schools in the early 1880s and participated in the Colored Conventions Movement and was a delegate to the 1892 Republican National Convention. In 1890 he founded the American Association of Educators of Colored Youth. In 1893 he published a biography of Frederick Douglass. In 1897 he was removed at Howard and moved to New Jersey where he became principal of Bordentown Industrial and Manual Training School.

John Flint Kidder

John Flint Kidder (1830 - April 10, 1901) was a politician, civil engineer and railroad executive who built and later owned Northern California's Nevada County Narrow Gauge Railroad (NCNGRR) which, during its operation, never experienced an attempted robbery.

John T. Dare

John Thomas Dare (c. 1840s – December 15, 1912) was a politician, who briefly served in the House of Representatives for the Territory of Arizona, the California State Assembly, and as Attorney General of the Kingdom of Hawaii. He was born in Suffolk County, New York sometime between 1842 and 1844. The exact year varies by source.

His professional background also varies by source, with some sources saying he hired on a ship as a teenager and sailed to San Francisco. He is also reputed to have established the Pony Express in Arizona, and operated a "milling" business.

Orrin W. Robinson

Orrin Williams Robinson (August 14, 1834 – September 6, 1907) was a politician and businessman from the U.S. state of Michigan. He ran a successful logging operation in the Upper Peninsula and was elected to serve in both houses of the Michigan Legislature and two terms as the 31st Lieutenant Governor of Michigan, from 1899 to 1903 under Governors Hazen S. Pingree and Aaron T. Bliss.

Republican Party of Minnesota

The Republican Party of Minnesota is a conservative political party in the U.S. state of Minnesota. It is affiliated with the United States Republican Party.

West Hotel

Opened in 1884, the West Hotel was Minneapolis's first grand hotel. It had 407 luxuriously furnished rooms, 140 baths, and featured an immense and opulent lobby which was claimed to be the largest in the nation. These elements combined to make what was considered for a time to be the most luxurious hotel west of Chicago. The West was designed by LeRoy Buffington and built on land that was once owned by the first resident of Minneapolis, John H. Stevens. Buffington created the West in the Queen Anne style that was quite popular in the last decades of the 19th century.

The Queen Anne style featured an elaborate architectural look that included gable roofs, projecting bay windows, towers, and dormer windows. The West combined most of these concepts into a grand, larger than life look that seems graceless to some modern observers but was a popular building style at the time, a style that was introduced in 1876 at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia.

The West hotel was situated on the southwest corner of the intersection of Hennepin Avenue and Fifth Street (the site currently occupied, in part, by the Shubert Theatre, moved there in 1999), in the center of a burgeoning entertainment district that started coming together in the 1880s and was a temporary home to such well-known public figures as Mark Twain and Winston Churchill. It also catered to delegates of the 1892 Republican National Convention (held at the Exposition Building across the Mississippi River). It was Minneapolis's largest and most luxurious hotel for many years after its construction.

In 1906 a large fire burned though the hotel killing 10 people. That and a general business downturn caused the West to go through a period of decline and finally in 1940 the West Hotel was demolished.

William H. Yale

William Hall Yale (November 12, 1831 – January 25, 1917) was a Minnesota lawyer and Republican politician who served as the sixth Lieutenant Governor of Minnesota.

William Hopkinson Cox

William Hopkinson Cox (October 22, 1856 – October 13, 1950) was an American politician, who served as the 30th Lieutenant Governor of Kentucky from 1907 to 1911, under Governor Augustus E. Willson.

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