1883

1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1883rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 883rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 83rd year of the 19th century, and the 4th year of the 1880s decade. As of the start of 1883, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1883 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1883
MDCCCLXXXIII
Ab urbe condita2636
Armenian calendar1332
ԹՎ ՌՅԼԲ
Assyrian calendar6633
Bahá'í calendar39–40
Balinese saka calendar1804–1805
Bengali calendar1290
Berber calendar2833
British Regnal year46 Vict. 1 – 47 Vict. 1
Buddhist calendar2427
Burmese calendar1245
Byzantine calendar7391–7392
Chinese calendar壬午(Water Horse)
4579 or 4519
    — to —
癸未年 (Water Goat)
4580 or 4520
Coptic calendar1599–1600
Discordian calendar3049
Ethiopian calendar1875–1876
Hebrew calendar5643–5644
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1939–1940
 - Shaka Samvat1804–1805
 - Kali Yuga4983–4984
Holocene calendar11883
Igbo calendar883–884
Iranian calendar1261–1262
Islamic calendar1300–1301
Japanese calendarMeiji 16
(明治16年)
Javanese calendar1812–1813
Julian calendarGregorian minus 12 days
Korean calendar4216
Minguo calendar29 before ROC
民前29年
Nanakshahi calendar415
Thai solar calendar2425–2426
Tibetan calendar阳水马年
(male Water-Horse)
2009 or 1628 or 856
    — to —
阴水羊年
(female Water-Goat)
2010 or 1629 or 857

Events

Ladies home journal 1906 12 a0
February 16: Ladies Home Journal begins (photo 1906).

January–March

April–June

July–September

October–December

Date unknown

Births

January–February

March–April

May–June

July–August

September–October

November–December

Date unknown

Deaths

January–June

July–December

Dates unknown

References

  1. ^ "History of melrose sevens". Retrieved 2014-03-02.
  2. ^ "Bisbee Massacre", in The Encyclopedia of Lawmen, Outlaws, and Gunfighters, Leon Claire Metz, ed. (Infobase Publishing, 2002) p25

Further reading and year books

  • 1883 Annual Cyclopedia (1884) online; highly detailed coverage of "Political, Military, and Ecclesiastical Affairs; Public Documents; Biography, Statistics, Commerce, Finance, Literature, Science, Agriculture, and Mechanical Industry" for 1883; massive compilation of facts and primary documents; worldwide coverage. 897pp
1882 and 1883 United States Senate elections

The United States Senate elections of 1882 and 1883 saw the Republicans retain a narrow majority — 39 (and later 40) out of 76 — with the Readjusters in their caucus.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

1883 eruption of Krakatoa

The 1883 eruption of Krakatoa (Krakatau) in the Dutch East Indies (now Indonesia) began in the afternoon of Sunday, 26 August 1883 (with origins as early as May of that year), and peaked in the late morning of Monday, 27 August 1883, when over 70% of the island and its surrounding archipelago were destroyed as it collapsed into a caldera. Additional seismic activity was reported to have continued until February 1884, though reports of seismic activity after October 1883 were later dismissed by Rogier Verbeek's investigation into the eruption. The 1883 eruption was one of the deadliest and most destructive volcanic events in recorded history. At least 36,417 deaths are attributed to the eruption and the tsunamis it created. Significant additional effects were also felt around the world in the days and weeks after the volcano's eruption.

1883 in Ireland

Events from the year 1883 in Ireland.

1883 in baseball

The following are the baseball events of the year 1883 throughout the world.

