1884

1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1884th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 884th year of the 2nd millennium, the 84th year of the 19th century, and the 5th year of the 1880s decade. As of the start of 1884, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1884 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1884
MDCCCLXXXIV
Ab urbe condita2637
Armenian calendar1333
ԹՎ ՌՅԼԳ
Assyrian calendar6634
Bahá'í calendar40–41
Balinese saka calendar1805–1806
Bengali calendar1291
Berber calendar2834
British Regnal year47 Vict. 1 – 48 Vict. 1
Buddhist calendar2428
Burmese calendar1246
Byzantine calendar7392–7393
Chinese calendar癸未(Water Goat)
4580 or 4520
    — to —
甲申年 (Wood Monkey)
4581 or 4521
Coptic calendar1600–1601
Discordian calendar3050
Ethiopian calendar1876–1877
Hebrew calendar5644–5645
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1940–1941
 - Shaka Samvat1805–1806
 - Kali Yuga4984–4985
Holocene calendar11884
Igbo calendar884–885
Iranian calendar1262–1263
Islamic calendar1301–1302
Japanese calendarMeiji 17
(明治17年)
Javanese calendar1813–1814
Julian calendarGregorian minus 12 days
Korean calendar4217
Minguo calendar28 before ROC
民前28年
Nanakshahi calendar416
Thai solar calendar2426–2427
Tibetan calendar阴水羊年
(female Water-Goat)
2010 or 1629 or 857
    — to —
阳木猴年
(male Wood-Monkey)
2011 or 1630 or 858

Events

January–March

April–June

July–September

October–December

United States Naval War College museum
October 6: US Naval War College founded.

Date unknown

Births

January–March

April–June

July–September

October–December

Date unknown

Deaths

January–June

July–December

References

  1. ^ Hutton, Ronald (2009). Blood and Mistletoe: The History of the Druids in Britain. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-14485-7.
  2. ^ Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0.
  3. ^ #33/256. Bollettino delle privative industriali del Regno d’Italia 2nd Series 15 (1884) pp. 635–655.
  4. ^ Stover, C.W.; Coffman, J.L., Seismicity of the United States, 1568–1989 (Revised), U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1527, United States Government Printing Office, pp. 314–316

Further reading and year books

  • 1884 Annual Cyclopedia (1885) highly detailed coverage of "Political, Military, and Ecclesiastical Affairs; Public Documents; Biography, Statistics, Commerce, Finance, Literature, Science, Agriculture, and Mechanical Industry" for year 1884; massive compilation of facts and primary documents; worldwide coverage; 855pp
1884 United States House of Representatives elections

Elections to the United States House of Representatives were held in 1884 for Representatives in the 49th Congress. These election coincided with the election of President Grover Cleveland.

In spite of Cleveland's victory, the opposition Republican Party gained back some of the seats lost in 1882, but the Democratic Party retained a majority in the House. Republicans were able to make these slight gains by connecting their pro-business and industry message with progress. The Democrats were also hindered by the Panic of 1884, but were not greatly affected by it since the depression ended quickly.

1884 United States elections

The 1884 United States elections was held on November 4, electing the members of the 49th United States Congress. The election took place during the Third Party System.

In the Presidential election, Democratic Governor Grover Cleveland of New York defeated Republican former Secretary of State James G. Blaine. Though Cleveland won the popular vote by less than 1%, he won by a fairly comfortable margin in the electoral college. Cleveland won the South and the critical state of New York, while Blaine took most of the rest of the country. This was the most recent example of an incumbent President being denied nomination by his party for another term, as Blaine defeated President Chester A. Arthur at the 1884 Republican National Convention. Cleveland took the Democratic nomination on the second ballot of the 1884 Democratic National Convention, defeating Delaware Senator Thomas F. Bayard and several other candidates. Cleveland's win made him the first Democratic President to win election since the 1856 election.

Republicans picked up several seats in the House, but Democrats continued to command a majority in the chamber. In the Senate, Republicans made moderate gains and established a clear majority.

1884 United States presidential election

The United States presidential election of 1884 was the 25th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 4, 1884. It saw the first election of a Democrat as President of the United States since the Civil War. Governor Grover Cleveland of New York defeated Republican James G. Blaine of Maine.

Cleveland won the presidential nomination on the second ballot of the 1884 Democratic National Convention. President Chester A. Arthur had acceded to the presidency in 1881 following the assassination of James A. Garfield, but he was unsuccessful in his bid for nomination to a full term. Blaine, who had served as Secretary of State under President Garfield, defeated Arthur and other candidates on the fourth ballot of the 1884 Republican National Convention. A group of reformist Republicans known as "Mugwumps" abandoned Blaine's candidacy, viewing him as corrupt. The campaign was marred by exceptional political acrimony and personal invective. Blaine's reputation for public corruption and his inadvertent alienation of Catholic voters proved decisive.

