1876

1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar, the 1876th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 876th year of the 2nd millennium, the 76th year of the 19th century, and the 7th year of the 1870s decade. As of the start of 1876, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1876 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1876
MDCCCLXXVI
Ab urbe condita2629
Armenian calendar1325
ԹՎ ՌՅԻԵ
Assyrian calendar6626
Bahá'í calendar32–33
Balinese saka calendar1797–1798
Bengali calendar1283
Berber calendar2826
British Regnal year39 Vict. 1 – 40 Vict. 1
Buddhist calendar2420
Burmese calendar1238
Byzantine calendar7384–7385
Chinese calendar乙亥(Wood Pig)
4572 or 4512
    — to —
丙子年 (Fire Rat)
4573 or 4513
Coptic calendar1592–1593
Discordian calendar3042
Ethiopian calendar1868–1869
Hebrew calendar5636–5637
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1932–1933
 - Shaka Samvat1797–1798
 - Kali Yuga4976–4977
Holocene calendar11876
Igbo calendar876–877
Iranian calendar1254–1255
Islamic calendar1292–1293
Japanese calendarMeiji 9
(明治9年)
Javanese calendar1804–1805
Julian calendarGregorian minus 12 days
Korean calendar4209
Minguo calendar36 before ROC
民前36年
Nanakshahi calendar408
Thai solar calendar2418–2419
Tibetan calendar阴木猪年
(female Wood-Pig)
2002 or 1621 or 849
    — to —
阳火鼠年
(male Fire-Rat)
2003 or 1622 or 850

Events

January–March

April–June

July – September

Punch - The Dogs of War
Punch cartoon from June 17. Russia preparing to let slip the "Dogs of War", its imminent engagement in the growing Balkan conflict between Slavic states and Turkey, while policeman John Bull (Britain) warns Russia to take care. The Slavic states of Serbia and Montenegro would declare war on Turkey two weeks later.

October–December

Date unknown

Births

January–March

April–June

July–September

October–December

Date Unknown

Deaths

January–June

July–December

Date Unknown

Anna Volkova, Russian chemist (b. 1800)

References

  1. ^ "United Kingdom Intellectual Property Office".
  2. ^ Powers, Thomas. "How the Battle of Little Bighorn Was Won". Smithsonian Magazine.
  3. ^ Dewey, Melvil (1876). A Classification and Subject Index for Cataloguing and Arranging the Books and Pamphlets of a Library. OCLC 78870163. Retrieved 2012-07-31.
  4. ^ Patent #174,466.
  5. ^ van Dulken, Stephen (2001). Inventing the 19th Century. London: British Library. pp. 104–5. ISBN 0-7123-0881-4.
  6. ^ ja:日本経済新聞#沿革 (Japanese language). Retrieved 2017-10-03.
  • Appleton's Annual Cyclopedia ...for 1876 (1885) online edition, comprehensive world coverage
1876 United States House of Representatives elections

Elections to the United States House of Representatives were held in 1876 (with one state in 1877) for Representatives to the 45th Congress. These elections coincided with the (heavily contested) election of President Rutherford B. Hayes and the United States Centennial.

Hayes' Republican Party was able to recover from the Democratic Party many of the seats it had lost two years before as the economy improved slightly. However, the Democrats retained a majority and were able to use the disinterest of the people in Republican Reconstruction-led projects to help keep crucial seats. Republican Congressional leadership had a difficult time distancing itself from the corruption of the Grant administration or the legislature's impact on the economy downturn.

1876 United States elections

The 1876 United States elections were held on November 7. In one of the most disputed presidential elections in American history, Republican Governor Rutherford B. Hayes of Ohio ended up winning despite Democratic Governor Samuel J. Tilden of New York earning a majority of the popular vote. The Republicans maintained their Senate majority and cut into the Democratic majority in the House.