Alexiidae

Alexiidae is a family of beetles, in the suborder Polyphaga. Alexiidae are very small, almost half spherical beetles with clubbed antennae. They are fungivores found in leaf litter or decaying wood. The family contains the single genus Sphaerosoma with the following species:

Sphaerosoma algiricum (Reitter, 1889)

Sphaerosoma alutaceum (Reitter, 1883)

Sphaerosoma antennarium Apfelbeck, 1909

Sphaerosoma apuanum Reitter, 1909

Sphaerosoma bicome Peyerimhoff, 1917

Sphaerosoma bosnicum (Reitter, 1885)

Sphaerosoma carniolicum Apfelbeck, 1915

Sphaerosoma carpathicum (Reitter, 1883)

Sphaerosoma circassicum (Reitter, 1888)

Sphaerosoma clamboides (Reitter, 1888)

Sphaerosoma compressum (Reitter, 1901)

Sphaerosoma corcyreum (Reitter, 1883)

Sphaerosoma csikii Apfelbeck, 1915

Sphaerosoma diversepunctatum Roubal, 1932

Sphaerosoma fiorii Ganglbauer, 1899

Sphaerosoma globosum (Sturm, 1807)

Sphaerosoma hemisphaericum Ganglbauer, 1899

Sphaerosoma hispanicum Obenberger, 1917

Sphaerosoma laevicolle (Reitter, 1883)

Sphaerosoma latitarse Apfelbeck, 1915

Sphaerosoma lederi (Reitter, 1888)

Sphaerosoma leonhardi Apfelbeck, 1915

Sphaerosoma libani Sahlberg, 1913

Sphaerosoma maritimum (Reitter, 1904)

Sphaerosoma merditanum Apfelbeck, 1915

Sphaerosoma meridionale (Reitter, 1883)

Sphaerosoma nevadense (Reitter, 1883)

Sphaerosoma normandi Peyerimhoff, 1917

Sphaerosoma obscuricorne Obenberger, 1917

Sphaerosoma obsoletum (Reitter, 1883)

Sphaerosoma paganetti Obenberger, 1913

Sphaerosoma rotundatum Obenberger, 1913

Sphaerosoma pilosellum (Reitter, 1877)

Sphaerosoma pilosissimum (Frivaldszky, 1881)

Sphaerosoma pilosum (Panzer, 1793)

Sphaerosoma pubescens (Frivaldszky, 1881)

Sphaerosoma punctatum (Reitter, 1878)

Sphaerosoma puncticolle (Reitter, 1883)

Sphaerosoma purkynei Obenberger, 1917

Sphaerosoma quercus Samouelle, 1819

Sphaerosoma rambouseki Apfelbeck, 1916

Sphaerosoma reitteri (Ormay, 1888)

Sphaerosoma scymnoides (Reitter, 1885)

Sphaerosoma seidlitzi (Reitter, 1889)

Sphaerosoma shardaghense Apfelbeck, 1915

Sphaerosoma solarii Reitter, 1904

Sphaerosoma sparsum Reitter, 1909

Sphaerosoma sturanyi Apfelbeck, 1909

Sphaerosoma subglabrum Peyerimhoff, 1917

Sphaerosoma sublaeve (Reitter, 1883)

Sphaerosoma tengitinum Peyerimhoff, 1917

Sphaerosoma vallambrosae (Reitter, 1885)

Sphaerosoma winneguthi Apfelbeck, 1915

Bristol Rovers F.C.

Bristol Rovers Football Club is a professional football club in Bristol, England, which plays in League One, the third tier of English football. The team play home matches at Memorial Stadium in Horfield.

The club was founded in 1883 as Black Arabs F.C., and were also known as Eastville Rovers and Bristol Eastville Rovers before finally changing its name to Bristol Rovers in 1899. The club's official nickname is The Pirates, reflecting the maritime history of Bristol. The local nickname of the club is The Gas, from the gasworks next to their former home, Eastville Stadium, which started as a derogatory term used by fans of their main rivals, Bristol City, but was affectionately adopted by the team. Cardiff City and Swindon Town are considered their second and third biggest rivals.Rovers were admitted to the Football League in 1920 and have played there ever since, apart from spending the 2014–15 season in the Conference Premier. They came close to losing their league status in 1939, when they were re-elected after finishing bottom of Division Three (South), and in 2002 when the team finished one league position away from relegation to the Football Conference. Their highest finishing positions were in 1956 and 1959, on both occasions ending the season in 6th place in Division Two, then the second tier of English football. Rovers were Football League Trophy finalists in 1990 and 2007.

