1874

1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar, the 1874th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 874th year of the 2nd millennium, the 74th year of the 19th century, and the 5th year of the 1870s decade. As of the start of 1874, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1874 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1874
MDCCCLXXIV
Ab urbe condita2627
Armenian calendar1323
ԹՎ ՌՅԻԳ
Assyrian calendar6624
Bahá'í calendar30–31
Balinese saka calendar1795–1796
Bengali calendar1281
Berber calendar2824
British Regnal year37 Vict. 1 – 38 Vict. 1
Buddhist calendar2418
Burmese calendar1236
Byzantine calendar7382–7383
Chinese calendar癸酉(Water Rooster)
4570 or 4510
    — to —
甲戌年 (Wood Dog)
4571 or 4511
Coptic calendar1590–1591
Discordian calendar3040
Ethiopian calendar1866–1867
Hebrew calendar5634–5635
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1930–1931
 - Shaka Samvat1795–1796
 - Kali Yuga4974–4975
Holocene calendar11874
Igbo calendar874–875
Iranian calendar1252–1253
Islamic calendar1290–1291
Japanese calendarMeiji 7
(明治7年)
Javanese calendar1802–1803
Julian calendarGregorian minus 12 days
Korean calendar4207
Minguo calendar38 before ROC
民前38年
Nanakshahi calendar406
Thai solar calendar2416–2417
Tibetan calendar阴水鸡年
(female Water-Rooster)
2000 or 1619 or 847
    — to —
阳木狗年
(male Wood-Dog)
2001 or 1620 or 848

Events

January–March

  • January – The Pangkor Treaty (also known as the Pangkor Engagement), by which the British extended their control over first the Sultanate of Perak, and later the other independent Malay States, is signed.
  • January 1 – New York City annexes The Bronx.
  • January 2Ignacio María González becomes head of state of the Dominican Republic for the first time.
  • January 3Third Carlist WarBattle of Caspe: Campaigning on the Ebro in Aragon for the Spanish Republican Government, Colonel Eulogio Despujol surprises a Carlist force under Manuel Marco de Bello at Caspe, northeast of Alcañiz. In a brilliant action the Carlists are routed, losing 200 prisoners and 80 horses, while Despujol is promoted to Brigadier and becomes Conde de Caspe.
  • January 23
  • February 21 – The Oakland Daily Tribune publishes its first issue.
  • February 23Walter Clopton Wingfield patents a game called "sphairistike", which is more commonly called lawn tennis.
  • February 2425Third Carlist War – First Battle of Somorrostro: Determined to raise the siege of Bilbao by the Pretender Don Carlos VII, Republican commander Marshal Francisco Serrano sends General Domingo Moriones with a relief force of 14,000 men. Carlists, under General Nicolás Ollo, entrenched at Somorrostro outside Bilbao, drive back a courageous assault by General Fernando Primo de Rivera and then the entire Republican army. The republicans lose 1,200 men, and Moriones loses his nerve, demanding reinforcements and a replacement for himself. Moriones, men entrench and wait.
  • March 14Third Carlist War – Battle of Castellfollit de la Roca: Appointed to command the Spanish Republican army in the north, General Ramón Nouvilas attempts to relieve the Carlist siege of Olot in Girona. But at Castellfollit de la Roca, in one of the Government's worst defeats, Nouvilas is routed by Carlist General Francesc Savalls, and captured along with about 2,000 of his men. Olot capitulates two days later.
  • March 15France and Viet Nam sign the Second Treaty of Saigon, further recognizing the full sovereignty of France over Cochinchina.
  • March 18
    • Hawaii signs a treaty with the United States, granting exclusive trading rights.
    • The Dresden English Football Club is founded, the first soccer club on the European mainland.
  • March 2527Third Carlist War – Second Battle of Somorrostro: In a renewed attempt to raise the siege of Bilbao by Don Carlos VII, Republican commander Marshal Francisco Serrano himself arrives with 27,000 men and 70 cannon. However, in three days of fierce fighting, the Carlist General Joaquín Elío, with just 17,000 men, once again drives off the attack at nearby Somorrostro, and it is another six weeks before Serrano manages to relieve Bilbao.
  • March – The Young Men's Hebrew Association in Manhattan (which still operates today as the 92nd Street Y) is founded.