1876 United States presidential election

The United States presidential election of 1876 was the 23rd quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 7, 1876. It was one of the most contentious and controversial presidential elections in American history, and is known for being the catalyst for the end of Reconstruction. Republican nominee Rutherford B. Hayes faced Democrat Samuel Tilden. After a controversial post-election process, Hayes was declared the winner.

After President Ulysses S. Grant declined to seek a third term despite previously being expected to do so, Congressman James G. Blaine emerged as the front-runner for the Republican nomination. However, Blaine was unable to win a majority at the 1876 Republican National Convention, which settled on Governor Hayes of Ohio as a compromise candidate. The 1876 Democratic National Convention nominated Governor Tilden of New York on the second ballot.

The results of the election remain among the most disputed ever, although it is not disputed that Tilden outpolled Hayes in the popular vote. After a first count of votes, Tilden won 184 electoral votes to Hayes's 165, with 20 votes from four states unresolved. In the case of Florida, Louisiana, and South Carolina, each party reported its candidate had won the state, while in Oregon one elector was replaced after being declared illegal for being an "elected or appointed official". The question of who should have been awarded these electoral votes is the source of the continued controversy. An informal deal was struck to resolve the dispute: the Compromise of 1877, which awarded all 20 electoral votes to Hayes. In return for the Democrats' acquiescence to Hayes's election, the Republicans agreed to withdraw federal troops from the South, ending Reconstruction. The Compromise effectively ceded power in the Southern states to the Democratic Redeemers, who proceeded to disenfranchise black voters in subsequent years.

The 1876 election is one of five presidential elections in which the person who won the most popular votes did not win the election, and the only such election in which the popular vote winner received a majority (rather than a plurality) of the popular vote. To date, it remains the election that recorded the smallest electoral vote victory (185–184) and the election that yielded the highest voter turnout of the eligible voting age population in American history, at 81.8%. It was also the first presidential election since 1856 in which the Democratic candidate won the popular vote.

1876 and 1877 United States Senate elections

The United States Senate elections of 1876 and 1877 had the Democratic Party gain five seats in the United States Senate, and coincided with Rutherford B. Hayes's narrow election as President. Republicans remained in the majority, however.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

1876 in Ireland

Events from the year 1876 in Ireland.

1878 United States House of Representatives elections

Elections to the United States House of Representatives were held in 1878 for Representatives to the 46th United States Congress. These elections occurred in the middle of President Rutherford B. Hayes's term.

With a sour economy as the nation's pressing issue, both major parties lost seats to the new Greenback Party, which was established to promote the long-term use of paper money as a solution to stop enormous economic fluctuations. The Democratic Party remained the largest party, but lost its majority. However, it allied with several independent politicians and was able to remain in power. Notable freshmen included James B. Weaver, who would later run for president as the Greenback candidate in 1880 and the Populist candidate in 1892. This was the fourth and last recorded House election where both major parties lost seats at the same time.

Battle of the Little Bighorn

The Battle of the Little Bighorn, known to the Lakota and other Plains Indians as the Battle of the Greasy Grass and also commonly referred to as Custer's Last Stand, was an armed engagement between combined forces of the Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, and Arapaho tribes and the 7th Cavalry Regiment of the United States Army. The battle, which resulted in the defeat of US forces, was the most significant action of the Great Sioux War of 1876. It took place on June 25–26, 1876, along the Little Bighorn River in the Crow Indian Reservation in southeastern Montana Territory.The fight was an overwhelming victory for the Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, and Arapaho, who were led by several major war leaders, including Crazy Horse and Chief Gall, and had been inspired by the visions of Sitting Bull (Tȟatȟáŋka Íyotake). The US 7th Cavalry, a force of 700 men, suffered a major defeat while under the command of Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer (formerly a brevetted major general during the American Civil War). Five of the 7th Cavalry's twelve companies were annihilated and Custer was killed, as were two of his brothers, a nephew and a brother-in-law. The total US casualty count included 268 dead and 55 severely wounded (six died later from their wounds), including four Crow Indian scouts and at least two Arikara Indian scouts.