In the election, Cleveland won 48.9% of the nationwide popular vote and 219 electoral votes, carrying the Solid South and several key swing states. Blaine won 48.3% of the popular vote and 182 electoral votes. Cleveland won his home state by just 1,047 votes; had he lost New York, he would have lost the election. Two third-party candidates, John St. John of the Prohibition Party and Benjamin Butler of the Greenback Party and the Anti-Monopoly Party, each won less than 2% of the popular vote.

1884 and 1885 United States Senate elections

The United States Senate elections of 1884 and 1885 were elections that coincided with the presidential election of 1884. Both Republicans and Democrats lost seats in the United States Senate due to the failure of three state legislatures to finish elections in time. Republicans, nevertheless, retained majority control and the Readjusters joined their caucus. By the beginning of the first session, in December 1885, Republicans had won all three vacant seats, increasing their majority.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

1884 in Ireland

Events from the year 1884 in Ireland.

1884 in baseball

The following are the baseball events of the year 1884 throughout the world.

Berlin Conference

The Berlin Conference of 1884–85, also known as the Congo Conference (German: Kongokonferenz) or West Africa Conference (Westafrika-Konferenz), regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period and coincided with Germany's sudden emergence as an imperial power. The conference was organized by Otto von Bismarck, first Chancellor of Germany; its outcome, the General Act of the Berlin Conference, can be seen as the formalisation of the Scramble for Africa, although some scholars of history warn against an overemphasis of its role in the colonial partitioning of Africa, drawing attention to bilateral agreements concluded before and after the conference. The conference ushered in a period of heightened colonial activity by European powers, which eliminated or overrode most existing forms of African autonomy and self-governance.

British Somaliland

British Somaliland, officially the British Somaliland Protectorate (Somali: Dhulka Maxmiyada Soomaalida ee Biritishka), was a British protectorate in present-day Somaliland. For much of its existence, the territory was bordered by Italian Somalia, French Somali Coast and Ethiopia. From 1940 to 1941, it was occupied by the Italians and was part of Italian East Africa. On 26 June 1960, British Somaliland declared independence as the State of Somaliland. On 1 July 1960, the State of Somaliland united, with the Trust Territory of Somalia (the former Italian Somalia) to form the Somali Republic (Somalia). The government of Somaliland, a self-declared sovereign state that is internationally recognised as an autonomous region of Somalia, regards itself as the successor state to British Somaliland.

Derby County F.C.

Derby County Football Club () is a professional association football club based in Derby, Derbyshire, England. The club currently competes in the EFL Championship, the second tier of English football, and has played its home matches at Pride Park Stadium since 1997.

Notable for being one of the 12 founder members of the Football League in 1888, Derby County is one of only 10 clubs to have competed in every season of the English football league system and, in 2009, was ranked 137th in the top 200 European football teams of the 20th century by the International Federation of Football History & Statistics.The club was founded in 1884 by William Morley, as an offshoot of Derbyshire County Cricket Club; it has spent all but four seasons in the top two divisions of English football. Its competitive peak came in the 1970s when it twice won the First Division and competed in major European competitions on four separate occasions, reaching the European Cup semi-finals as well as winning several minor trophies. Additionally, the club was a strong force in the interwar years, winning the 1945–46 FA Cup.

The club's home colours have been black and white since the 1890s. The team gets its nickname, The Rams, to show tribute to its links with the First Regiment of Derby Militia, which took a ram as its mascot. Additionally adopting the song "The Derby Ram" as its regimental song.

Greenwich Mean Time

Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is the mean solar time at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, London, reckoned from midnight. At different times in the past, it has been calculated in different ways, including being calculated from noon; as a consequence, it cannot be used to specify a precise time unless a context is given.

English speakers often use GMT as a synonym for Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). For navigation, it is considered equivalent to UT1 (the modern form of mean solar time at 0° longitude); but this meaning can differ from UTC by up to 0.9 s. The term GMT should not thus be used for technical purposes.Because of Earth's uneven speed in its elliptical orbit and its axial tilt, noon (12:00:00) GMT is rarely the exact moment the sun crosses the Greenwich meridian and reaches its highest point in the sky there. This event may occur up to 16 minutes before or after noon GMT, a discrepancy calculated by the equation of time. Noon GMT is the annual average (i.e. "mean") moment of this event, which accounts for the word "mean" in "Greenwich Mean Time".