April–June

July–September

October–December

Date unknown

Births

January–March

April–June

July–September

October–December

Deaths

January–June

July–December

References

  1. ^ Geni: Kmdt. Gert Andries Jacobus Alberts, b1c5d3e1 (Accessed on 17 April 2017)
  2. ^ Standard Catalog of World Paper Money General Issues, 1368 - 1960. 2008. p. 1088. ISSN 1538-2001.
  3. ^ "Chief Justice Edward Douglass White", by William H. Forman, Jr., in ABA Journal (March 1970) p261
  4. ^ Frances H. Kennedy, American Indian Places: A Historical Guidebook (Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2008) p168
  5. ^ "The Yomiuri Shimbun : Corporate Profile of The Yomiuri Shimbun". Corporate Profile of The Yomiuri Shimbun (in Japanese). Retrieved 2017-07-23.
  6. ^ “Attitude of the Easy Boss”.
  7. ^ "Old House of Keys". Isle of Man Guide. Retrieved 2012-08-11.
1874 United Kingdom general election

The 1874 United Kingdom general election saw the incumbent Liberals, led by William Ewart Gladstone, lose decisively, even though it won a majority of the votes cast. Benjamin Disraeli's Conservatives won the majority of seats in the House of Commons, largely because they won a number of uncontested seats. It was the first Conservative victory in a general election since 1841. Gladstone's decision to call an election surprised his colleagues, for they were aware of large sectors of discontent in their coalition. For example, the nonconformists were upset with education policies; many working-class people disliked the new trade union laws and the restrictions on drinking. The Conservatives were making gains in the middle-class, Gladstone wanted to abolish the income tax, but failed to carry his own cabinet. The result was a disaster for the Liberals, who went from 387 MPs to only 242. Conservatives jumped from 271 to 350. For the first time the Irish Nationalists gained seats, returning 60. Gladstone himself noted: "We have been swept away in a torrent of gin and beer" (Roberts 2001, p. 332).

The election also saw Irish nationalists in the Home Rule League become the first significant third party in Parliament. This had been the first general election that used a secret ballot following the 1872 Secret Ballot Act. The Irish Nationalist gains could well be attributed to the effects of the Secret Ballot Act as tenants faced less of a threat of eviction if they voted against the wishes of their landlords.

This is the only time since the introduction of the secret ballot that a party has been defeated despite receiving an absolute majority of the popular vote. This was primarily because over 100 Conservative candidates were elected unopposed. This meant that there was no contest in many constituencies where the Conservatives were popular.

The election saw 652 MPs elected: 6 fewer than at the prior election. Following allegations of corruption the Conservative held constituencies of Beverley and Sligo Borough, and the Liberal held constituencies of Bridgwater and Cashel, had been abolished.

1874 United States House of Representatives elections

Elections to the United States House of Representatives were held in 1874 and 1875 for Representatives to the 44th Congress, occurring in the middle of President Ulysses S. Grant's second term with a deep economic depression underway. It was an important turning point, as the Republicans lost heavily and the Democrats gained control of the House. It signaled the imminent end of Reconstruction, which Democrats opposed. Historians emphasize the factors of economic depression and attacks on the Grant administration for corruption as key factors in the vote.With the election following the Panic of 1873, Grant's Republican Party was crushed in the elections, losing their majority and almost half their seats to the Democratic Party. This was the first period of Democratic control since the pre-war era. The economic crisis and the inability of Grant to find a solution led to his party's defeat. This was the second-largest swing in the history of the House (only behind the 1894 elections), and is the largest House loss in the history of the Republican Party.

In the south, the Democrats and Conservatives continued their systematic destruction of the Republican coalition. In the South, Scalawags moved into the Democratic Party. The Democratic landslide signaled the imminent end of Reconstruction, which Democrats opposed and a realignment of the Republican coalition that had dominated American politics since the late 1850s.While the ongoing end of Reconstruction in the South was one of the main reasons for the shift, turn-of-the-century historian James Ford Rhodes explored the multiple causes of the results in the North:

In the fall elections of 1874 the issue was clearly defined: Did the Republican President Ulysses S. Grant and Congress deserve the confidence of the country? and the answer was unmistakably No ...

The Democrats had won a signal victory, obtaining control of the next House of Representatives which would stand Democrats 168, Liberals and Independents 14, Republicans 108 as against the two-thirds Republican majority secured by the election of 1872. Since 1861 the Republicans had controlled the House and now with its loss came a decrease in their majority in the Senate ...

