The 1888 Republican National Convention was a presidential nominating convention held at the Auditorium Building in Chicago, Illinois, on June 19–25, 1888. It resulted in the nomination of former Senator Benjamin Harrison of Indiana for President and Levi P. Morton of New York, a former Congressman and Minister to France, for Vice President. During the convention, Frederick Douglass was invited to speak and became the first African-American to have his name put forward for a presidential nomination in a major party's roll call vote; he received one vote from Kentucky on the fourth ballot.
|1888 Republican National Convention|
|1888 presidential election|
Harrison and Morton
|Date(s)||June 19–25, 1888|
|Chair||Morris M. Estee|
|Presidential nominee||Benjamin Harrison of Indiana|
|Vice Presidential nominee||Levi P. Morton of New York|
|Other candidates||John Sherman|
Russell A. Alger
Walter Q. Gresham
|Votes needed for nomination||417|
|Results (President)||Harrison (IN): 544 (65.38%)|
Sherman (OH): 118 (14.18%)
Gresham (IN): 59 (7.09%)
Alger (MI): 100 (12.02%)
Blaine (ME): 5 (0.60%)
McKinley (OH): 4 (0.48%)
Douglass (MD): 1 (0.12%)
Others: 1 (0.12%)
|Results (Vice President)||Morton (NY): 592 (71.15%)|
Phelps (NJ): 119 (14.3%)
Bradley (KY): 103 (12.38%)
Bruce (MS): 11 (1.32%)
Abstaining: 6 (0.72%)
Walter S. Thomas: 1 (0.12%)
Issues addressed in the convention included support for protective tariffs, repeal of taxes on tobacco, support for the use of gold and silver as currency and support for pensions for veterans. The party also expressed its opposition to polygamy.
|Russell A. Alger||84||116||122||135||142||137||120||100|
|Walter Q. Gresham||111||108||123||98||87||91||91||59|
|William B. Allison||72||75||88||88||99||73||76||0|
|James G. Blaine||35||33||35||42||48||40||15||5|
|John James Ingalls||28||16||0||0||0||0||0||0|
|Jeremiah McLain Rusk||25||20||16||0||0||0||0||0|
|William Walter Phelps||25||18||5||0||0||0||0||0|
|Edwin Henry Fitler||24||0||0||0||0||0||0||0|
|Robert Todd Lincoln||3||2||2||1||0||0||2||0|
|Samuel Freeman Miller||0||0||2||0||0||0||0||0|
|Joseph B. Foraker||0||0||0||1||0||1||1||0|
|Frederick Dent Grant||0||0||0||0||0||1||0||0|
Former Representative and Minister to France Levi P. Morton from New York was asked if he wanted the second spot. He had been asked in 1880, but had declined. This time Morton decided to accept. He was easily elected on the first ballot.
|Vice Presidential Ballot|
|Levi P. Morton||591|
|William Walter Phelps||119|
|William O'Connell Bradley||103|
|Blanche K. Bruce||11|
|Walter F. Thomas||1|
Nearly a decade later, Ohio candidate John Sherman accused Michigan candidate, millionaire Russell A. Alger, of buying the votes of Southern delegates who had already confirmed their vote for Sherman. In Sherman's 1895 two-volume book "Recollections" he asserted, "I believe, and had, as I thought, conclusive proof, that the friends of Gen. Alger substantially purchased the votes of many of the delegates from the Southern States who had been instructed by their conventions to vote for me." Once accused, Alger submitted correspondence to the New York Times, who published one letter from 1888, written after the convention to Alger, where Sherman states, "if you bought some [votes], according to universal usage, surely I don't blame you." Later in the same New York Times article, Alger insisted neither he or friends bought a single vote. The article also quotes another delegate, James Lewis, who claimed that "the colored delegates of the South will unite on a Union soldier in preference" instead of a civilian.
When Sherman introduced his anti-trust legislation two years later, his main example of unlawful combination drew from a Michigan Supreme Court case involving Diamond Match Company and Alger's participation as president and stock holder.
|Republican National Conventions||Succeeded by|
The 1888 Democratic National Convention was a nominating convention held June 5 to 7, 1888, in the St. Louis Exposition and Music Hall in St. Louis, Missouri.
