The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time. The data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Georgia, Illinois, Minnesota, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, South Dakota, and Texas, and the District of Columbia.
This was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Chicago, and Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census also saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles (currently 57th) would supplant it.
|1890 United States Census|
Seal of the United States Census Bureau
1890 Census form
|Date taken||June 2, 1890|
The 1890 census collected the following information:
The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter (1889–1893) and Carroll D. Wright (1893–1897). Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, and tabulated by machine. The net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, and the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, count, was announced after only six weeks of processing (punched cards were not used for this tabulation). The public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was widely believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, and that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U.S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line. This prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis.
The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. Almost all the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D.C. in 1921. Some 25% of the materials were presumed destroyed and another 50% damaged by smoke and water (although the actual damage may have been closer to 15–25%). The damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules. The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, and the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935. The other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1800 and 1810 enumerations.
Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System.
|X||District of Columbia ||230,392|
|01||New York||New York||1,515,301||Northeast|
|14||Washington||District of Columbia||230,392||South|
|19||Jersey City||New Jersey||163,003||Northeast|
|63||Salt Lake City||Utah||44,843||West|
Bloomsbury is a borough in Hunterdon County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the borough's population was 870, reflecting a decline of 16 (-1.8%) from the 886 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn declined by 4 (-0.4%) from the 890 counted in the 1990 Census.Bloomsbury was incorporated as a borough by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on March 30, 1905, from portions of Bethlehem Township.The Borough of Bloomsbury was once known as "Johnson's Iron Works", owned by Robert Johnson, on the north bank of the river. The current name is derived either from the Bloom family, influential in the early history of the town, or from the iron ore processed into masses of wrought iron that are known as "blooms".Data processing
Data processing is, generally, "the collection and manipulation of items of data to produce meaningful information."
In this sense it can be considered a subset of information processing, "the change (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer."
The term Data Processing (DP) has also been used to refer to a department within an organization responsible for the operation of data processing applications.Dehomag
Dehomag was a German subsidiary of IBM with monopoly in the German market before and during World War II. The word was an acronym for Deutsche Hollerith-Maschinen Gesellschaft mbH (English: German Hollerith Machines LLC). Hollerith refers to the German-American inventor of the technology of punched cards, Herman Hollerith. In April 1949 the company name was changed to IBM Deutschland.East Millstone, New Jersey
East Millstone is an unincorporated community and census-designated place (CDP) located in Franklin Township, in Somerset County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the CDP's population was 579. It is a small rural community that grew and prospered with a small industrial base in the 19th Century, centered on the Delaware and Raritan Canal at Amwell Road and the long-abandoned Millstone and New Brunswick Railroad that terminated in East Millstone. East Millstone was an independent municipality from 1873–1949.East Rutherford, New Jersey
East Rutherford is a borough in Bergen County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the borough's population was 8,913, reflecting an increase of 197 (+2.3%) from the 8,716 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 814 (+10.3%) from the 7,902 counted in the 1990 Census. It is an inner-ring suburb of New York City, located 7 miles (11 km) west of Midtown Manhattan.
Under the terms of an act of the New Jersey Legislature on April 17, 1889, a portion of the old Union Township was incorporated under the name of Boiling Springs Township. The new township took its name from a spring in the community. On March 28, 1894, the Borough of East Rutherford was created, based on the results of a referendum held the previous day, and Boiling Springs Township was dissolved. While there was no change in its borders, the name and form of government were changed. The borough was the second formed during the "Boroughitis" phenomenon then sweeping through Bergen County, in which 26 boroughs were formed in the county in 1894 alone.East Rutherford is the home of the Meadowlands Sports Complex, which includes Meadowlands Arena and MetLife Stadium, and was previously the location of Giants Stadium. The arena is best known as the longtime home of the New Jersey Nets of the National Basketball Association and the New Jersey Devils of the National Hockey League, and also hosted college basketball, arena football, concerts, and other events. MetLife Stadium is home of the New York Giants and New York Jets of the National Football League (NFL) and hosted Super Bowl XLVIII, which made East Rutherford the smallest city ever to host a Super Bowl. Giants Stadium, which hosted the Giants and Jets until 2009, was also the original home of the New York Red Bulls of Major League Soccer. East Rutherford is the only municipality with fewer than 10,000 residents to have been home to five professional sports teams simultaneously.The borough is also the site of the American Dream Meadowlands project, a large shopping center and entertainment complex under construction that was originally named "Xanadu". If it were to be completed, it would be the second largest mall in the state behind the Westfield Garden State Plaza. Triple Five Group took control of the project in August 2013, but faces lawsuits from the Giants and Jets, who claim that the increased traffic on game days will cause disruptions that violate their agreements with the original developer of the complex.Flat-file database
A flat-file database is a database stored in a file called a flat file. Records follow a uniform format, and there are no structures for indexing or recognizing relationships between records. The file is simple. A flat file can be a plain text file, or a binary file. Relationships can be inferred from the data in the database, but the database format itself does not make those relationships explicit.