Rhodes continues:

The political revolution from 1872 to 1874 was due to the failure of the Southern policy of the Republican party, to the Credit Mobilier and Sanborn contract scandals, to corrupt and inefficient administration in many departments and to the persistent advocacy of Grant by some close friends and hangers-on for a third presidential term. Some among the opposition were influenced by the President's backsliding in the cause of civil service reform, and others by the failure of the Republican party to grapple successfully with the financial question. The depression, following the financial Panic of 1873, and the number of men consequently out of employment weighed in the scale against the party in power. In Ohio, the result was affected by the temperance crusade in the early part of the year. Bands of women of good social standing marched to saloons before which or in which they sang hymns and, kneeling down, prayed that the great evil of drink might be removed. Sympathizing men wrought with them in causing the strict law of the State against the sale of strong liquor to be rigidly enforced. Since Republicans were in the main the instigators of the movement, it alienated from their party a large portion of the German American vote.

1874 United States elections

The 1874 United States elections occurred in the middle of Republican President Ulysses S. Grant's second term, during the Third Party System. Members of the 44th United States Congress were chosen in this election. The election took place during the Reconstruction Era, and many Southerners were barred from voting. Colorado joined the union during the 44th Congress. Democrats took control of a chamber of Congress for the first time since the start of the Civil War, winning a huge number of seats from House Republicans. However, the Republicans retained a majority in the Senate. The election marked the first occurrence of the six-year itch phenomenon, in which a president's party lost a large number of Congressional seats during the president's second mid-term election.

The Panic of 1873, a series of scandals, and an unpopular Congressional pay raise all damaged the Republican Party's brand. With the passage of the Reconstruction amendments, the importance of the parties' roles in the Civil War also receded in the minds of many. Though Republicans won governorships in Northern states such as Pennsylvania, the election increased Democratic power in the South, which it later dominated after the end of Reconstruction.In the House, Democrats won massive gains when the Republicans lost a total of 93 seats (the second-largest swing in the history of the House, and the largest House loss by the Republican Party), turning a dominant Republican majority into a similarly-dominant Democratic majority.In the Senate, Democrats picked up several seats, but Republicans retained a commanding majority.

1874 and 1875 United States Senate elections

The United States Senate elections of 1874 and 1875 had the Democratic Party gain nine seats in the United States Senate from the Republican Party (the party of incumbent President Ulysses S. Grant). Republicans remained in the majority, however.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

1874 in Ireland

Events from the year 1874 in Ireland.

1874 in baseball

The following are the baseball events of the year 1874 throughout the world.

A.S.D. Cavenago Fanfulla

Associazione Calcio Fanfulla 1874 is an Italian association football club located in Lodi, Lombardy. The club name comes from Bartolomeo Fanfulla from Lodi, one of 13 Italian knights who defeated the French in the challenge of Barletta in 1503. For this reason the Lodi team is also called Guerriero (warrior in Italian) by its supporters.

In 1974 the club was awarded the Gold Star for sports merits.Fanfulla, one of the oldest football and sports clubs in Italy, was founded on 18 October 1874 as a multisports club under the denomination Società Lodigiana di Ginnastica e Scherma (Lodi club of gymnastics and fencing), and its football department was founded in 1908. Fanfulla played 13 Serie B leagues during the 1940s and the 1950s, and now plays in fourth-tier Serie D. Its colors are black and white.

Aston Villa F.C.

Aston Villa Football Club (nicknamed Villa, The Villa, The Villans and The Lions) is a professional football club based in Aston, Birmingham, England. The club currently competes in the Championship, the second tier of the English football league system. Founded in 1874, they have played at their current home ground, Villa Park, since 1897. Aston Villa were one of the founder members of the Football League in 1888 and of the Premier League in 1992. Villa are one of only five English clubs to have won the European Cup, in 1981–82. They have also won the Football League First Division seven times, the FA Cup seven times, the League Cup five times, and the UEFA Super Cup once.

Villa have a fierce local rivalry with Birmingham City and the Second City derby between the teams has been played since 1879. The club's traditional kit colours are claret shirts with sky blue sleeves, white shorts and sky blue socks. Their traditional club badge is of a rampant lion. The club is currently owned by the NSWE group, a company owned by the Egyptian billionaire Nassef Sawiris and the American billionaire Wes Edens.

Bolton Wanderers F.C.

Bolton Wanderers Football Club ( (listen)) is a professional football club in Bolton, Greater Manchester, England, which competes in the EFL Championship, the second tier of English football.

Formed as Christ Church Football Club in 1874, it adopted its current name in 1877 and was a founder member of the Football League in 1888. Bolton have spent more seasons than any other club in the top flight without winning the title. They finished third in the First Division in 1891–92, 1920–21 and 1924–25.

Bolton won three FA Cups in the 1920s, and a fourth in 1958. The club spent a season in the Fourth Division in 1987-88 before regaining top-flight status in 1995 and qualifying for the UEFA Cup twice, reaching the last 32 in 2005–06 and the last 16 in 2007–08.

