1882

1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1882nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 882nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 82nd year of the 19th century, and the 3rd year of the 1880s decade. As of the start of 1882, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

First Trolleybuss of Siemens in Berlin 1882 (postcard)
The "Elektromote", the world's first trolleybus,[1] in Berlin, Germany, 1882
Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1882 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1882
MDCCCLXXXII
Ab urbe condita2635
Armenian calendar1331
ԹՎ ՌՅԼԱ
Assyrian calendar6632
Bahá'í calendar38–39
Balinese saka calendar1803–1804
Bengali calendar1289
Berber calendar2832
British Regnal year45 Vict. 1 – 46 Vict. 1
Buddhist calendar2426
Burmese calendar1244
Byzantine calendar7390–7391
Chinese calendar辛巳(Metal Snake)
4578 or 4518
    — to —
壬午年 (Water Horse)
4579 or 4519
Coptic calendar1598–1599
Discordian calendar3048
Ethiopian calendar1874–1875
Hebrew calendar5642–5643
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1938–1939
 - Shaka Samvat1803–1804
 - Kali Yuga4982–4983
Holocene calendar11882
Igbo calendar882–883
Iranian calendar1260–1261
Islamic calendar1299–1300
Japanese calendarMeiji 15
(明治15年)
Javanese calendar1811–1812
Julian calendarGregorian minus 12 days
Korean calendar4215
Minguo calendar30 before ROC
民前30年
Nanakshahi calendar414
Thai solar calendar2424–2425
Tibetan calendar阴金蛇年
(female Iron-Snake)
2008 or 1627 or 855
    — to —
阳水马年
(male Water-Horse)
2009 or 1628 or 856

Events

January–March

April–June

July–September

Great Comet of 1882
Photograph of the comet as seen from Cape Town by David Gill
  • September 18Great Comet of 1882: Her Majesty's Astronomer at the Cape, David Gill, reports watching the comet rise a few minutes before the Sun, describing it as "The nucleus was then undoubtedly single, and certainly rather under than over 4″ in diameter; in fact, as I have described it, it resembled very much a star of the 1st magnitude seen by daylight."

October–December

Date unknown

Births

January–March

April–June

July–September

October–December

Date Unknown

Deaths

January–June

July–December

Date unknown

References

  1. ^ "Elektromote". Siemens History. Siemens. Retrieved April 14, 2017.
  2. ^ Whitten, David O.; Whitten, Bessie Emrick (1990). Handbook of American Business History: Manufacturing. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 182.
  3. ^ Grothe, Mardy (2009). Viva la Repartee. HarperCollins. p. 34.
  4. ^ Cooper, John. "Attribution of 'I have nothing to declare except my genius'". Oscar Wilde in America. Retrieved August 12, 2012.
  5. ^ Johnson, John W. (2001). Historic U.S. Court Cases. U.S.: Taylor & Francis. p. 54.
  6. ^ Harris, Jack (January 14, 1982). "The electricity of Holborn". New Scientist. London.
  7. ^ "Luce Ben Aben School of Arab Embroidery I, Algiers, Algeria". World Digital Library. 1899. Retrieved September 26, 2013.

External links

1882 United States House of Representatives elections

Elections to the United States House of Representatives were held in 1882 for the 48th Congress, during President Chester A. Arthur's term.

Arthur's Republican Party was badly defeated, losing its majority to the opposition Democratic Party after a campaign that focused on the resistance of Republican leaders to reforming the Spoils system under which government jobs were handed to supporters of winning candidates. After the election, Arthur agreed with the Democrats to pass the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act, establishing a professional civil service. However, his actions were too late, as the image of the Republican Party as corrupt was already engrained in the minds of voters. This election also saw the decline of the pro-paper money Greenback Party, and the pick up of several Virginian seats by the Readjuster Party which promoted fiscal responsibility and shunned elitism, though the Virginia-based Readjuster Party all but disappeared following this election.

1882 United States elections

The 1882 United States elections occurred in the middle of Republican President Chester A. Arthur's term, during the Third Party System. Arthur had become president on September 19, 1881, upon the death of his predecessor, James Garfield. Members of the 48th United States Congress were chosen in this election. Democrats won control of the House, while Republicans won control of the Senate.