The term has generally implied a small database, but very large databases can also be flat.Glassboro, New Jersey
Glassboro is a borough in Gloucester County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the borough's population was 18,579, reflecting a decline of 489 (−2.6%) from the 19,068 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 3,454 (+22.1%) over the 15,614 counted in the 1990 Census.What is now Glassboro was originally formed as a township by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on March 11, 1878, from portions of Clayton Township. Portions of the township were taken to form Elk Township (April 17, 1891) and Pitman (May 24, 1905). Glassboro was incorporated as a borough on March 18, 1920, replacing Glassboro Township. The borough was named for its glass industry.Glassboro is home to Rowan University, founded in 1923 and formerly known as Glassboro State College, which was the site of the Glassboro Summit Conference in 1967 between U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson and Soviet Premier Alexei Kosygin.Hazlet, New Jersey
Hazlet is a township in Monmouth County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the township's population was 20,334, reflecting a decline of 1,044 (-4.9%) from the 21,378 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn declined by 598 (-2.7%) from the 21,976 counted in the 1990 Census.Hazlet is part of the Bayshore Regional Strategic Plan, an effort by nine municipalities in northern Monmouth County to reinvigorate the area's economy by emphasizing the traditional downtowns, dense residential neighborhoods, maritime history, and the natural environment of the Raritan Bayshore coastline.Hemp in Washington (state)
Hemp in Washington State has emerged as an experimental crop in the 21st century.John Carter Rose
John Carter Rose (April 27, 1861 – March 26, 1927) was a United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit and previously was a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the District of Maryland.Landis Township, New Jersey
Landis Township was a township that existed in Cumberland County, New Jersey, United States, from 1864 to 1952. It was named after Charles K. Landis, the founder of Vineland.
Landis Township was incorporated as a township by an Act of the New Jersey Legislature on March 7, 1864, from portions of Millville, based on the results of a referendum held on March 22, 1864. Portions of the township were taken to form Vineland Borough (May 28, 1880). Other transfers of territory were made to Maurice River Township (1873), to Franklin Township (Gloucester County) (1892, returned in 1897) and from Millville (1934).Landis Township lasted until July 1, 1952, when it was combined with Vineland Borough to form Vineland City, based on the results of a referendum held on February 5, 1952.Mary Ellen Pleasant
Mary Ellen Pleasant (19 August 1814 – 4 January 1904) was a successful 19th-century American entrepreneur, financier, real estate magnate and abolitionist whose life is shrouded in mystery. She identified herself as "a capitalist by profession" in the 1890 United States Census. She was nicknamed "Mammy Pleasant" in San Francisco because of the many years she spent in servitude. The press also called her "Mammy" Pleasant but she did not approve, stating "I don't like to be called mammy by everybody. Put. that. down. I am not mammy to everybody in California. "I received a letter from a pastor in Sacramento. It was addressed to Mammy Pleasant. I wrote back to him on his own paper that my name was Mrs. Mary E. Pleasant. I wouldn't waste any of my paper on him." Her autobiography published in San Francisco's Pandex of the Press in January 1902, she stated her mother was a full blooded Louisiana negress and her father was a native Kanaka (Hawaiian), and when she was six years of age, she was sent to Nantucket to live with a Quaker woman named Hussey. She worked on the Underground Railroad across many states and then helped bring it to California during the Gold Rush Era. She was a friend and financial supporter of John Brown, and was well known in abolitionist circles. After the Civil War, she took her battles to the courts in the 1860s and won several civil rights victories, one of which was cited and upheld in the 1980s and resulted in her being called "The Mother of Human Rights in California".Pahaquarry Township, New Jersey
Pahaquarry Township is a now-defunct township that was located in Warren County, New Jersey, United States, from 1824 until it was dissolved in 1997.
