1880 United States Census

The United States Census of 1880 conducted by the Census Bureau during June 1880 was the tenth United States Census.[1] It was the first time that women were permitted to be enumerators.[2] The Superintendent of the Census was Francis Amasa Walker.[3]

1880 United States Census
Seal of the United States Census Bureau
1880 census Edison
Thomas Edison in the 1880 US census
General information
CountryUnited States
Date takenJune 1880
Total population50,189,209
Percent changeIncrease 30.2%

Data collected

Five schedules were authorized by the 1880 Census Act, four of which were filled out by the enumerators:[4]

  • Schedule 1 (Population), which was similar to that used for the previous census, with a few exceptions.[5]
  • Schedule 2 (Mortality), which used the same inquiries as in 1870, and added inquiries to record marital status, birthplace of parents, length of residence in the United States or territory, and name of place where the disease was contracted, if other than place of death.
  • Schedule 3 (Agriculture), which greatly expanded inquiries concerning various crops (including acreage for principal crop), and included questions on farm tenure, weeks of hired labor, annual cost for fence building and repair, fertilizer purchases, and the number of livestock.
  • Schedule 5 (Manufacturing), which expanded to include information on the greatest number of hands employed at any time during the year, the number of hours in the ordinary work day from May to November and November to May, the average daily wages paid to skilled mechanics and laborers, months of full-and part-time operation, and machinery used.

Schedule 4 (Social statistics) was the responsibility of experts and special agents, rather than the enumerators.[4] The majority of the data came from correspondence with officials of institutions providing care and treatment of certain members of the population. Experts and special agents also were employed to collect data on valuation, taxation, and indebtedness; religion and libraries; colleges, academies, and schools; newspapers and periodicals, and wages.[4]

Special agents were also charged with collecting data on specific industries throughout the country, and included the manufactures of iron and steel; cotton, woolen, and worsted goods; silk and silk goods; chemical products and salt; coke and glass; shipbuilding; and all aspects of fisheries and mining, including the production of coal and petroleum.[4]

Full documentation for the 1880 population census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series, which contains microdata.

Data availability

The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau; after which the original sheets were transferred to various state archives, libraries, or universities.[6] The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations also host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.

Microdata from the 1880 population census are freely available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System.


The 1880 census determined the resident population of the United States to be 50,189,209, an increase of 30.2 percent over the 38,555,983 persons enumerated during the 1870 Census.[7] The mean center of United States population for 1880 was in Boone County, Kentucky.

The results from the census were used to determine the apportionment for the 48th, 49th, 50th, 51st, and 52nd sessions of the United States Congress.

The processing of the 1880 census data took so long (eight years) that the Census Bureau contracted Herman Hollerith to design and build a tabulating machine to be used for the next census.[8][9] The 1880 census also led to the discovery of the Alabama paradox.

State rankings

Rank State Population
01 New York 5,082,871
02 Pennsylvania 4,282,891
03 Ohio 3,198,062
04 Illinois 3,077,871
05 Missouri 2,168,380
06 Indiana 1,978,301
07 Massachusetts 1,783,085
08 Kentucky 1,648,690
09 Michigan 1,636,937
10 Iowa 1,624,615
11 Texas 1,591,749
12 Tennessee 1,542,359
13 Georgia 1,542,180
14 Virginia 1,512,565
15 North Carolina 1,399,750
16 Wisconsin 1,315,497
17 Alabama 1,262,505
18 Mississippi 1,131,597
19 New Jersey 1,131,116
20 Kansas 996,096
21 South Carolina 995,577
22 Louisiana 939,946
23 Maryland 934,943
24 California 864,694
25 Arkansas 802,525
26 Minnesota 780,773
27 Maine 648,936
28 Connecticut 622,700
29 West Virginia 618,457
30 Nebraska 452,402
31 New Hampshire 346,991
32 Vermont 332,286
33 Rhode Island 276,531
34 Florida 269,493
35 Colorado 194,327
X District of Columbia [10] 177,624
36 Oregon 174,768
37 Delaware 146,608
X Utah 143,963
X New Mexico 119,565
X South Dakota 98,268
X Washington 75,116
38 Nevada 62,266
X Arizona 40,440
X Montana 39,159
X North Dakota 36,909
X Idaho 32,610
X Wyoming 20,789