Public response to the Great Sioux War varied in the immediate aftermath of the battle. Custer's widow (Libbie Custer) soon worked to burnish her husband's memory, and during the following decades Custer and his troops came to be considered iconic, even heroic, figures in American history. The battle, and Custer's actions in particular, have been studied extensively by historians. Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument honors those who fought on both sides.

Budweiser

Budweiser () is an American-style pale lager produced by Anheuser-Busch, currently part of the transnational corporation Anheuser-Busch InBev. Introduced in 1876 by Carl Conrad & Co. of St. Louis, Missouri, it has grown to become one of the largest selling beers in the United States, and is available in over 80 markets worldwide—though, due to a trademark dispute, not necessarily under the Budweiser name. It is made with up to 30% rice in addition to hops and barley malt. Produced in various breweries around the world, Budweiser is a filtered beer available in draft and packaged forms.

Centennial Exposition

The Centennial International Exhibition of 1876, the first official World's Fair in the United States, was held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, from May 10 to November 10, 1876, to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the signing of the Declaration of Independence in Philadelphia. Officially named the International Exhibition of Arts, Manufactures and Products of the Soil and Mine, it was held in Fairmount Park along the Schuylkill River on fairgrounds designed by Herman J. Schwarzmann. Nearly 10 million visitors attended the exhibition and thirty-seven countries participated in it.

Compromise of 1877

The Compromise of 1877 was an informal, unwritten deal, that settled the intensely disputed 1876 U.S. presidential election. It resulted in the United States federal government pulling the last troops out of the South, and formally ended the Reconstruction Era. Through the Compromise, Republican Rutherford B. Hayes was awarded the White House over Democrat Samuel J. Tilden on the understanding that Hayes would remove the federal troops whose support was essential for the survival of Republican state governments in South Carolina, Florida and Louisiana. The compromise involved Democrats who controlled the House of Representatives allowing the decision of the Electoral Commission to take effect. The outgoing president, Republican Ulysses S. Grant, removed the soldiers from Florida. As president, Hayes removed the remaining troops from South Carolina and Louisiana. As soon as the troops left, many white Republicans also left, and the "Redeemer" Democrats took control. They already dominated other state governments in the South. What was exactly agreed is somewhat contested as the documentation is insufficient.Black Republicans felt betrayed as they lost power and were subject to discrimination and harassment to suppress their voting. By 1905, most black men were effectively disenfranchised by state legislatures in every Southern state.

Dewey Decimal Classification

The Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC), colloquially the Dewey Decimal System, is a proprietary library classification system first published in the United States by Melvil Dewey in 1876. Originally described in a four-page pamphlet, it has been expanded to multiple volumes and revised through 23 major editions, the latest printed in 2011. It is also available in an abridged version suitable for smaller libraries. OCLC, a non-profit cooperative that serves libraries, currently maintains the system and licenses online access to WebDewey, a continuously updated version for catalogers.

The Decimal Classification introduced the concepts of relative location and relative index which allow new books to be added to a library in their appropriate location based on subject. Libraries previously had given books permanent shelf locations that were related to the order of acquisition rather than topic. The classification's notation makes use of three-digit Arabic numerals for main classes, with fractional decimals allowing expansion for further detail. Using Arabic numerals for symbols, it is flexible to the degree that numbers can be expanded in linear fashion to cover special aspects of general subjects. A library assigns a classification number that unambiguously locates a particular volume in a position relative to other books in the library, on the basis of its subject. The number makes it possible to find any book and to return it to its proper place on the library shelves. The classification system is used in 200,000 libraries in at least 135 countries.