St. Louis won the convention after a presentation in February 1888.1888 United States elections
The 1888 United States elections occurred during the Third Party System, and elected the members of the 51st United States Congress. North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, Washington, Idaho, and Wyoming were admitted during the 51st Congress. This election was the first time that one party had won a majority in both chambers of Congress since the 1874 elections.In the Presidential election, Democratic President Grover Cleveland was defeated by Republican former Senator Benjamin Harrison of Indiana. At the 1888 Republican National Convention, Harrison was nominated on the eighth ballot, defeating Ohio Senator John Sherman, former Governor Russell A. Alger of Michigan, and several other candidates. As in 1876, the Republican candidate won the presidency despite the Democratic candidate's greater share of the popular vote. This situation would not be repeated until the 2000 election. Despite the popular vote margin, Harrison won a comfortable majority of the electoral college, and took most of the states outside the South.
Despite the close presidential race, Republicans picked up several seats in both houses of Congress. Republicans won major gains in the House, re-taking the majority for the first time since the 1882 elections. In the Senate, the Republicans won major gains, growing their majority in the chamber.1888 United States presidential election
The United States presidential election of 1888 was the 26th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 6, 1888. Republican nominee Benjamin Harrison, a former Senator from Indiana, defeated incumbent Democratic President Grover Cleveland of New York. It was the third of five U.S. presidential elections in which the winner did not win a plurality or majority of the national popular vote.
Cleveland, the first Democratic president since the American Civil War, was unanimously re-nominated at the 1888 Democratic National Convention. He was the first incumbent president to win re-nomination since Grant was nominated to a second term in 1872. Harrison, the grandson of former President William Henry Harrison, emerged as the Republican nominee on the eighth ballot of the 1888 Republican National Convention. He defeated other prominent party leaders such as Senator John Sherman and former Governor Russell Alger.
Tariff policy was the principal issue in the election, as Cleveland had proposed a dramatic reduction in tariffs, arguing that high tariffs were unfair to consumers. Harrison took the side of industrialists and factory workers who wanted to keep tariffs high. Cleveland's opposition to Civil War pensions and inflated currency also made enemies among veterans and farmers. On the other hand, he held a strong hand in the South and border states, and appealed to former Republican Mugwumps.
Cleveland won a plurality of the popular vote, but Harrison won the election with a majority in the Electoral College. Harrison swept almost the entire North and Midwest, and narrowly carried the swing states of New York and Indiana.Alberto T. Roraback
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James Stevenson Smart (June 14, 1842 – September 17, 1903) was a U.S. Representative from New York.John Harris Baker
John Harris Baker (February 28, 1832 – October 21, 1915) was a U.S. Representative from Indiana and a United States federal judge, brother of Lucien Baker.John Laughlin (New York)
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Walter Quintin Gresham (March 17, 1832 – May 28, 1895) was an American statesman and jurist. He served as a federal judge and in the Cabinet of two presidential administrations. He affiliated with the Republican Party for most of his career but joined the Democratic Party late in life.
Gresham began a legal career in Corydon, Indiana after attending the Indiana University Bloomington. He campaigned for the Republican Party in the 1856 elections and won election to the Indiana House of Representatives in 1860. He served as a Union general during the American Civil War, taking part in the Siege of Vicksburg and other major battles. After the war, President Ulysses S. Grant appointed Gresham to a position on the United States District Court for the District of Indiana. Gresham remained on that court until 1883, when he resigned his position to become Postmaster General under President Chester A. Arthur. After briefly serving as Arthur's Secretary of the Treasury, Gresham accepted appointment to the United States circuit court for the Seventh Circuit.
Gresham was a candidate for the presidential nomination at the 1884 Republican National Convention and the 1888 Republican National Convention. Much of his support for those nominations came from agrarian unions like the Farmers' Alliance. In the 1892 presidential election, Gresham broke with the Republican Party and advocated the election of Democrat Grover Cleveland. After Cleveland won the election, Gresham resigned from the federal bench to serve as Cleveland's Secretary of State. Gresham held that position until his death in 1895.William Q. Atwood
William Q. Atwood (January 1, 1839 – December 21, 1910) was a lumber baron in Saginaw, Michigan. Born a slave in Alabama, he was freed in 1853 in the will of his white master and father, and moved to the free state of Ohio. He became active in the Underground Railroad in Ripley, Ohio. During the American Civil War, Atwood moved to the northwest, settling in East Saginaw, Michigan in 1863. There he became successful in real estate and lumber dealing.
Atwood opened a sawmill in 1874. Through his real estate and mills, he became one of the richest African Americans in Michigan. He was active in the Republican party, and served as a delegate to the 1888 Republican National Convention.
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