City rankings

Rank City State Population[11] Region (2016)[12]
01 New York New York 1,206,299 Northeast
02 Philadelphia Pennsylvania 847,170 Northeast
03 Brooklyn New York 566,663 Northeast
04 Chicago Illinois 503,185 Midwest
05 Boston Massachusetts 362,839 Northeast
06 St. Louis Missouri 350,518 Midwest
07 Baltimore Maryland 332,313 South
08 Cincinnati Ohio 255,139 Midwest
09 San Francisco California 233,959 West
10 New Orleans Louisiana 216,090 South
11 Cleveland Ohio 160,146 Midwest
12 Pittsburgh Pennsylvania 156,389 Northeast
13 Buffalo New York 155,134 Northeast
14 Washington District of Columbia 147,293 South
15 Newark New Jersey 136,508 Northeast
16 Louisville Kentucky 123,758 South
17 Jersey City New Jersey 120,722 Northeast
18 Detroit Michigan 116,340 Midwest
19 Milwaukee Wisconsin 115,587 Midwest
20 Providence Rhode Island 104,857 Northeast
21 Albany New York 90,758 Northeast
22 Rochester New York 89,366 Northeast
23 Allegheny Pennsylvania 78,682 Northeast
24 Indianapolis Indiana 75,056 Midwest
25 Richmond Virginia 63,600 South
26 New Haven Connecticut 62,882 Northeast
27 Lowell Massachusetts 59,475 Northeast
28 Worcester Massachusetts 58,291 Northeast
29 Troy New York 56,747 Northeast
30 Kansas City Missouri 55,785 Midwest
31 Cambridge Massachusetts 52,669 Northeast
32 Syracuse New York 51,792 Northeast
33 Columbus Ohio 51,647 Midwest
34 Paterson New Jersey 51,031 Northeast
35 Toledo Ohio 50,137 Midwest
36 Charleston South Carolina 49,984 South
37 Fall River Massachusetts 48,961 Northeast
38 Minneapolis Minnesota 46,887 Midwest
39 Scranton Pennsylvania 45,850 Northeast
40 Nashville Tennessee 43,350 South
41 Reading Pennsylvania 43,278 Northeast
42 Wilmington Delaware 42,478 South
43 Hartford Connecticut 42,015 Northeast
44 Camden New Jersey 41,659 Northeast
45 Saint Paul Minnesota 41,473 Midwest
46 Lawrence Massachusetts 39,151 Northeast
47 Dayton Ohio 38,678 Midwest
48 Lynn Massachusetts 38,274 Northeast
49 Atlanta Georgia 37,409 South
50 Denver Colorado 35,629 West
51 Oakland California 34,555 West
52 Utica New York 33,914 Northeast
53 Portland Maine 33,810 Northeast
54 Memphis Tennessee 33,592 South
55 Springfield Massachusetts 33,340 Northeast
56 Manchester New Hampshire 32,630 Northeast
57 St. Joseph Missouri 32,431 Midwest
58 Grand Rapids Michigan 32,016 Midwest
59 Hoboken New Jersey 30,999 Northeast
60 Harrisburg Pennsylvania 30,762 Northeast
61 Wheeling West Virginia 30,737 South
62 Savannah Georgia 30,709 South
63 Omaha Nebraska 30,518 Midwest
64 Trenton New Jersey 29,910 Northeast
65 Covington Kentucky 29,720 South
66 Evansville Indiana 29,280 Midwest
67 Peoria Illinois 29,259 Midwest
68 Mobile Alabama 29,132 South
69 Elizabeth New Jersey 28,229 Northeast
70 Erie Pennsylvania 27,737 Northeast
71 Bridgeport Connecticut 27,643 Northeast
72 Salem Massachusetts 27,563 Northeast
73 Quincy Illinois 27,268 Midwest
74 Fort Wayne Indiana 26,880 Midwest
75 New Bedford Massachusetts 26,845 Northeast
76 Terre Haute Indiana 26,042 Midwest
77 Lancaster Pennsylvania 25,769 Northeast
78 Somerville Massachusetts 24,933 Northeast
79 Wilkes-Barre Pennsylvania 23,339 Northeast
80 Des Moines Iowa 22,408 Midwest
81 Dubuque Iowa 22,254 Midwest
82 Galveston Texas 22,248 South
83 Norfolk Virginia 21,966 South
84 Auburn New York 21,924 Northeast
85 Holyoke Massachusetts 21,915 Northeast
86 Augusta Georgia 21,891 South
87 Davenport Iowa 21,831 Midwest
88 Chelsea Massachusetts 21,782 Northeast
89 Petersburg Virginia 21,656 South
90 Sacramento California 21,420 West
91 Taunton Massachusetts 21,213 Northeast
92 Oswego New York 21,116 Northeast
93 Salt Lake City Utah 20,768 West
94 Springfield Ohio 20,730 Midwest
95 Bay City Michigan 20,693 Midwest
96 San Antonio Texas 20,550 South
97 Elmira New York 20,541 Northeast
98 Newport Kentucky 20,433 South
99 Poughkeepsie New York 20,207 Northeast
100 Springfield Illinois 19,743 Midwest