Following the 1880 census, the size of the House increased by 32 seats. Democrats won major gains, taking control of the chamber.In the Senate, Republicans picked up one seat, giving them half of the seats in the chamber. Senate Republicans held a majority in a coalition with the Readjuster Party.

1882 and 1883 United States Senate elections

The United States Senate elections of 1882 and 1883 saw the Republicans retain a narrow majority — 39 (and later 40) out of 76 — with the Readjusters in their caucus.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

1882 in Ireland

Events from the year 1882 in Ireland.

1882 in baseball

The following are the baseball events of the year 1882 throughout the world.

Alberto Yarini

Alberto Yarini y Ponce de León (1882-1910) was a Cuban racketeer and pimp during the period of the Cuban War of Independence against Spain. Yarini was well known in his time, is Cuba's most famous pimp, and came to symbolize the concept of Cubanidad, the Cuban national identity, to many Cubans, long after his death.

Yarini was born into an elite family, once owners of Matanzas sugar plantations, with his father a dentist, and his uncle a medical surgeon, in Havana. He was educated in the United States, spoke fluent English as well as Spanish, and was politically well connected. He became known for importing prostitutes from France, and worked out of San Isidro, a barrio and red light district in Old Havana. He was killed on November 21, 1910, by gunfire from rival French pimp Louis Lotot and his confederates, who had been waiting for him. Lotot was himself killed in return gunfire from Yarini's bodyguard.

American Association (19th century)

The American Association (AA) was a professional baseball league that existed for 10 seasons from 1882 to 1891. Together with the NL, founded in 1876, the AA participated in an early version of the World Series seven times versus the champion of the NL in an interleague championship playoff tournament. At the end of its run, several AA franchises joined the NL. After 1891, the NL existed alone, with each season's champions being awarded the prized Temple Cup (1894-1897).

During its existence, the AA was often simply referred to as "the Association" in the media, in contrast to the NL, which was sometimes called "the League".

Anglo-Egyptian War

The Anglo-Egyptian War (Arabic: الاحتلال البريطاني لمصر‎ al-iḥtilāl al-Brīṭānī li-Miṣr) occurred in 1882 between Egyptian and Sudanese forces under Ahmed ‘Urabi and the United Kingdom. It ended a nationalist uprising against the Khedive Tewfik Pasha. It established firm British influence over Egypt at the expense of the Egyptians, the French and the Ottoman Empire, which retained only nominal authority.

Burnley F.C.

Burnley Football Club () is a professional association football club based in Burnley, Lancashire, England. Founded on 18 May 1882, the team originally played only friendly matches until they entered the FA Cup for the first time in 1885–86. The club currently plays in the Premier League, the first tier of English football. Nicknamed the Clarets, due to the dominant colour of their home shirts, they were one of the twelve founding members of the Football League in 1888. The club's emblem is based on the town's crest, with a Latin motto Pretiumque et Causa Laboris ("The Prize and the Cause of Our Labour").

Burnley have been champions of England twice, in 1920–21 and 1959–60, have won the FA Cup once, in 1914, and have won the Community Shield twice, in 1960 and 1973. The Clarets also reached the 1961 quarter-finals of the European Cup. They are one of only five teams to have won all top four professional divisions of English football, along with Wolverhampton Wanderers, Preston North End, Sheffield United and Portsmouth.

In the 1920–21 campaign, Burnley were crowned champions of England for the first time when they won the First Division. During that season the team embarked on a 30-match unbeaten run, which remained an English record until it was beaten by Nottingham Forest in the late 1970s. Burnley attained a second league championship in 1959–60 with a team consisting of mostly youth academy graduates, winning the title with a last-day victory over Manchester City, after foundations were laid by pioneers Alan Brown, Bob Lord and Harry Potts.

Just twenty years later, in 1979–80, Burnley were relegated to the Third Division — the first time in their history they had played in the third tier of English football. Five years later, the team competed in the Fourth Division for the first time following another relegation, and on 9 May 1987 only a 2–1 home win against Orient saved Burnley from relegation to the Football Conference and a possible dissolution. Burnley won promotion in 1991–92 to the third tier and again in 1999–2000 to the second tier, before being promoted to the Premier League in 2008–09, 2013–14 and 2015–16.

Burnley have played home games at Turf Moor since 17 February 1883, after the club had moved from their original premises at Calder Vale. The club colours of claret and blue were adopted prior to the 1910–11 season in tribute to the dominant club of English football at the time, Aston Villa. Their current manager, Sean Dyche, was appointed on 30 October 2012.