Captain Flint

Captain J. Flint is a fictional 18th-century pirate captain who features in a number of novels, television series, and films. The original character was created by the Scottish writer Robert Louis Stevenson (1850-1894). Flint first appears in the classic adventure yarn Treasure Island, which was first serialised in a children's magazine in 1881, and later published as a novel in 1883.

Darlington F.C.

Darlington Football Club is an English football club based in Darlington, County Durham. They are members of the National League North, the sixth tier of English football, and play at Blackwell Meadows.

The club was founded in 1883, and played its matches at Feethams. The club originally played in regionally organised leagues, and were one of the founding members of the Northern League in 1889. They were first admitted to the Football League when the Third Division North was formed in 1921. They won the Third Division North title in 1925, and their 15th place in the Second Division in 1926 remains their highest ever league finish. After their admission to the League, they spent most of their history in the bottom tier. They won the Third Division North Cup in 1934, their first victory in nationally organised cup competition. They reached the last 16 of the FA Cup twice, and the quarter-final of the Football League Cup once, in 1968. In the early 1990s they won successive titles, in the Conference National in 1990 and the Fourth Division in 1991. In 2011 they won the FA Trophy, defeating Mansfield Town 1–0 at Wembley Stadium.

Darlington moved to the all-seater, 25,000-capacity Darlington Arena in 2003. The cost of the stadium was a major factor in driving the club into administration in 2012. Because the club was unable to agree a Creditors Voluntary Agreement (CVA) it was expelled from The Football Association. A new club was immediately formed but The Football Association ruled that, as a new club, it must have a different playing name from the expelled club. The name chosen was Darlington 1883, and that club was placed in the Northern League Division One, the ninth tier of English football, for the 2012–13 season. They won three promotions in four seasons before the FA approved their request to change to the traditional Darlington FC name.

The club's traditional colours are black and white shirts, black shorts and black and white socks. The club's crest depicts Locomotion No. 1, referring to the town's railway history; as well as a stylised Quaker hat, referring to the religious movement that had a historic influence on the town, and which was the source of the team's nickname, the Quakers.

The club's main rival historically has been Hartlepool United.

Douglas Fairbanks

Douglas Fairbanks (born Douglas Elton Thomas Ullman; May 23, 1883 – December 12, 1939) was an American actor, screenwriter, director, and producer. He was best known for his swashbuckling roles in silent films including The Thief of Bagdad, Robin Hood, and The Mark of Zorro but spent the early part of his career making comedies.

Fairbanks was a founding member of United Artists. He was also a founding member of The Motion Picture Academy and hosted the 1st Academy Awards in 1929. With his marriage to Mary Pickford in 1920, the couple became Hollywood royalty and Fairbanks was referred to as "The King of Hollywood", a nickname later passed on to actor Clark Gable.

Though widely considered as one of the biggest stars in Hollywood during the 1910s and 1920s, Fairbanks' career rapidly declined with the advent of the "talkies". His final film was The Private Life of Don Juan (1934).

Footlights

Cambridge University Footlights Dramatic Club, commonly referred to simply as the Footlights, is an amateur theatrical club in Cambridge, England, founded in 1883 and run by the students of Cambridge University.

Karl Marx

Karl Marx (German: [ˈkaɐ̯l ˈmaɐ̯ks]; 5 May 1818 – 14 March 1883) was a German philosopher, economist, historian, sociologist, political theorist, journalist and socialist revolutionary.

Born in Trier, Germany, Marx studied law and philosophy at university. He married Jenny von Westphalen in 1843. Due to his political publications, Marx became stateless and lived in exile with his wife and children in London for decades, where he continued to develop his thought in collaboration with German thinker Friedrich Engels and publish his writings, researching in the reading room of the British Museum. His best-known titles are the 1848 pamphlet, The Communist Manifesto, and the three-volume Das Kapital. His political and philosophical thought had enormous influence on subsequent intellectual, economic and political history and his name has been used as an adjective, a noun and a school of social theory.