Great Sioux War of 1876

The Great Sioux War of 1876, also known as the Black Hills War, was a series of battles and negotiations which occurred in 1876 and 1877 between the Lakota Sioux, Northern Cheyenne, and the United States. The cause of the war was the desire of the U.S. government to obtain ownership of the Black Hills. Gold had been discovered in the Black Hills, settlers began to encroach onto Native American lands, and the Sioux and Cheyenne refused to cede ownership to the U.S. Traditionally, the United States military and historians place the Lakota at the center of the story, especially given their numbers, but some Indians believe the Cheyenne were the primary target of the U.S. campaign.Among the many battles and skirmishes of the war was the Battle of the Little Bighorn, often known as Custer's Last Stand, the most storied of the many encounters between the U.S. army and mounted Plains Indians. That Indian victory notwithstanding, the U.S. leveraged national resources to force the Indians to surrender, primarily by attacking and destroying their encampments and property. The Great Sioux War took place under the presidencies of Ulysses S. Grant and Rutherford B. Hayes. The Agreement of 1877 (19 Stat. 254, enacted February 28, 1877) officially annexed Sioux land and permanently established Indian reservations.

List of National League pennant winners

Each season, a National League team wins the league's pennant, signifying that they are its champion and they win the right to play in the World Series against the champion of the American League. In addition to the pennant, the team that wins the National League playoffs receives the Warren C. Giles Trophy, named after Warren Giles, who was the league president from 1951 to 1969. Warren's son Bill Giles, the honorary league president and owner of the Philadelphia Phillies, presents the trophy to the National League champion at the conclusion of each National League Championship Series (NLCS). The current National League pennant winners are the Los Angeles Dodgers, who won their second-consecutive NL pennant in October 2018.For most of the history of the National League (94 years), the pennant was presented to the team with the best win–loss record at the end of the season. The first modern World Series was played in 1903, and after a hiatus in 1904, continued until 1994, when a players' strike forced the cancellation of the postseason, and resumed in 1995. In 1969, the league split into two divisions, and the teams with the best records in each division played one another in the NLCS to determine the pennant winner. The format of the NLCS was changed from a best-of-five to a best-of-seven format for the 1985 postseason. In 1995, an additional playoff series was added when Major League Baseball restructured the two divisions in each league into three. As of 2010, the winners of the Eastern, Central, and Western Divisions, as well as one wild card team, play in the National League Division Series, a best-of-five playoff to determine the opponents who will play for the pennant.By pennants, the Los Angeles Dodgers (formerly the Brooklyn Dodgers; 23 pennants, 31 playoff appearances) and the San Francisco Giants (formerly the New York Giants) (23 National League pennants, 27 playoff appearances) are tied for the winningest teams in the National League. In third place is the St. Louis Cardinals (19 pennants and 28 playoff appearances), followed by the Atlanta Braves (17 pennants and 23 postseason appearances between their three home cities of Atlanta, Milwaukee, and Boston) and the Chicago Cubs (17 pennants and 20 playoff appearances [as the Cubs and White Stockings]). The Philadelphia Phillies won the league in back-to-back seasons in 2008 and 2009, becoming the first National League team to do so since the Braves in 1995 and 1996. The Los Angeles Dodgers would also win the league in back-to-back seasons in 2017 and 2018. Before 1903 there was no World Series as we know it today because the leagues were only loosely affiliated. As of 2018, the New York/San Francisco Giants and the Brooklyn/Los Angeles Dodgers have the most World Series appearances at 20, followed by the St. Louis Cardinals with 19.

The team with the best record to win the National League pennant was the 1906 Cubs, who won 116 of 152 games during that season and finished 20 games ahead of the Giants, playing in New York at the time. The best record by a pennant-winner in the Championship Series era is 108–54, which was achieved by the Cincinnati Reds in 1975 and the New York Mets in 1986; both of these teams went on to win the World Series.National League champions have gone on to win the World Series 48 times, most recently in 2016. Pennant-winners have also won the Temple Cup and the Chronicle-Telegraph Cup, two pre-World Series league championships, although second-place teams won three of the four Temple Cup meetings. The largest margin of victory for a pennant-winner, before the league split into two divisions in 1969, is ​27 1⁄2 games; the Pittsburgh Pirates led the Brooklyn Superbas (now the Dodgers) by that margin on the final day of the 1902 season.The only currently-existing National League team to have never won a pennant is the Washington Nationals (formerly the Montreal Expos). While the Milwaukee Brewers have never won a National League pennant, they did win a pennant during their time in the American League.