Pahaquarry Township was formed on December 27, 1824, from portions of Walpack Township in Sussex County and set off to Warren County.The township got its name from the word Pahaquarra, which was a derivation of the Native American word Pahaqualong, which meant "the place between the mountains beside the waters".Pahaquarry sits on the Delaware River. Most of its land was purchased by the federal government during the late 1960s in order to build the proposed Tocks Island Dam along the river, and its population was reduced to only a handful of people. Grassroot environmental organizations and mass local opposition put a halt to these plans and the dam was never completed. Most of the land became part of Delaware Water Gap National Recreation Area. The project was officially deauthorized by Congress during 1992.On July 2, 1997, Pahaquarry Township, whose population had dwindled to fewer than a dozen people, was dissolved and incorporated into Hardwick Township.Pat Duff
Patrick Henry Duff (May 6, 1875 – September 11, 1925) was an Irish American professional baseball player. Duff played one game in Major League Baseball, and in one at bat he didn't compile a hit. Despite his limited playing time in the majors, Duff's minor league career spanned eight nonconsecutive seasons.Pleasantville, New Jersey
Pleasantville is a city in Atlantic County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city's population was 20,249, reflecting an increase of 1,237 (+6.5%) from the 19,012 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 2,985 (+18.6%) from the 16,027 counted in the 1990 Census.Pleasantville was originally incorporated as a borough by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on January 10, 1889, from portions of Egg Harbor Township, based on the results of a referendum held on December 15, 1888. Pleasantville was incorporated as a city on April 14, 1914, replacing Pleasantville borough, based on the results of a referendum held that same day. the city was named by Dr. David Ingersoll for its surroundings.Pompton Township, New Jersey
Pompton Township is a defunct township in Passaic County, New Jersey, United States, that existed from 1797 until it was dissolved in 1918.Record (computer science)
In computer science, a record (also called a structure, struct, or compound data) is a basic data structure. Records in a database or spreadsheet are usually called "rows".A record is a collection of fields, possibly of different data types, typically in fixed number and sequence. The fields of a record may also be called members, particularly in object-oriented programming; fields may also be called elements, though these risk confusion with the elements of a collection.
For example, a date could be stored as a record containing a numeric year field, a month field represented as a string, and a numeric day-of-month field. A personnel record might contain a name, a salary, and a rank. A Circle record might contain a center and a radius—in this instance, the center itself might be represented as a point record containing x and y coordinates.
Records are distinguished from arrays by the fact that their number of fields is typically fixed, each field has a name, and that each field may have a different type.
A record type is a data type that describes such values and variables. Most modern computer languages allow the programmer to define new record types. The definition includes specifying the data type of each field and an identifier (name or label) by which it can be accessed. In type theory, product types (with no field names) are generally preferred due to their simplicity, but proper record types are studied in languages such as System F-sub. Since type-theoretical records may contain first-class function-typed fields in addition to data, they can express many features of object-oriented programming.
Records can exist in any storage medium, including main memory and mass storage devices such as magnetic tapes or hard disks. Records are a fundamental component of most data structures, especially linked data structures. Many computer files are organized as arrays of logical records, often grouped into larger physical records or blocks for efficiency.
The parameters of a function or procedure can often be viewed as the fields of a record variable; and the arguments passed to that function can be viewed as a record value that gets assigned to that variable at the time of the call. Also, in the call stack that is often used to implement procedure calls, each entry is an activation record or call frame, containing the procedure parameters and local variables, the return address, and other internal fields.
An object in object-oriented language is essentially a record that contains procedures specialized to handle that record; and object types are an elaboration of record types. Indeed, in most object-oriented languages, records are just special cases of objects, and are known as plain old data structures (PODSs), to contrast with objects that use OO features.
A record can be viewed as the computer analog of a mathematical tuple, although a tuple may or may not be considered a record, and vice versa, depending on conventions and the specific programming language. In the same vein, a record type can be viewed as the computer language analog of the Cartesian product of two or more mathematical sets, or the implementation of an abstract product type in a specific language.United States congressional delegations from Texas
These are tables of congressional delegations from the State of Texas to the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives.West Long Branch, New Jersey
West Long Branch is a borough in Monmouth County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the borough's population was 8,097, reflecting a decline of 161 (-1.9%) from the 8,258 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 568 (+7.4%) from the 7,690 counted in the 1990 Census. It is the home of Monmouth University.