Marx's theories about society, economics and politics – collectively understood as Marxism – hold that human societies develop through class struggle. In capitalism, this manifests itself in the conflict between the ruling classes (known as the bourgeoisie) that control the means of production and the working classes (known as the proletariat) that enable these means by selling their labour power in return for wages. Employing a critical approach known as historical materialism, Marx predicted that, like previous socio-economic systems, capitalism produced internal tensions which would lead to its self-destruction and replacement by a new system: socialism. For Marx, class antagonisms under capitalism, owing in part to its instability and crisis-prone nature, would eventuate the working class' development of class consciousness, leading to their conquest of political power and eventually the establishment of a classless, communist society constituted by a free association of producers. Marx actively pressed for its implementation, arguing that the working class should carry out organised revolutionary action to topple capitalism and bring about socio-economic emancipation.Marx has been described as one of the most influential figures in human history, and his work has been both lauded and criticised. His work in economics laid the basis for much of the current understanding of labour and its relation to capital, and subsequent economic thought. Many intellectuals, labour unions, artists and political parties worldwide have been influenced by Marx's work, with many modifying or adapting his ideas. Marx is typically cited as one of the principal architects of modern social science.

Kennel Union of Southern Africa

The Kennel Union of Southern Africa (formerly The Kennel Union of South Africa) was founded in 1891 through the merge of the Southern African Kennel Club of Port Elizabeth (founded in 1883) and the South African Kennel Club of Cape Town (founded in 1889), ranking it among the world’s oldest kennel clubs.KUSA is primarily a registration and administrative organization for nearly two hundred affiliated breed clubs with over six thousand members.Over four hundred Championship or non-Championship events are licensed annually. Dog sports administered are competitive breed (beauty/conformation shows); field trials and the following competitive working disciplines: obedience classes, working trials, dog jumping, dog carting (draughtwork), and agility. Although breed (conformation) shows are limited to purebred dogs, any dog, purebred or not, if registered or recorded, may enter the working disciplines.

KUSA is a fully federated member of the Fédération Cynologique Internationale (FCI) and has reciprocal agreements with bodies such as The Kennel Club (UK) and the American Kennel Club (AKC) which are not members of the FCI. It also has agreements with other national member countries of the FCI such as the Australian National Kennel Council. KUSA represents the South African Dog world on the National Sports Commission and is recognized with the South African Stud Book Society. KUSA currently recognizes and promotes two developing South African breeds, the Africanis and the Boerboel.

Krakatoa

Krakatoa, or Krakatau (Indonesian: Krakatau), is a caldera in the Sunda Strait between the islands of Java and Sumatra in the Indonesian province of Lampung. The name is also used for the surrounding volcanic island group (Krakatoa Archipelago) comprising four islands: two of which, Lang and Verlaten, are remnants of a previous volcanic edifice destroyed in eruptions long before the famous 1883 eruption; another, Rakata, is the remnant of a much larger island destroyed in the 1883 eruption.

In 1927, a fourth island, Anak Krakatau, or "Child of Krakatoa", emerged from the caldera formed in 1883. There has been new eruptive activity since the late 20th century, with a large collapse causing a deadly tsunami in December 2018.

List of United States congressional districts

Congressional districts in the United States are electoral divisions for the purpose of electing members of the United States House of Representatives. The number of voting seats in the House of Representatives is currently set at 435 with each one representing approximately 711,000 people. That number has applied since 1913, excluding a temporary increase to 437 after the admissions of Alaska and Hawaii. The total number of state members is capped by the Reapportionment Act of 1929. In addition, each of the five inhabited U.S. territories and the federal district of Washington, D.C. sends a non-voting delegate to the House of Representatives.

The Bureau of the Census conducts a constitutionally mandated decennial census whose figures are used to determine the number of congressional districts to which each state is entitled, in a process called "apportionment". The 2012 elections were the first to be based on the congressional districts which were defined based on the 2010 United States Census.Each state is responsible for the redistricting of districts within their state, and several states have one "at-large" division. Redistricting must take place if the number of members changes following a reapportionment, or may take place at any other time if demographics represented in a district has changed substantially. Districts may sometimes retain the same boundaries while changing their district numbers.