See also


  1. ^ 1880 Census: Instructions to Enumerators from IPUMS, a website of the Minnesota Population Center at the University of Minnesota
  2. ^ From Inkwell To Internet: 1880 from the U.S. Census Bureau
  3. ^ Billings, John S. (1902). "Biographical Memoir of Francis Amasa Walker 1840–1897" (PDF). National Academy Press. Archived (PDF) from the original on June 22, 2009. Retrieved June 19, 2009.
  4. ^ a b c d 1880 Census of Population and Housing from the U.S. Census Bureau
  5. ^ Scanned images of Schedule 1 (both low-resolution and high-resolution) are available from Historical Forms and Questions: 1880 at the U.S. Census Bureau website
  6. ^ Algonquin Area Public Library District. "Census Secrets" (PDF). Retrieved May 17, 2012.
  7. ^ Resident Population of the United States from a State of Wyoming website
  8. ^ Anderson, Margo J. (2015). The American Census, A Social History, 2nd ed. Yale. p. 102. "The final volumes of the 1880 census were published in 1888" thus 1880,1,2,3,4,5,6,7 -- eight years at least
  9. ^ Tabulating machines [1] from an Early Office Museum website [2]
  10. ^ The District of Columbia is not a state but was created with the passage of the Residence Act of 1790.
  11. ^ Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places in the United States: 1790 to 1990, U.S. Census Bureau, 1998
  12. ^ "Regions and Divisions". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on December 3, 2016. Retrieved September 9, 2016.

External links

Ad Gumbert

Addison Courtney Gumbert (October 10, 1868 – April 23, 1925) was a pitcher for Major League Baseball in the 19th century. His brother Billy Gumbert and great nephew Harry Gumbert were also Major League Baseball players.

Bill Darrah

William Lindsey "Bill" Darrah (April 7, 1876 - after 1920) was a sheep rancher and stonemason in Shoshone, Idaho known for his construction of lava rock water tanks from the 1910s to 1920s. He built water tanks ranging from approximately eight to 30 feet high and from 12 to 25 feet in diameter. His tanks were typically built with a stone foundation several feet into the ground. The walls were approximately three feet wide and built out of lava stones and lime mortar. Darrah's tanks were typically accompanied by one-story pump housesA number of Darrah's works are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, some as part of a Multiple Resource Area Thematic Group submission for Lava Rock Structures in South Central Idaho.Darrah was born in April 1876 in California. He was the son of Simon Darrah and Arzilla (Shipton) Darrah. At the time of the 1880 United States Census, he was living in Shasta, California with his parents and six siblings. His father was employed as a lumberman at the time. By 1900, Darrah had relocated to Shoshone, Idaho where he was living with his parents and four siblings. As of 1918, Darrah was living in Shoshone with his wife, Ida A. Darrah and listed his occupation as a self-employed contractor. At the time of the 1920 United States Census, he remained in Shoshone living with his wife Ida and his sister-in-law Effie Parry. His occupation was listed as a mason, and his wife as a stenographer in an abstract office.Darrah's works include:

Darrah House and Water Tank House, located northeast of Shoshone, Idaho, NRHP-listed

Ben Darrah Water Tank and Well House, located north of Shoshone, Idaho, NRHP-listed

Thomas Gooding Water Tank House, located northwest of Shoshone, Idaho, NRHP-listed

Louis Johnson Water Tank House, located west of Richfield, Idaho, NRHP-listed

Myers School, located west of Shoshone, Idaho, NRHP-listed

J. W. and Rachel Newman House and Bunkhouse, located east of Jerome, Idaho, NRHP-listed

Arthur D. Silva Water Tank, located northwest of Shoshone, Idaho, NRHP-listed

Bobby Cargo

Robert J. Cargo (October 1868 – April 27, 1904) was a former professional baseball shortstop who played two games for the 1892 Pittsburgh Pirates. He remained active in the minor leagues through 1903. He died of pneumonia in 1904, which he contracted during his playing career.

Brownsville, Maryland

Brownsville (also Banjotown) is an unincorporated community and census-designated place in Washington County, Maryland, United States, near Gapland in an area known as Pleasant Valley. Its population was 89 as of the 2010 census.

Chalfant, Pennsylvania

Chalfant is a borough in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, United States. The population was 800 at the 2010 census.The borough was named after the Chalfant family of early settlers.

Churchill, Pennsylvania

Churchill is a borough in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, United States. The population was 3,011 at the 2010 census. The town was named from the hilltop Beulah Presbyterian Church.

Deering, Maine

Deering was a town in Cumberland County, Maine which was incorporated in 1871 and annexed by the neighboring City of Portland in 1899. Until 1871, the town was part of Saccarappa, which also included what is now neighboring Westbrook. In that year, the towns split with little opposition. The 1880 United States Census counted 4,324 residents of the newly formed town. In 1892, Deering was incorporated as a city. In 1899, Deering was annexed by Portland, becoming the northern neighborhoods of the city.

Edgeworth, Pennsylvania

Edgeworth is a borough in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, along the Ohio River approximately 14 miles (22.5 km) northwest of Pittsburgh. The population was 1,680 at the 2010 census.

Etna, Pennsylvania

Etna is a borough in Allegheny County in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania, along the Allegheny River, opposite Pittsburgh. Etna was named after the volcano Mount Etna, an allusion to blast furnaces, steel mills, galvanized-pipe works, and other manufacturers located there. In 1900, 5,384 people lived in Etna. In 1910, 5,830 lived there, and in 1940, 7,223 lived there. The population was 3,451 at the 2010 census.

Hampton Township, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania

Hampton Township is a township in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, United States. The population was 18,363 at the 2010 census.

Kijik, Alaska

Kijik is a ghost town in Lake and Peninsula Borough, Alaska, United States. An Athabascan village that was established on the shores of Lake Clark in the Alaska Range, its population was recorded at 91 in the 1880 United States Census and declined thereafter, falling to approximately 25 individuals by 1904. Today, the village has been abandoned. The ghost town is located within the bounds of Lake Clark National Park and Preserve.

The historic portion of the village was the subject of archaeological and ethnological research in the 1960s. Interviews with Dena'ina elders in Nondalton established that the people of Kijik relocated to Old Nondalton (not far from present-day Nondalton) in the early 19th century, probably to be closer to trading posts and the canneries of Bristol Bay. A survey expedition that visited the site in 1909 reported it to be abandoned. A major archaeological excavation of the historic village took place in 1966, exposing twelve foundational remnants of log houses (many of the houses having apparently been moved to Old Nondalton at the time of the relocation), and two of what appeared to be larger communal structures.In 1979, twelve acres of the village site were added to the National Register of Historic Places as a historic district. A much larger area, encompassing a significant number of archaeological sites related to the habitation and use of the area from at least the 12th century forward, was designated a National Historic Landmark District in 1994, for the unique concentration of sites related to the inland Dena'ina people.The community was known by many other names than "Kijik" during its history, including "Lake Clark Village", "Nijik", "Nikhkak", "Nikhak", and "Old Keegik". Its current name has been spelled in a wide variety of ways, including "Keechik", "Keeghik", "Keejik", "Keggik", "Keygik", "Kichak", "Kichik", "Kilchik", and "Kilchikh".