Chinese Exclusion Act

The Chinese Exclusion Act was a United States federal law signed by President Chester A. Arthur on May 6, 1882, prohibiting all immigration of Chinese laborers. Building on the 1875 Page Act, which banned Chinese women from immigrating to the United States, the Chinese Exclusion Act was the first law implemented to prevent all members of a specific ethnic or national group from immigrating.

The act followed the Angell Treaty of 1880, a set of revisions to the U.S.–China Burlingame Treaty of 1868 that allowed the U.S. to suspend Chinese immigration. The act was initially intended to last for 10 years, but was renewed in 1892 with the Geary Act and made permanent in 1902. It was repealed by the Magnuson Act on December 17, 1943, which allowed 105 Chinese to enter per year. Chinese immigration later increased with the passage of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952, which abolished direct racial barriers, and later by Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, which abolished the National Origins Formula.

Dytiscidae

The Dytiscidae – based on the Greek dytikos (δυτικός), "able to dive" – are the predaceous diving beetles, a family of water beetles. They occur in virtually any freshwater habitat around the world, but a few species live among leaf litter. The adults of most are between 1 and 2.5 cm (0.4–1.0 in) long, though much variation is seen between species. The European Dytiscus latissimus and Brazilian Megadytes ducalis are the largest, reaching up to 4.5 cm (1.8 in) and 4.75 cm (1.9 in) respectively. In contrast, the smallest is likely the Australian Limbodessus atypicali of subterranean waters, which only is about 0.9 mm (0.035 in) long. Most are dark brown, blackish, or dark olive in color with golden highlights in some subfamilies. They have short, but sharp mandibles. Immediately upon biting, they deliver digestive enzymes. The larvae are commonly known as water tigers. The family includes more than 4,000 described species in numerous genera.

Ireland national football team (1882–1950)

The Ireland national football team represented Ireland in association football from 1882 until 1950. It was organised by the Irish Football Association (IFA), and is the fourth oldest international team in the world. It mainly played in the British Home Championship against England, Scotland and Wales. Though often vying with Wales to avoid the wooden spoon, Ireland did win the Championship in 1914, and shared it with England and Scotland in 1903.

After the partition of Ireland in the 1920s, although the IFA's administration of club football was restricted to Northern Ireland, the IFA national team continued to select players from the whole of Ireland until 1950, and did not adopt the name "Northern Ireland" until 1954 in FIFA competition, and the 1970s in the British Home Championship. In 1924, a separate international team, organised by the Football Association of Ireland, fielded a team called Ireland, which now represents the Republic of Ireland.

Jess McMahon

Roderick James "Jess" McMahon Sr. (May 26, 1882 – November 22, 1954) was an American professional wrestling and professional boxing promoter, and the patriarch of the McMahon family. He founded the Capitol Wrestling Corporation with Toots Mondt in 1952. McMahon's son, Vincent, later took over and founded the World Wide Wrestling Federation (WWF, today known as WWE).

Kingdom of Serbia

The Kingdom of Serbia (Serbian: Краљевина Србија / Kraljevina Srbija) was created when Milan I, ruler of the Principality of Serbia, was proclaimed king in 1882.

Since 1817, the Principality was ruled by the Obrenović dynasty (replaced by the Karađorđević dynasty for a short time). The Principality, suzerainty of the Ottoman Empire, de facto achieved full independence when the last Ottoman troops left Belgrade in 1867. The Congress of Berlin in 1878 recognized the formal independence of the Principality of Serbia, and in its composition Nišava, Pirot, Toplica and Vranje districts entered the South part of Serbia.

In 1882, Serbia was elevated to the status of kingdom, maintaining a foreign policy friendly to Austria-Hungary. Between 1912 and 1913, Serbia greatly enlarged its territory through engagement in the First and Second Balkan Wars—Sandžak-Raška, Kosovo Vilayet and Vardar Macedonia were annexed. At the end of World War I in 1918 it united with Vojvodina and the Kingdom of Montenegro, and towards the end of 1918 it joined with the newly created State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs to form the new Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (later known as Kingdom of Yugoslavia) under the continued rule of the Serbian Karađorđević dynasty.

