1878

1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar, the 1878th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 878th year of the 2nd millennium, the 78th year of the 19th century, and the 9th year of the 1870s decade. As of the start of 1878, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1878 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1878
MDCCCLXXVIII
Ab urbe condita2631
Armenian calendar1327
ԹՎ ՌՅԻԷ
Assyrian calendar6628
Bahá'í calendar34–35
Balinese saka calendar1799–1800
Bengali calendar1285
Berber calendar2828
British Regnal year41 Vict. 1 – 42 Vict. 1
Buddhist calendar2422
Burmese calendar1240
Byzantine calendar7386–7387
Chinese calendar丁丑(Fire Ox)
4574 or 4514
    — to —
戊寅年 (Earth Tiger)
4575 or 4515
Coptic calendar1594–1595
Discordian calendar3044
Ethiopian calendar1870–1871
Hebrew calendar5638–5639
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1934–1935
 - Shaka Samvat1799–1800
 - Kali Yuga4978–4979
Holocene calendar11878
Igbo calendar878–879
Iranian calendar1256–1257
Islamic calendar1294–1296
Japanese calendarMeiji 11
(明治11年)
Javanese calendar1806–1807
Julian calendarGregorian minus 12 days
Korean calendar4211
Minguo calendar34 before ROC
民前34年
Nanakshahi calendar410
Thai solar calendar2420–2421
Tibetan calendar阴火牛年
(female Fire-Ox)
2004 or 1623 or 851
    — to —
阳土虎年
(male Earth-Tiger)
2005 or 1624 or 852

Events

January–March

Raising the obelisk
January–September – Cleopatra's Needle erected in London.
Europe 1878 map en
Europe after the Congress of Berlin in 1878 and the territorial and political rearrangement of the Balkan Peninsula.

April–June

July–September

October–December

Date unknown

Births

January–June

July–December

Deaths

January–June

July–December

In fiction

References

  1. ^ Ruskin, John (1877-07-02). Fors Clavigera.
  2. ^ Whistler, J. McNeill (1890). The Gentle Art of Making Enemies.
  3. ^ Borneman, Walter R. (2010). Rival Rails: The Race to Build America's Greatest Transcontinental Railroad. Random House Digital. p. 168.
  4. ^ "V muzeu Emila Holuba se ukrýval kapský lev". Novinky.cz (in Czech). 2009-05-22. Retrieved 2011-08-26.

Further reading

1878 United States House of Representatives elections

Elections to the United States House of Representatives were held in 1878 for Representatives to the 46th United States Congress. These elections occurred in the middle of President Rutherford B. Hayes's term.

With a sour economy as the nation's pressing issue, both major parties lost seats to the new Greenback Party, which was established to promote the long-term use of paper money as a solution to stop enormous economic fluctuations. The Democratic Party remained the largest party, but lost its majority. However, it allied with several independent politicians and was able to remain in power. Notable freshmen included James B. Weaver, who would later run for president as the Greenback candidate in 1880 and the Populist candidate in 1892. This was the fourth and last recorded House election where both major parties lost seats at the same time.

1878 United States elections

The 1878 United States elections occurred in the middle of Republican President Rutherford B. Hayes's term, during the Third Party System. It was the first election following the end of the Reconstruction Era, and Redeemers had gained back control of most Southern governments following the Compromise of 1877. Members of the 46th United States Congress were chosen in this election. Democrats won control of the Senate for the first time since the start of the Civil War. Democrats lost a majority in the House, but retained a plurality and control of the chamber.

In the House, Democrats and Republicans both lost seats to the Greenback Party and a group of independent Democrats, with the Democrats retaining only a plurality. Democrat Samuel J. Randall won re-election as Speaker of the House.

In the Senate, Democrats picked up several seats, taking control of the chamber.

1878 and 1879 United States Senate elections

The United States Senate elections of 1878 and 1879 were elections which had the Democratic Party retake control of the United States Senate for the first time since before the Civil War.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

1878 in Ireland

Events from the year 1878 in Ireland.

Airdrieonians F.C. (1878)

Airdrieonians Football Club, more commonly known as Airdrie, were a Scottish professional football team from the town of Airdrie, in the Monklands area of Lanarkshire.