The following is a complete list of the 435 current congressional districts for the House of Representatives, and over 200 obsolete districts, and the six current and one obsolete non-voting delegations.

Philadelphia Phillies

The Philadelphia Phillies are an American professional baseball team based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The Phillies compete in Major League Baseball (MLB) as a member club of the National League (NL) East division. Since 2004, the team's home has been Citizens Bank Park, located in South Philadelphia.

The Phillies have won two World Series championships (against the Kansas City Royals in 1980 and the Tampa Bay Rays in 2008) and seven National League pennants, the first of which came in 1915. Since the first modern World Series was played in 1903, the Phillies played 77 consecutive seasons (and 97 seasons from the club's establishment) before they won their first World Series—longer than any other of the 16 teams that made up the major leagues for the first half of the 20th century. They are one of the more successful franchises since the start of the Divisional Era in Major League Baseball. The Phillies have won their division 11 times, which ranks 6th among all teams and 4th in the National League, including five consecutive division titles from 2007 to 2011.

The franchise was founded in Philadelphia in 1883, replacing the team from Worcester, Massachusetts in the National League. The team has played at several stadiums in the city, beginning with Recreation Park and continuing at Baker Bowl; Shibe Park, which was later renamed Connie Mack Stadium in honor of the longtime Philadelphia Athletics manager; Veterans Stadium; and now Citizens Bank Park.

The team's spring training facilities are located in Clearwater, Florida, where its Class-A minor league affiliate Clearwater Threshers plays at Spectrum Field. Its Double-A affiliate is the Reading Fightin Phils, which plays in Reading; its Triple-A affiliate is the Lehigh Valley IronPigs, which plays in Allentown; and its Low Class-A affiliate the Lakewood Blueclaws play in Lakewood, New Jersey.

From 1883 (the founding year) to 2018, the team's win-loss record is 9744-10919 (a winning percentage of 0.472).

Richmond Spiders football

The Richmond Spiders are a college football team representing the University of Richmond in Richmond, Virginia. Richmond was the NCAA Division I Football Championship Subdivision champion for the 2008 season. Richmond currently competes in the Colonial Athletic Association of the NCAA's Division I Football Championship Subdivision. Former University of Tennessee at Chattanooga head coach Russ Huesman was named head coach of the Spiders, on December 14, 2016, replacing Danny Rocco who had depart to become head coach at the University of Delaware a day earlier.In 2008, #7 Richmond beat Eastern Kentucky, Appalachian State, and Northern Iowa to advance to the NCAA Division I Football Championship against Montana. In the FCS National Championship Game on December 19, 2008, they defeated Montana 24–7 to win the first team NCAA national title for the University of Richmond in any sport.

Richmond's traditional rival in many sports is the College of William & Mary. Richmond and William & Mary have met 127 times since 1898, making the rivalry (sometimes referred to as "the South's oldest rivalry") the fourth most-played in Division I college football. Only Lafayette–Lehigh, Princeton–Yale, and Harvard–Yale have played more games. The winner of the annual W&M–Richmond match-up claims the Capital Cup (formerly the I-64 Trophy), which reflects the historical significance of the cities of Williamsburg and Richmond as the last two capitals of the Commonwealth of Virginia.

Six Nations Championship

The Six Nations Championship (known as the Guinness Six Nations for sponsorship reasons) is an annual international rugby union competition between the teams of England, France, Ireland, Italy, Scotland, and Wales. The current champions are Wales, who won the 2019 tournament.

The Six Nations is the successor to the Home Nations Championship (1883–1909 and 1932–39), played between teams from England, Ireland, Scotland, and Wales, which was the first international rugby union tournament. With the addition of France, this became the Five Nations Championship (1910–31 and 1947–99), which in turn became the Six Nations Championship with the addition of Italy.

Wales hold the overall record, with 39 victories (27 outright and 12 shared) to England's 38 (10 shared victories), while England hold the record for outright wins with 28. Since the Six Nations era started in 2000, only Italy and Scotland have failed to win the Six Nations title, although Scotland were the last winners of the Five Nations.

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