Labor Day

Labor Day in the United States of America is a public holiday celebrated on the first Monday in September. It honors the American labor movement and the contributions that workers have made to the strength, prosperity, laws, and well-being of the country. It is the Monday of the long weekend known as Labor Day Weekend. It is recognized as a federal holiday.

Beginning in the late 19th century, as the trade union and labor movements grew, trade unionists proposed that a day be set aside to celebrate labor. "Labor Day" was promoted by the Central Labor Union and the Knights of Labor, which organized the first parade in New York City. In 1887, Oregon was the first state of the United States to make it an official public holiday. By the time it became an official federal holiday in 1894, thirty states in the United States officially celebrated Labor Day.Canada's Labour Day is also celebrated on the first Monday of September. More than 80 countries celebrate International Workers' Day on May 1 – the ancient European holiday of May Day. (May Day was chosen by the Second Internationale of socialist and communist parties to commemorate the Haymarket affair, which occurred in Chicago on May 4, 1886.) Lastly, several countries have chosen neither date for their Labour Day.

Principality of Serbia

The Principality of Serbia (Serbian: Кнежевина Србија / Kneževina Srbija) was a semi-independent state in the Balkans that came into existence as a result of the Serbian Revolution, which lasted between 1804 and 1817. Its creation was negotiated first through an unwritten agreement between Miloš Obrenović, leader of the Second Serbian Uprising and Ottoman official Marashli Pasha. It was followed by the series of legal documents published by the Porte in 1828, 1829 and finally, 1830 — the Hatt-i Sharif. Its de facto independence ensued in 1867, following the expulsion of all Ottoman troops from the country; its independence was recognized internationally in 1878 by the Treaty of Berlin. In 1882 the country was elevated to the status of kingdom.

St. Louis Cardinals

The St. Louis Cardinals are an American professional baseball team based in St. Louis, Missouri. The Cardinals compete in Major League Baseball (MLB) as a member club of the National League (NL) Central division. Busch Stadium has been their home ballpark since 2006. One of the most successful franchises in baseball history, the Cardinals have won 11 World Series championships, the second-most in Major League Baseball (behind the New York Yankees) and the most in the National League. Their 19 National League pennants rank third in NL history. In addition, St. Louis has won 13 division titles in the East and Central divisions.

While still in the old American Association (AA), named then as the St. Louis Browns, the team won four AA league championships, qualifying them to play in the professional baseball championship tournament (a forerunner of the modern World Series, established 1903) of that era. They tied in 1885 and won outright in 1886 and lost in 1888 for the early trophy Hall Cup versus the New York Giants. The others both times against the Chicago Cubs (originally the Chicago White Stockings then), in the first meetings of the Cardinals–Cubs rivalry between nearby cities of St. Louis and Chicago that continues to this day.

With origins as one of the early professional baseball clubs in St. Louis and the nation, entrepreneur Chris von der Ahe purchased a barnstorming club in 1881, then known as the Brown Stockings, and established them as charter members of the old American Association (AA) base ball league which played 1882 to 1891, the following season. Upon the discontinuation of the AA, St. Louis joined the continuing National League of Professional Base Ball Clubs, later known simply as the National League, (organized in 1876), in 1892; at that time, they were called the Browns (not to be confused with a later team also known as the St. Louis Browns in the American League, 1902-1953) and also as the Perfectos before they were officially renamed eight years later as the Cardinals in 1900.

Cardinals achievements that have impacted MLB and sports events in general include manager/owner Branch Rickey's pioneering of the farm system, Rogers Hornsby's two batting Triple Crowns, Dizzy Dean's 30-win season in 1934, Stan Musial's 17 MLB and 29 NL records, Bob Gibson's 1.12 earned run average (ERA) in 1968, Whitey Herzog's Whiteyball, Mark McGwire breaking the single-season home run record in 1998, and the 2011 championship team's unprecedented comebacks. The Cardinals have won 105 or more games in four different seasons and won 100 or more a total of nine times. Cardinals players have won 20 league MVPs, four batting Triple Crowns, and three Cy Young Awards. Baseball Hall of Fame inductees include Lou Brock, Dizzy Dean, Bob Gibson, Whitey Herzog, Rogers Hornsby, Joe Medwick, Stan Musial, Branch Rickey, Red Schoendienst, Ozzie Smith, and Bruce Sutter.