The club became defunct at the end of the Scottish Football League 2001–02 season, despite the team finishing as runners-up in the SFL First Division to Partick Thistle and therefore only narrowly missing out on promotion to the Scottish Premier League.

During their 124-year existence the "Diamonds", as they were nicknamed, won the old Scottish Division Two three times, the Spring Cup once and the Scottish Challenge Cup on three occasions. The club also competed in four separate Scottish Cup finals; winning the competition in 1924.

Airdrieonians were the first club in the Scottish League to fold since 1967, when Third Lanark went bankrupt.

Austro-Hungarian rule in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina fell under Austro-Hungarian rule in 1878, when the Congress of Berlin approved the occupation of the Bosnia Vilayet, which officially remained part of the Ottoman Empire. Three decades later, in 1908, Austria-Hungary provoked the Bosnian crisis by formally annexing the occupied zone, establishing the Condominium of Bosnia and Herzegovina under the joint control of Austria and Hungary.

British Cyprus

British Cyprus was the island of Cyprus under the dominion of the British Empire, administered sequentially from 1878 to 1914 as a British protectorate, a unilaterally annexed military occupation from 1914 to 1922 and from 1922 to 1960 as a Crown colony.

Congress of Berlin

The Congress of Berlin (13 June – 13 July 1878) was a meeting of the representatives of six great powers of the time (Russia, Great Britain, France, Austria-Hungary, Italy and Germany), the Ottoman Empire and four Balkan states (Greece, Serbia, Romania and Montenegro). It aimed at determining the territories of the states in the Balkan peninsula following the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 and came to an end with the signing of the Treaty of Berlin, which replaced the preliminary Treaty of San Stefano, signed three months earlier between Russia and the Ottoman Empire.

German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, who led the Congress, undertook to stabilise the Balkans, recognise the reduced power of the Ottoman Empire and balance the distinct interests of Britain, Russia and Austria-Hungary. At the same time, he tried to diminish Russian gains in the region and to prevent the rise of a Greater Bulgaria. As a result, Ottoman lands in Europe declined sharply, Bulgaria was established as an independent principality inside the Ottoman Empire, Eastern Rumelia was restored to the Turks under a special administration and the region of Macedonia was returned outright to the Turks, who promised reform.

Romania achieved full independence; forced to turn over part of Bessarabia to Russia, it gained Northern Dobruja. Serbia and Montenegro finally gained complete independence but with smaller territories, with Austria-Hungary occupying the Sandžak (Raška) region. Austria-Hungary also took over Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Britain took over Cyprus.

The results were first hailed as a great achievement in peacemaking and stabilisation. However, most of the participants were not fully satisfied, and grievances on the results festered until they exploded in the First and the Second Balkan wars in 1912–1913 and eventually World War I in 1914. Serbia, Bulgaria and Greece made gains, but all received far less than they thought that they deserved.

The Ottoman Empire, then called the "sick man of Europe", was humiliated and significantly weakened, which made it more liable to domestic unrest and more vulnerable to attack.

Although Russia had been victorious in the war that occasioned the conference, it was humiliated there and resented its treatment. Austria gained a great deal of territory, which angered the South Slavs, and led to decades of tensions in Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Bismarck became the target of hatred by Russian nationalists and Pan-Slavists, and he would find that he had tied Germany too closely to Austria-Hungary in the Balkans.In the long run, tensions between Russia and Austria-Hungary intensified, as did the nationality question in the Balkans. The congress was aimed at revising the Treaty of San Stefano and at keeping Constantinople within Ottoman hands. It effectively disavowed Russia's victory over the decaying Ottoman Empire in the Russo-Turkish War. The congress returned territories to the Ottoman Empire that the previous treaty had given to the Principality of Bulgaria, most notably Macedonia, thus setting up a strong revanchist demand in Bulgaria, leading in 1912 to the First Balkan War.

Everton F.C.

Everton Football Club () is a football club in Liverpool, England, that competes in the Premier League, the top flight of English football. The club have competed in the top division for a record 116 seasons, missing the top division only four times (1930–31 and three consecutive seasons starting with 1951–52) since The Football League was created in 1888. Everton have won 15 major trophies: the League Championship nine times (fourth most as of 2017–18), the FA Cup five times (ninth most) and the UEFA Cup Winners Cup once.