List of counties in Texas

The U.S. state of Texas is divided into 254 counties, more than any other U.S. state. Texas was originally divided into municipalities, a unit of local government under Spanish and Mexican rule. When the Republic of Texas gained its independence in 1836, the 23 municipalities became the original Texas counties. Many of these were later divided into new counties. The last county to be initially created was Kenedy County in 1921, but Loving County is the newest organized county; it was first organized in 1893 in an apparent scheme to defraud, abolished in 1897, then reorganized in 1931. Most of these recent counties, especially near the northwest, were created from Bexar County during the 1870s.Each county is run by a commissioners' court, consisting of four elected commissioners (one from each of four precincts drawn based on population) and a county judge elected from all the voters of the county. In smaller counties, the county judge actually does perform judicial duties, but in larger counties, the judge's role is limited to serving on the commissioners' court. Certain officials, such as the sheriff and tax collector, are elected separately by the voters, but the commissioners' court determines their office budgets, and sets overall county policy. All county elections are partisan; the one exception is the board of trustees of the Dallas County department of education (the Harris County trustees were elected on a nonpartisan basis until 1984).While the counties have eminent domain power and control all unincorporated land within their boundaries, they have neither home-rule authority nor zoning power. The county is responsible for providing essential services (except for fire and ambulance, which are often supplied by volunteer fire departments). Unlike other US states, Texas does not allow for consolidated city-county governments. Cities and counties (as well as other political entities) are permitted to enter "interlocal agreements" to share services (as an example, a city and a school district may enter into agreements with the county whereby the county bills for and collects property taxes for the city and school district; thus, only one tax bill is sent instead of three). School districts are independent of county and city government (with the exception of the Stafford Municipal School District, which is city controlled).

The Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) code, which is used by the United States government to uniquely identify states and counties, is provided with each entry. Texas's code is 48, which when combined with any county code would be written in the form of 48XXX. The FIPS code for each county in the table links to census data for that county.

National League

The National League of Professional Baseball Clubs, known simply as the National League (NL), is the older of two leagues constituting Major League Baseball (MLB) in the United States and Canada, and the world's oldest current professional team sports league. Founded on February 2, 1876, to replace the National Association of Professional Base Ball Players (NAPBBP) of 1871–1875, (often called simply the "National Association"), the NL is sometimes called the Senior Circuit, in contrast to MLB's other league, the American League, which was founded 25 years later.

Both leagues currently have 15 teams. After two years of conflict in a "baseball war" of 1901–1902, the two leagues of 8 team franchises each, agreed in a "peace pact" to recognize each other as "major leagues", draft rules regarding player contracts, prohibiting "raiding", regulating relationships with minor leagues and lower level clubs, and with each establishing a team in the nation's largest metropolis of New York City, and the league champions of 1903 arranged to compete against each other in the new professional baseball championship tournament with the inaugural "World Series" that Fall of 1903, succeeding earlier similar national series in previous decades since the 1880s. After the 1904 champions failed to reach a similar agreement, the two leagues also formalized the new World Series tournament beginning in 1905 as an arrangement between the leagues themselves. National League teams have won 48 of the 114 World Series championships contested from 1903 to 2018.

Due to its length, the National League's full name is rarely used. Historically up until about the 1970's, the term National League was widely considered an informal term to be used for any North American major sports league that included those two words in its name, especially the National Football League (NFL) and National Hockey League (NHL). By the 21st century, that practice had mostly fallen out of favor in North America, with the terms National League and NL reserved for the baseball league and similarly-named leagues in other sports being referred to by their full names or initials.