Originally, astronomers considered a GMT day to start at noon, while for almost everyone else it started at midnight. To avoid confusion, the name Universal Time was introduced to denote GMT as counted from midnight. Astronomers preferred the old convention to simplify their observational data, so that each night was logged under a single calendar date. Today Universal Time usually refers to UTC or UT1.The term "GMT" is especially used by bodies connected with the United Kingdom, such as the BBC World Service, the Royal Navy, the Met Office and others particularly in Arab countries, such as the Middle East Broadcasting Centre and OSN. It is a term commonly used in the United Kingdom and countries of the Commonwealth, including Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Malaysia; and in many other countries of the Eastern Hemisphere.

Grover Cleveland

Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837 – June 24, 1908) was an American politician and lawyer who was the 22nd and 24th president of the United States, the only president in American history to serve two non-consecutive terms in office (1885–1889 and 1893–1897). He won the popular vote for three presidential elections—in 1884, 1888, and 1892—and was one of two Democrats (with Woodrow Wilson) to be elected president during the era of Republican political domination dating from 1861 to 1933.

Cleveland was the leader of the pro-business Bourbon Democrats who opposed high tariffs, Free Silver, inflation, imperialism, and subsidies to business, farmers, or veterans on libertarian philosophical grounds. His crusade for political reform and fiscal conservatism made him an icon for American conservatives of the era. Cleveland won praise for his honesty, self-reliance, integrity, and commitment to the principles of classical liberalism. He fought political corruption, patronage, and bossism. As a reformer, Cleveland had such prestige that the like-minded wing of the Republican Party, called "Mugwumps", largely bolted the GOP presidential ticket and swung to his support in the 1884 election.As his second administration began, disaster hit the nation when the Panic of 1893 produced a severe national depression, which Cleveland was unable to reverse. It ruined his Democratic Party, opening the way for a Republican landslide in 1894 and for the agrarian and silverite seizure of the Democratic Party in 1896. The result was a political realignment that ended the Third Party System and launched the Fourth Party System and the Progressive Era.Cleveland was a formidable policymaker, and he also drew corresponding criticism. His intervention in the Pullman Strike of 1894 to keep the railroads moving angered labor unions nationwide in addition to the party in Illinois; his support of the gold standard and opposition to Free Silver alienated the agrarian wing of the Democratic Party. Critics complained that Cleveland had little imagination and seemed overwhelmed by the nation's economic disasters—depressions and strikes—in his second term. Even so, his reputation for probity and good character survived the troubles of his second term. Biographer Allan Nevins wrote, "[I]n Grover Cleveland, the greatness lies in typical rather than unusual qualities. He had no endowments that thousands of men do not have. He possessed honesty, courage, firmness, independence, and common sense. But he possessed them to a degree other men do not." By the end of his second term, public perception showed him to be one of the most unpopular U.S. presidents, and he was by then rejected even by most Democrats. Today, Cleveland is considered by most historians to have been a successful leader, generally ranked among the upper-mid tier of American presidents.

History of the Brooklyn Dodgers

The Brooklyn Dodgers were a Major League baseball team, active primarily in the National League (founded 1876) from 1884 until 1957, after which the club moved to Los Angeles, California, where it continues its history as the Los Angeles Dodgers. The team moved west at the same time as its longtime rivals, the New York Giants, also in the National League, relocated to San Francisco in northern California as the San Francisco Giants. The team's name derived from the reputed skill of Brooklyn residents at evading the city's trolley streetcar network. The Dodgers played in two stadiums in South Brooklyn, each named Washington Park, and at Eastern Park in the neighborhood of Brownsville before moving to Ebbets Field in the neighborhood of Flatbush in 1913. The team is noted for signing Jackie Robinson in 1947 as the first black player in the modern major leagues.

International League

The International League (IL) is a Minor League Baseball league that operates in the eastern United States and is headquartered in Dublin, Ohio. Like the Pacific Coast League and the Mexican League, it plays at the Triple-A level, which is one step below Major League Baseball.

It was so named because throughout its history the International League has had teams in Canada and Cuba as well as those in the United States. However, since the relocation of the Ottawa Lynx to Allentown, Pennsylvania, to become the Lehigh Valley IronPigs for the 2008 season, all of the league's teams are now based in the U.S. Today, the league is composed of 14 teams across 9 states stretching from Indianapolis, Indiana, to Pawtucket, Rhode Island, and from Rochester, New York, to Lawrenceville, Georgia.

A league champion is determined at the end of every season. The Rochester Red Wings have won 19 International League titles, the most in the league's history, followed by the Buffalo Bisons (12) and the Toronto Maple Leafs (11). Since the introduction of the Governors' Cup in 1933, the most cup titles have been won by Rochester and the Columbus Clippers (10), followed by the Syracuse Mets (8) and the Montreal Royals (7). After the season, the IL champion plays in the Triple-A National Championship Game against the Pacific Coast League champion to determine an overall champion of Triple-A baseball. The Columbus Clippers and Durham Bulls have each won two national championships, more than any other IL teams.

