1876 United States House of Representatives elections

Elections to the United States House of Representatives were held in 1876 (with one state in 1877) for Representatives to the 45th Congress. These elections coincided with the (heavily contested) election of President Rutherford B. Hayes and the United States Centennial.

Hayes' Republican Party was able to recover from the Democratic Party many of the seats it had lost two years before as the economy improved slightly. However, the Democrats retained a majority and were able to use the disinterest of the people in Republican Reconstruction-led projects to help keep crucial seats. Republican Congressional leadership had a difficult time distancing itself from the corruption of the Grant administration or the legislature's impact on the economy downturn.

1876 United States House of Representatives elections

November 7, 1876[Note 1]

All 293 seats to the United States House of Representatives
147 seats were needed for a majority
  Samuel J. Randall - Brady-Handy James Abram Garfield, photo portrait seated
Leader Samuel J. Randall James A. Garfield
Party Democratic Republican
Leader's seat Pennsylvania-3rd Ohio-19th
Last election 183 seats[Note 2] 106 seats[Note 3]
Seats won 157[1][Note 4][Note 5] 136[Note 5]
Seat change Decrease 26 Increase 30

House045ElectionMap
Map of U.S. House elections results from 1876 elections for 45th Congress

Speaker before election

Vacancy
Democratic

Elected Speaker

Samuel Randall
Democratic

Election summaries

157 136
Democratic Republican
State Type Total
seats
Democratic Republican
Seats Change Seats Change
Alabama District[Note 6] 8 8 Increase 2 0 Decrease 2
Arkansas District 4 4[Note 7] Steady 0 Steady
California District 4 2 Decrease 1 2 Increase 1
Colorado At-large 1 1 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1
Connecticut District 4 3 Steady 1 Steady
Delaware At-large 1 1 Steady 0 Steady
Florida District 2 2 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1
Georgia[Note 8] District 9 9[Note 7] Steady 0 Steady
Illinois District 19 8 Decrease 2 11 Increase 4
Indiana[Note 8] District 13 4 Decrease 4 9 Increase 4
Iowa[Note 8] District 9 0 Decrease 1 9 Increase 1
Kansas District 3 0 Decrease 1 3 Increase 1
Kentucky District 10 10 Increase 1 0 Decrease 1
Louisiana District 6 5 Increase 1 1 Decrease 1
Maine[Note 8] District 5 0 Steady 5 Steady
Maryland District 6 6 Steady 0 Steady
Massachusetts District 11 2 Decrease 1 9 Increase 4
Michigan District 9 1 Decrease 2 8 Increase 2
Minnesota District 3 0 Steady 3 Steady
Mississippi District 6 6 Increase 2 0 Decrease 2
Missouri District 13 9 Decrease 4 4 Increase 4
Nebraska At-large 1 0 Steady 1 Steady
Nevada At-large 1 0 Steady 1 Steady
New Hampshire[Note 9] District 3 1 Decrease 1 2 Increase 1
New Jersey District 7 4 Decrease 1 3 Increase 1
New York District 33 16 Decrease 1 17 Increase 1
North Carolina District 8 7 Steady 1 Steady
Ohio[Note 8] District 20 8 Decrease 5 12 Increase 5
Oregon[Note 8] At-large 1 0 Decrease 1 1 Increase 1
Pennsylvania District 27 10 Decrease 7 17 Increase 7
Rhode Island District 2 0 Steady 2 Steady
South Carolina District 5 2 Increase 2 3 Decrease 2
Tennessee District 10 8 Decrease 1 2 Increase 1
Texas District 6 6 Steady 0 Steady
Vermont[Note 8] District 3 0 Steady 3 Steady
Virginia District 9 8 Steady 1 Steady
West Virginia[Note 8] District 3 3 Steady 0 Steady
Wisconsin District 8 3 Steady 5 Steady
Total 293 157[1][Note 4]
53.6%
Decrease 27 136[1]
46.4%
Increase 31
House seats
Democratic
53.58%
Republican
46.42%

The previous election included 4 Independents, in Illinois and Massachusetts.

45 us house membership
House seats by party holding plurality in state
  80.1-100% Democratic
  80.1-100% Republican
  60.1-80% Democratic
  60.1-80% Republican
  Up to 60% Democratic
  Up to 60% Republican
45 us house changes
Net gain in party representation
  6+ Democratic gain
  6+ Republican gain
  3-5 Democratic gain
  3-5 Republican gain
  1-2 Democratic gain
  1-2 Republican gain
  no net change

Election dates

In 1845, Congress passed a law providing for a uniform nationwide date for choosing Presidential electors.[2] This law did not affect election dates for Congress, which remained within the jurisdiction of State governments, but over time, the States moved their Congressional elections to this date as well. In 1876–77, there were still 8 states with earlier election dates, and 1 state with a later election date.

All races

California

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
California 1 William Adam Piper Democratic
1874
Lost re-election
Republican gain
Horace Davis (R) 53.3%
William A. Piper (D) 46.7%
California 2 Horace F. Page Republican
1872
Incumbent re-elected Horace F. Page (R) 56.7%
G. J. Carpenter (D) 43.3%
California 3 John K. Luttrell Democratic
1872
Incumbent re-elected John K. Luttrell (D) 51.1%
Joseph McKenna (R) 48.9%
California 4 Peter D. Wigginton Democratic
1874
Lost re-election
Republican gain
Romualdo Pacheco (R) 50%
Peter D. Wigginton (D) 50%

Florida

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
Florida 1 William J. Purman Republican 1872 Lost re-election
Democratic gain
Robert H. M. Davidson (D) 51.2%
William J. Purman (R) 48.8%
Florida 2 Jesse J. Finley Democratic 1874[Note 10] Lost re-election
Republican gain
Horatio Bisbee, Jr. (R) 50.0%
Jesse J. Finley (D) 50.0%