Orlando Sentinel

The Orlando Sentinel is the primary newspaper of Orlando, Florida and the Central Florida region. It was founded in 1876, and is currently owned by Tribune Publishing Company.

Editorially, it has historically tilted conservative; however, it has endorsed a Democrat for president in three of the last four presidential elections: John Kerry in 2004, Barack Obama in 2008, and Hillary Clinton in 2016.

The Sentinel prices are $2 daily and $3 on Saturdays, Sundays, and Thanksgiving Day, though prices may be higher in designated state areas; sales tax is extra at stores, but included at newsracks.

Statistics Norway

Statistics Norway (Norwegian: Statistisk sentralbyrå, abbreviated to SSB) is the Norwegian statistics bureau. It was established in 1876.

Relying on a staff of about 1,000, Statistics Norway publish about 1,000 new statistical releases every year on its web site. All releases are published both in Norwegian and English. In addition a number of edited publications are published, and all are available on the web site for free.

As the central Norwegian office for official government statistics, Statistics Norway provides the public and government with extensive research and analysis activities. It is administratively placed under the Ministry of Finance but operates independently from all government agencies. Statistics Norway has a board appointed by the government. It relies extensively on data from registers, but are also collecting data from surveys and questionnaires, including from cities and municipalities.

Telephone

A telephone, or phone, is a telecommunications device that permits two or more users to conduct a conversation when they are too far apart to be heard directly. A telephone converts sound, typically and most efficiently the human voice, into electronic signals that are transmitted via cables and other communication channels to another telephone which reproduces the sound to the receiving user.

In 1876, Scottish emigrant Alexander Graham Bell was the first to be granted a United States patent for a device that produced clearly intelligible replication of the human voice. This instrument was further developed by many others. The telephone was the first device in history that enabled people to talk directly with each other across large distances. Telephones rapidly became indispensable to businesses, government and households and are today some of the most widely used small appliances.

The essential elements of a telephone are a microphone (transmitter) to speak into and an earphone (receiver) which reproduces the voice in a distant location. In addition, most telephones contain a ringer to announce an incoming telephone call, and a dial or keypad to enter a telephone number when initiating a call to another telephone. The receiver and transmitter are usually built into a handset which is held up to the ear and mouth during conversation. The dial may be located either on the handset or on a base unit to which the handset is connected. The transmitter converts the sound waves to electrical signals which are sent through a telephone network to the receiving telephone, which converts the signals into audible sound in the receiver or sometimes a loudspeaker. Telephones are duplex devices, meaning they permit transmission in both directions simultaneously.

The first telephones were directly connected to each other from one customer's office or residence to another customer's location. Being impractical beyond just a few customers, these systems were quickly replaced by manually operated centrally located switchboards. These exchanges were soon connected together, eventually forming an automated, worldwide public switched telephone network. For greater mobility, various radio systems were developed for transmission between mobile stations on ships and automobiles in the mid-20th century. Hand-held mobile phones were introduced for personal service starting in 1973. In later decades their analog cellular system evolved into digital networks with greater capability and lower cost.

Convergence has given most modern cell phones capabilities far beyond simple voice conversation. They may be able to record spoken messages, send and receive text messages, take and display photographs or video, play music or games, surf the Internet, do road navigation or immerse the user in virtual reality. Since 1999, the trend for mobile phones is smartphones that integrate all mobile communication and computing needs.

Tom Sawyer

Thomas Sawyer () is the title character of the Mark Twain novel The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876). He appears in three other novels by Twain: Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1884), Tom Sawyer Abroad (1894), and Tom Sawyer, Detective (1896).

Sawyer also appears in at least three unfinished Twain works, Huck and Tom Among the Indians, Schoolhouse Hill and Tom Sawyer's Conspiracy. While all three uncompleted works were posthumously published, only Tom Sawyer's Conspiracy has a complete plot, as Twain abandoned the other two works after finishing only a few chapters.

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