Formed in 1878, Everton were founding members of The Football League in 1888 and won their first League Championship two seasons later. Following four League Championship and two FA Cup wins, Everton experienced a lull in the immediate post World War Two period, until a revival in the 1960s, which saw the club win two League Championships and an FA Cup. The mid-1980s represented their most recent period of sustained success, with two League Championships, an FA Cup, and the 1985 European Cup Winners' Cup. The club's most recent major trophy was the 1995 FA Cup.

The club's supporters are known as Evertonians. Everton have a rivalry with neighbours Liverpool, and the two sides contest the Merseyside derby. The club has been based at Goodison Park in Walton, Liverpool, since 1892, after moving from Anfield following a row over its rent. The club's home colours are royal blue shirts with white shorts and socks.

Exposition Universelle (1878)

The third Paris World's Fair, called an Exposition Universelle in French, was held from 1 May through to 10 November 1878. It celebrated the recovery of France after the 1870–71 Franco-Prussian War.

Ipswich Town F.C.

Ipswich Town Football Club (also known as Ipswich, The Blues, Town, or The Tractor Boys) is a professional association football club based in Ipswich, Suffolk, England. They play in the Championship, the second tier of the English football league system, having last appeared in the Premier League in the 2001–02 season.

The club was founded in 1878 but did not turn professional until 1936, and was subsequently elected to join the Football League in 1938. They play their home games at Portman Road in Ipswich. The only fully professional football club in Suffolk, they have a long-standing and fierce rivalry with Norwich City in Norfolk, with whom they have contested the East Anglian derby 139 times since 1902. The club's traditional home colours are blue shirts and white shorts.

Ipswich have won the English league title once, in their first season in the top flight in 1961–62, and have twice finished runners-up, in 1980–81 and 1981–82. They won the FA Cup in 1977–78, and the UEFA Cup in 1980–81. They have competed in the top two tiers of English football uninterrupted since 1957–58. They have competed in all three European club competitions, and have never lost at home in European competition, defeating Real Madrid, A.C. Milan, Inter Milan, Lazio and Barcelona, among others.

Lincoln County War

The Lincoln County War was an Old West conflict between rival factions which began in 1878 in New Mexico Territory, the predecessor to the state of New Mexico, and dragged on until 1881. The feud became famous because of the participation of Billy the Kid. Other notable figures included Sheriff William J. Brady, cattle rancher John Chisum, lawyer and businessman Alexander McSween, James Dolan, and Lawrence Murphy.The conflict arose between two factions over the control of dry goods and cattle interests in the county. The older, established faction was led by James Dolan, who operated a dry goods monopoly through a general store locally referred to as "The House". English-born John Tunstall and his business partner Alexander McSween opened a competing store in 1876, with backing from established cattleman John Chisum. The two sides gathered lawmen, businessmen, Tunstall's ranch hands, and criminal gangs to their support. The Dolan faction was allied with Lincoln County Sheriff Brady and supported by the Jesse Evans Gang. The Tunstall-McSween faction organized their own posse of armed men, known as the Regulators, and had their own lawmen consisting of town constable Richard M. Brewer and Deputy US Marshal Robert A. Widenmann.The conflict was marked by revenge killings, starting with the murder of Tunstall by members of the Evans Gang. In revenge for this, the Regulators killed Sheriff Brady and others in a series of incidents. Further killings continued unabated for several months, climaxing in the Battle of Lincoln, a five-day gunfight and siege that resulted in the death of McSween and the scattering of the Regulators. Pat Garrett was named County Sheriff in 1880, and he hunted down Billy the Kid, killing two other former Regulators in the process. The war was fictionalized in several Hollywood films, including Sam Peckinpah's Pat Garrett and Billy the Kid in 1973, The Left Handed Gun in 1958, John Wayne's Chisum in 1970 and Young Guns in 1988. Ron Hansen's novel The Kid (2016) is also inspired by the Lincoln County War.

Manchester United F.C.