Naknek Lake

Naknek Lake is a lake in southern Alaska, near the base of the Alaska Peninsula. Located in Katmai National Park and Preserve, the lake is 40 miles (64 km) long and three to eight miles (4.8 to 12.9 km) wide, the largest lake in the park The lake drains west into Bristol Bay through the Naknek River. The elevation of the lake has lowered over the past 5,000 years as it has cut through a glacial moraine, separating Naknek Lake and Brooks Lake and creating Brooks Falls about 3500 years ago.

The earliest Russian explorer reported the lake's name as Naknek, but a later one said its name was "Akulogak". Ivan Petrof named the lake Lake Walker, for Francis Amasa Walker, Superintendent of the 1880 United States census.

The lake is famous for its sport fishing, supporting one of the largest king salmon fisheries in southwestern Alaska, though the king salmon are greatly outnumbered by sockeye salmon as well as pink and chum salmon. Large rainbow trout are also common around the lake, along with northern pike, lake trout and Arctic char. Brooks Camp is located on the lake's shore where the Brooks River enters the lake over rapids.

Pine Township, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania

Pine Township is a township in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, United States. The population was 11,497 at the 2010 census.Pine Township was named for the abundance of pine trees.

Richland Township, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania

Richland Township is a township in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, United States. The population was 11,100 at the 2010 census.

The township was named for its fertile soil.

Scott Township, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania

Scott Township is a township in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, United States. The population was 17,024 at the 2010 census.

Trafford, Pennsylvania

Trafford is a borough in Allegheny and Westmoreland counties in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. Located near Pittsburgh in western Pennsylvania, the borough lies primarily in Westmoreland County; only a small portion extends into Allegheny County. It was incorporated in 1904 from the northernmost corner of North Huntingdon Township, and was named by George Westinghouse for Trafford near Manchester, England. The population was 3,174 at the 2010 census. Of this, 3,113 were in Westmoreland County, and only 61 were in Allegheny County.

Ulysses J. Lincoln Peoples

Ulysses J. Lincoln Peoples (February 1865 - after 1940) was an American architect based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Five schools located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania that were designed by Peoples have listed on the National Register of Historic Places.Peoples was born in Pennsylvania in 1865. He was the son of William Peoples, a stair builder. At the time of the 1870 United States Census, Peoples was living with his parents and three siblings in Allegheny, Pennsylvania. At the time of the 1880 United States Census, Peoples was living in Chester, Pennsylvania. At the time of the 1900 United States Census, Peoples was living in Pittsburgh with his wife Emma and daughter Edith. By the time of the 1910 Census, Peoples also had a son Ulysses, Jr. He remained in Pittsburgh at the time of the 1920 and 1930 Censuses. By the time of the 1940 Census, Peoples and his wife Emma had relocated to Uniontown, Pennsylvania, where both were employed as taxi cab dispatchers.Peoples' works include:

Larimer School, Larimer Avenue at Winslow Street, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, NRHP-listed

Madison Elementary School, Milwaukee and Orion Streets, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, NRHP-listed

McCleary Elementary School, Holmes Street and McCandless Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, NRHP-listed

Oakland Public School, Dawson Street near Edith Place, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, NRHP-listed

Wightman School (1897), (now Wightman School Community Building), 5604 Solway Street, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, NRHP-listed

Versailles, Pennsylvania

Versailles is a borough in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, United States. At the 2010 census, the population was 1,515. Despite being named after the extraordinary Palace of Versailles, the name of the borough is almost universally pronounced ver-sales by residents of the area.

West Deer Township

West Deer Township is a township in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania in the United States. The population was 11,771 at the 2010 census.

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