The election in the 2nd district was extremely close, with initial returns showing a difference between the two candidates of only 3 votes. Finley challenged Bisbee's election and was eventually seated on February 20, 1879

South Carolina

District Incumbent Party First
elected
Result Candidates
South Carolina 1 Joseph Rainey Republican 1870 (special) Re-elected Joseph Rainey (R) 52.2%
John S. Richardson (D) 47.8%
South Carolina 2 Seat declared vacant by Congress on July 19, 1876 due to contested election of previous incumbent Edmund W. M. Mackey (IR) Republican hold Richard H. Cain (R) 62.1%
Michael P. O'Connor (D) 37.9%
South Carolina 3 Solomon L. Hoge Republican 1874 Retired
Democratic gain
D. Wyatt Aiken (D) 58.0%
Lewis C. Carpenter (R) 42.0%
South Carolina 4 Alexander S. Wallace Republican 1868 Lost re-election
Democratic gain
John H. Evins (D) 57.6%
Alexander S. Wallace (R) 42.4%
South Carolina 5 Robert Smalls Republican 1874 Re-elected Robert Smalls (R) 51.9%
George D. Tillman (D) 48.1%

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The majority of states held their elections on this date. Nine states held elections on different dates between June 5, 1876 and March 13, 1877.
  2. ^ Included 1 Independent Democrat.
  3. ^ Included 3 Independent Republicans.
  4. ^ a b Includes 2 Independent Democrats, Jordan E. Cravens of AR-03, and Alexander H. Stephens of GA-07.
  5. ^ a b There is a significant discrepancy for the party totals in the U.S House resulting from the 1874 elections between Dubin (p. 241, who records 150 Democrats, 2 Independent Democrats, and 141 Republicans), and Martis (pp. 130–131). The discrepancy seems to be accounted for by the fact that Dubin's party figures represent the party totals on the first day of the 45th United States Congress, while Martis' figures take into account the results of later contested elections (all of which were decided in favor of the Democratic candidates who challenged the election results).
  6. ^ At-large seats eliminated in redistricting.
  7. ^ a b Includes 1 Independent Democrat.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h Elections held early
  9. ^ Elections held late
  10. ^ After disputed election

References

  1. ^ a b c Martis, pp. 130–131.
  2. ^ Statutes at Large, 28th Congress, 2nd Session, p. 721.

Bibliography

  • Dubin, Michael J. (March 1, 1998). United States Congressional Elections, 1788-1997: The Official Results of the Elections of the 1st Through 105th Congresses. McFarland and Company. ISBN 978-0786402830.
  • Martis, Kenneth C. (January 1, 1989). The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress, 1789-1989. Macmillan Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0029201701.
  • Moore, John L., ed. (1994). Congressional Quarterly's Guide to U.S. Elections (Third ed.). Congressional Quarterly Inc. ISBN 978-0871879967.
  • "Party Divisions of the House of Representatives* 1789–Present". Office of the Historian, House of United States House of Representatives. Retrieved January 21, 2015.

External links

1876 United States House of Representatives elections in California

The United States House of Representatives elections in California, 1876 was an election for California's delegation to the United States House of Representatives, which occurred as part of the general election of the House of Representatives on November 7, 1876. Republicans gained two districts.

1876 United States House of Representatives elections in Florida

Elections to the United States House of Representatives in Florida were held November 7, 1876 for the 45th Congress. These elections were held at the same time as election for Governor and the contentious 1876 Presidential election, in which Florida was one of four states whose electoral votes were in dispute.

1876 United States House of Representatives elections in South Carolina

The 1876 South Carolina United States House of Representatives elections were held on November 7, 1876 to select five Representatives for two-year terms from the state of South Carolina. Two incumbents were re-elected, one was defeated for re-election, and the Democrats picked up one of the two open seats from the Republicans. The composition of the state delegation after the election was three Republicans and two Democrats.

1876 and 1877 United States Senate elections

The United States Senate elections of 1876 and 1877 had the Democratic Party gain five seats in the United States Senate, and coincided with Rutherford B. Hayes's narrow election as President. Republicans remained in the majority, however.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

1880 United States House of Representatives elections in Florida

Elections to the United States House of Representatives in Florida were held November 2, 1880 for the 47th Congress. These elections were held at the same time as the 1880 Presidential election and election for Governor.

44th United States Congress

The Forty-fourth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1875, to March 4, 1877, during the seventh and eighth years of Ulysses S. Grant's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Ninth Census of the United States in 1870. For the first time since the American Civil War, the House had a Democratic majority. The Senate maintained a Republican majority.

45th United States Congress

The Forty-fifth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1877, to March 4, 1879, during the first two years of Rutherford Hayes's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Ninth Census of the United States in 1870. The Senate had a Republican majority, and the House had a Democratic majority.

The 45th Congress remained politically divided between a Democratic House and Republican Senate. President Hayes vetoed an Army appropriations bill from the House which would have ended Reconstruction and prohibited the use of federal troops to protect polling stations in the former Confederacy. Striking back, Congress overrode another of Hayes’s vetoes and enacted the Bland-Allison Act that required the purchase and coining of silver. Congress also approved a generous increase in pension eligibility for Northern Civil War veterans.

List of elections in 1876

The following elections occurred in the year 1876.

List of elections in Massachusetts

This is an incomplete list of recent Elections in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts sorted both by offices sought and by years held.

Elections are administered by the individual municipalities. There is some oversight by the Secretary of the Commonwealth and the Office of Campaign and Political Finance.

Individual elections are listed with the winner.

Years
Special

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