Manchester United Football Club, commonly known as Man United, or simply United, is a professional football club based in Old Trafford, Greater Manchester, England, that competes in the Premier League, the top flight of English football. Nicknamed "the Red Devils", the club was founded as Newton Heath LYR Football Club in 1878, changed its name to Manchester United in 1902 and moved to its current stadium, Old Trafford, in 1910.

Manchester United have won more trophies than any other club in English football, with a record 20 League titles, 12 FA Cups, 5 League Cups and a record 21 FA Community Shields. United have also won three UEFA Champions Leagues, one UEFA Europa League, one UEFA Cup Winners' Cup, one UEFA Super Cup, one Intercontinental Cup and one FIFA Club World Cup. In 1998–99, the club became the first in the history of English football to achieve the continental European treble. By winning the UEFA Europa League in 2016–17, they became one of five clubs to have won all three main UEFA club competitions, and the only English club to have won every competition available to them.The 1958 Munich air disaster claimed the lives of eight players. In 1968, under the management of Matt Busby, Manchester United became the first English football club to win the European Cup. Alex Ferguson won 38 trophies as manager, including 13 Premier League titles, 5 FA Cups and 2 UEFA Champions Leagues, between 1986 and 2013, when he announced his retirement.

Manchester United was the highest-earning football club in the world for 2016–17, with an annual revenue of €676.3 million, and the world's most valuable football club in 2018, valued at £3.1 billion. As of June 2015, it is the world's most valuable football brand, estimated to be worth $1.2 billion. After being floated on the London Stock Exchange in 1991, the club was purchased by Malcolm Glazer in May 2005 in a deal valuing the club at almost £800 million, after which the company was taken private again, before going public once more in August 2012, when they made an initial public offering on the New York Stock Exchange. Manchester United is one of the most widely supported football clubs in the world, and has rivalries with Liverpool, Manchester City, Arsenal, and Leeds United.

Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878)

The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 (Turkish: 93 Harbi, lit. 'War of ’93', named for the year 1293 in the Islamic calendar; Bulgarian: Руско-турска Освободителна война, translit. Rusko-turska Osvoboditelna vojna, "Russian-Turkish Liberation war") was a conflict between the Ottoman Empire and the Eastern Orthodox coalition led by the Russian Empire and composed of Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro. Fought in the Balkans and in the Caucasus, it originated in emerging 19th-century Balkan nationalism. Additional factors combined Russian goals of recovering territorial losses endured during the Crimean War, re-establishing itself in the Black Sea and supporting the political movement attempting to free Balkan nations from the Ottoman Empire.

The Russian-led coalition won the war. As a result, Russia succeeded in claiming several provinces in the Caucasus, namely Kars and Batum, and also annexed the Budjak region. The principalities of Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro, each of whom had de facto sovereignty for some time, formally proclaimed independence from the Ottoman Empire. After almost five centuries of Ottoman domination (1396–1878), the Bulgarian state was re-established as the Principality of Bulgaria, covering the land between the Danube River and the Balkan Mountains (except Northern Dobrudja which was given to Romania), as well as the region of Sofia, which became the new state's capital. The Congress of Berlin in 1878 also allowed Austria-Hungary to occupy Bosnia and Herzegovina and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland to take over Cyprus.

The initial Treaty of San Stefano, signed on 3 March, is today celebrated as Liberation Day in Bulgaria, although it somewhat fell out of favour during years of Socialist rule.

Second Anglo-Afghan War

The Second Anglo-Afghan War (Pashto: د افغان-انګرېز دويمه جګړه‎) was a military conflict fought between the British Raj and the Emirate of Afghanistan from 1878 to 1880, when the latter was ruled by Sher Ali Khan of the Barakzai dynasty, the son of former Emir Dost Mohammad Khan.

This was the second time British India invaded Afghanistan. The war ended after a series of military victories by the British against various Afghan forces. The Afghans agreed to let the British attain all of their geopolitical objectives from the Treaty of Gandamak. Most of the British and Indian soldiers withdrew from Afghanistan. The Afghan tribes were permitted to maintain internal rule and local customs but they had to cede control of the area's foreign relations to the British, who, in turn, guaranteed the area's freedom from foreign military domination as a buffer between the British Raj and the Russian Empire. Afghanistan also officially ceded various border territories to the British empire.