In 2018, Forbes valued the Cardinals at $1.9 billion, making them the 7th-most valuable franchise in MLB; their revenue the previous year was $319 million, and their operating income was $40.0 million. Since their purchase in 1995, owner William DeWitt, Jr.'s investment group has seen enormous growth from the $147 million purchase price. John Mozeliak is the President of Baseball Operations, Mike Girsch is the general manager and Mike Shildt is the manager. The Cardinals are renowned for their strong fan support: despite being in one of the sport's mid-level markets, they routinely see attendances among the league's highest, and are consistently among the Top 3 in MLB in local television ratings.

Tottenham Hotspur F.C.

Tottenham Hotspur Football Club, commonly referred to as Tottenham () or Spurs, is a professional football club in Tottenham, London, England, that competes in the Premier League. Tottenham Hotspur Stadium has been the club's home ground since April 2019, replacing their former home of White Hart Lane, which had been demolished to make way for the new stadium on the same site. Their training ground is on Hotspur Way in Bulls Cross in the London Borough of Enfield. Tottenham have played in a first (home) strip of white shirts and navy blue shorts since the 1898–99 season. The club's emblem is a cockerel standing upon a football, with a Latin motto Audere est Facere ("To Dare Is to Do").

Founded in 1882, Tottenham won the FA Cup for the first time in 1901, the only non-League club to do so since the formation of the Football League in 1888. Tottenham were the first club in the 20th century to achieve the League and FA Cup Double, winning both competitions in the 1960–61 season. After successfully defending the FA Cup in 1962, in 1963 they became the first British club to win a UEFA club competition – the European Cup Winners' Cup. They were also the inaugural winners of the UEFA Cup in 1972, becoming the first British club to win two different major European trophies. They have collected at least one major trophy in each of the six decades from the 1950s to 2000s – an achievement only matched by Manchester United. In total, Spurs have won two league titles, eight FA Cups, four League Cups, seven FA Community Shields, one European Cup Winners' Cup and two UEFA Cups. The club has a long-standing rivalry with nearby club Arsenal, with head-to-head fixtures known as the North London derby.

Triple Alliance (1882)

The Triple Alliance was an agreement between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy. It was formed on 20 May 1882 and renewed periodically until it expired in 1915 during World War I. Germany and Austria-Hungary had been closely allied since 1879. Italy sought support against France shortly after it lost North African ambitions to the French. Each member promised mutual support in the event of an attack by any other great power. The treaty provided that Germany and Austria-Hungary were to assist Italy if it was attacked by France without provocation. In turn, Italy would assist Germany if attacked by France. In the event of a war between Austria-Hungary and Russia, Italy promised to remain neutral. The existence and membership of the treaty was well known, but its exact provisions were kept secret until 1919.

When the treaty was renewed in February 1887, Italy gained an empty promise of German support of Italian colonial ambitions in North Africa in return for Italy's continued friendship. Austria-Hungary had to be pressured by German chancellor Otto von Bismarck into accepting the principles of consultation and mutual agreement with Italy on any territorial changes initiated in the Balkans or on the coasts and islands of the Adriatic and Aegean seas. Italy and Austria-Hungary did not overcome their basic conflict of interest in that region despite the treaty. In 1891 attempts were made to join Britain to the Triplice, which, though unsuccessful, were widely believed to have succeeded in Russian diplomatic circles.Shortly after renewing the Alliance in June 1902, Italy secretly extended a similar guarantee to France. By a particular agreement, neither Austria-Hungary nor Italy would change the status quo in the Balkans without previous consultation. On 18 October 1883 Carol I of Romania, through his Prime Minister Ion I. C. Brătianu, had also secretly pledged to support the Triple Alliance, but he remained neutral since Austria-Hungary started the war. On 1 November 1902, five months after the Triple Alliance was renewed, Italy reached an understanding with France that each would remain neutral in the event of an attack on the other.

When Austria-Hungary found itself at war in August 1914 with the rival Triple Entente, Italy proclaimed its neutrality, considering Austria-Hungary the aggressor and defaulting on the obligation to consult and agree compensations before changing the status quo in the Balkans, as agreed in 1912 renewal of the Triple Alliance. Following parallel negotiation with both Triple Alliance, aimed to keep Italy neutral, and the Triple Entente, aimed to make Italy enter the conflict, Italy declared war on Austria-Hungary.

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