Lady Franklin Bay Expedition

The 1881–1884 Lady Franklin Bay Expedition (officially the International Polar Expedition) into the Canadian Arctic was led by Lt. Adolphus Greely and was promoted by the United States Army Signal Corps. Its purpose was to establish a meteorological-observation station as part of the First International Polar Year, and to collect astronomical and magnetic data. During the expedition, two members of the crew reached a new "Farthest North" record, but of the original twenty-five men only seven survived to return to the United States.

The expedition was under the auspices of the Signal Corps at a time when the Corps' Chief Disbursements Officer, Henry W. Howgate, was arrested for embezzlement. However, that did not deter the planning and execution of the voyage.

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSK or MSKCC) is a cancer treatment and research institution in New York City, founded in 1884 as the New York Cancer Hospital. MSKCC is the largest and oldest private cancer center in the world, and is one of 47 National Cancer Institute-designated Comprehensive Cancer Centers. Its main campus is located at 1275 York Avenue, between 67th and 68th Streets, in Manhattan.

Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany

Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany, (Leopold George Duncan Albert; 7 April 1853 – 28 March 1884) was the eighth child and youngest son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. Leopold was later created Duke of Albany, Earl of Clarence, and Baron Arklow. He had haemophilia, which led to his death at the age of 30.

Richmond Spiders football

The Richmond Spiders are a college football team representing the University of Richmond in Richmond, Virginia. Richmond was the NCAA Division I Football Championship Subdivision champion for the 2008 season. Richmond currently competes in the Colonial Athletic Association of the NCAA's Division I Football Championship Subdivision. Former University of Tennessee at Chattanooga head coach Russ Huesman was named head coach of the Spiders, on December 14, 2016, replacing Danny Rocco who had depart to become head coach at the University of Delaware a day earlier.In 2008, #7 Richmond beat Eastern Kentucky, Appalachian State, and Northern Iowa to advance to the NCAA Division I Football Championship against Montana. In the FCS National Championship Game on December 19, 2008, they defeated Montana 24–7 to win the first team NCAA national title for the University of Richmond in any sport.

Richmond's traditional rival in many sports is the College of William & Mary. Richmond and William & Mary have met 127 times since 1898, making the rivalry (sometimes referred to as "the South's oldest rivalry") the fourth most-played in Division I college football. Only Lafayette–Lehigh, Princeton–Yale, and Harvard–Yale have played more games. The winner of the annual W&M–Richmond match-up claims the Capital Cup (formerly the I-64 Trophy), which reflects the historical significance of the cities of Williamsburg and Richmond as the last two capitals of the Commonwealth of Virginia.

Spanish Sahara

Spanish Sahara (Spanish: Sahara Español; Arabic: الصحراء الإسبانية‎ As-Sahrā'a Al-Isbānīyah), officially the Overseas Province of the Spanish Sahara, was the name used for the modern territory of Western Sahara when it was occupied and ruled by Spain between 1884 and 1975. It had been one of the most recent acquisitions of the Spanish Empire as well as one of its last remaining holdings, which had once extended from the Americas to the Philippines and East Asia.

Spain gave up its Saharan possession following Moroccan demands and international pressure, mainly from United Nations resolutions regarding decolonisation. There was internal pressure from the native Sahrawi population, through the Polisario Front, and the claims of Morocco and Mauritania. After gaining independence in 1956, Morocco laid claim to the territory as part of its historic pre-colonial territory. Mauritania claimed the territory for a number of years based on its history, but dropped all claims in 1979.

In 1975, Morocco occupied much of the territory, now known as Western Sahara, but the Polisario Front, promoting the sovereignty of an independent Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR), fought a guerrilla war for 16 years against Morocco. In 1991, the UN negotiated a ceasefire and has tried to arrange negotiations and a referendum to let the population vote on its future. Morocco controls the entire Atlantic coast and most of the landmass, population and natural resources of Western Sahara.

Tampa Bay Times

The Tampa Bay Times, previously named the St. Petersburg Times through 2011, is an American newspaper published in St. Petersburg, Florida, United States. It has won twelve Pulitzer Prizes since 1964, and in 2009, won two in a single year for the first time in its history, one of which was for its PolitiFact project. It is published by the Times Publishing Company, which is owned by The Poynter Institute for Media Studies, a nonprofit journalism school directly adjacent to the University of South Florida St. Petersburg campus. Many issues are available through Google News Archive. A daily electronic version is also available for the Amazon Kindle and iPad.

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