Solar eclipse of July 29, 1878

A total solar eclipse occurred on July 29, 1878, over much of North America including the region of the Rocky Mountains. A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between Earth and the Sun, thereby totally or partly obscuring the image of the Sun for a viewer on Earth. A total solar eclipse occurs when the Moon's apparent diameter is larger than the Sun's, blocking all direct sunlight, turning day into darkness. Totality occurs in a narrow path across Earth's surface, with the partial solar eclipse visible over a surrounding region thousands of kilometres wide.

This eclipse was visible at sunrise at a path across northeastern Asia and passed across Alaska, western Canada, and the United States from Montana through Texas. It then tracked across most of Cuba and southwestern Hispaniola before ending.

Newspapers in the United States reported of large migrations from the Midwest towards the path of totality to view the eclipse. Scientists observing from Pikes Peak in Colorado contended with altitude sickness and snowstorms, among other problems.

The Hindu

The Hindu is an Indian daily newspaper, headquartered in Chennai. It was started as a weekly in 1878 and became a daily in 1889. It is one of the two Indian newspapers of record and the second most circulated English-language newspaper in India, after The Times of India with average qualifying sales of 1.21 million copies as of Jan–Jun 2017.The newspaper and other publications in The Hindu Group are owned by a family-held company, Kasturi and Sons Ltd. The newspaper employed over 1,600 workers and annual turnover reached almost $200 million according to data from 2010. Most of the revenue comes from advertising and subscription. The Hindu became, in 1995, the first Indian newspaper to offer an online edition.

As of March 2018, The Hindu is published from 21 locations across 11 states: Bengaluru, Chennai, Hyderabad, Thiruvananthapuram, Vijayawada, Kolkata, Mumbai, Coimbatore, Madurai, Noida, Visakhapatnam, Kochi, Mangaluru, Tiruchirappalli, Hubballi, Mohali, Allahabad, Kozhikode, Lucknow, Tirupati, Cuttack and Patna.

Treaty of Berlin (1878)

The Treaty of Berlin (formally the Treaty between Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Russia, and the Ottoman Empire for the Settlement of Affairs in the East) was signed on 13 July 1878. In the aftermath of the Russian victory against the Ottoman Empire, the major powers restructured the map of the Balkan region. They reversed some of the extreme gains claimed by Russia in the preliminary Treaty of San Stefano, but the Ottomans lost their major holdings in Europe. It was one of three major peace agreements in the period after the 1815 Congress of Vienna. It was the final act of the Congress of Berlin (13 June – 13 July 1878) and included Great Britain, Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Russia and the Ottoman Empire. Germany's Otto von Bismarck was the chairman and dominant personality.

The most important task of the Congress was to decide the fate of Bulgaria, but Bulgaria itself was excluded from participation in the talks, at Russian insistence. At the time, as it was not a sovereign state, Bulgaria was not a subject of international law, and the same went for the Bulgarians themselves. The exclusion was already an established fact in the great powers' Constantinople Conference, which had been held one year before without any Bulgarian participation.

The most notable result of the conference was the official (de jure) recognition of actual (de facto) newly independent states of Romania, Serbia and Montenegro.

West Bromwich Albion F.C.

West Bromwich Albion Football Club () is a football club in West Bromwich, West Midlands, England. The club was formed in 1878 and has played at its home ground, The Hawthorns, since 1900. Albion currently play in the Championship, the second tier of English football, having been relegated from the Premier League in 2017–18.

Albion were one of the founding members of the Football League in 1888, and have spent the majority of their existence in the top tier of English football. They have been champions of England once, in 1919–20, and have been runners-up twice. They have had more success in the FA Cup, winning it five times. The first came in 1888, the year the league was founded, and the most recent in 1968, their last major trophy. They also won the Football League Cup at the first attempt in 1966. The club's longest continuous period in the top division spanned 24 years between 1949 and 1973, and from 1986 to 2002 they spent their longest ever spell out of the top division.

The team has played in navy blue and white stripes for most of the club's history; and the club badge features a throstle perched on a hawthorn branch. Albion have a number of long-standing rivalries with other West Midlands clubs; their traditional rivals being Aston Villa and Wolverhampton Wanderers. Albion contest the Black Country Derby with the latter.

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