The club played at Burnden Park for 102 years from 1895. On 9 March 1946, 33 Bolton fans lost their lives in the Burnden Park disaster when a human crush occurred. In 1997, Bolton moved to the Reebok Stadium, renamed the Macron Stadium in 2014, and now known as the University of Bolton Stadium.

East India Company

The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, Company Bahadur, or simply The Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company. It was formed to trade in the Indian Ocean region, initially with Mughal India and the East Indies (Maritime Southeast Asia), and later with Qing China. The company ended up seizing control over large parts of the Indian subcontinent, colonised parts of Southeast Asia, and colonised Hong Kong after a war with Qing China.

Originally chartered as the "Governor and Company of Merchants of London trading into the East Indies", the company rose to account for half of the world's trade, particularly in basic commodities including cotton, silk, indigo dye, salt, spices, saltpetre, tea, and opium. The company also ruled the beginnings of the British Empire in India. In his speech to the House of Commons in July 1833, Lord Macaulay explained that since the beginning, the East India company had always been involved in both trade and politics, just as its French and Dutch counterparts had been.The company received a Royal Charter from Queen Elizabeth I on 31 December 1600, coming relatively late to trade in the Indies. Before them the Portuguese Estado da Índia had traded there for much of the 16th century and the first of half a dozen Dutch Companies sailed to trade there from 1595. These Dutch companies amalgamated in March 1602 into the United East Indies Company (VOC), which introduced the first permanent joint stock from 1612 (meaning investment into shares did not need to be returned, but could be traded on a stock exchange). By contrast, wealthy merchants and aristocrats owned the EIC's shares. Initially the government owned no shares and had only indirect control until 1657 when permanent joint stock was established.During its first century of operation, the focus of the company was trade, not the building of an empire in India. Company interests turned from trade to territory during the 18th century as the Mughal Empire declined in power and the East India Company struggled with its French counterpart, the French East India Company (Compagnie française des Indes orientales) during the Carnatic Wars of the 1740s and 1750s. The battles of Plassey and Buxar, in which the British defeated the Bengali powers, left the company in control of Bengal and a major military and political power in India. In the following decades it gradually increased the extent of the territories under its control, controlling the majority of the Indian subcontinent either directly or indirectly via local puppet rulers under the threat of force by its Presidency armies, much of which were composed of native Indian sepoys.

By 1803, at the height of its rule in India, the British East India company had a private army of about 260,000—twice the size of the British Army, with Indian revenues of £13,464,561 (£1,359,675,850.80 as of 2018), and expenses of £14,017,473 (£1,415,509,909.85 as of 2018). The company eventually came to rule large areas of India with its private armies, exercising military power and assuming administrative functions. Company rule in India effectively began in 1757 and lasted until 1858, when, following the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the Government of India Act 1858 led to the British Crown's assuming direct control of the Indian subcontinent in the form of the new British Raj.

Despite frequent government intervention, the company had recurring problems with its finances. It was dissolved in 1874 as a result of the East India Stock Dividend Redemption Act passed one year earlier, as the Government of India Act had by then rendered it vestigial, powerless, and obsolete. The official government machinery of British India assumed the East India Company's governmental functions and absorbed its navy and its armies in 1858.

Election riot of 1874

The Election Riot of 1874, or Coup of 1874, took place on election day, November 3, 1874, near Eufaula, Alabama in Barbour County. Freedmen comprised a majority of the population and had been electing Republican candidates to office. Members of an Alabama chapter of the White League, a paramilitary group supporting the Democratic Party's drive to regain political power in the county and state, attacked black Republicans at the polls.

They killed at least seven and wounded 70, while driving away more than 1,000 unarmed blacks at the polls. In attacking the polling place in Spring Hill, the League killed the 16-year-old son of a white Republican judge. They turned all Republicans out of office and declared the Democrats as winners.

Greater Pittsburgh Chamber of Commerce

The Greater Pittsburgh Chamber of Commerce is a Pittsburgh area non-profit that promotes business and community development throughout Southwestern Pennsylvania.

Founded on December 5, 1874 the chamber received its charter on July 8, 1876 due to the state's passage of a new constitution during 1874-75. From 1874 until 1904 the chamber had offices at the Germania Bank Building in Downtown Pittsburgh. On June 20, 1904 it relocated to the Oliver Building. March 14, 1906 offices moved to the Keenan Building at Liberty Avenue and Seventh Street. On July 8, 1916 construction started on the Chamber of Commerce Building and opened May 1, 1917 with a membership of 3,000. By 1918 membership had exceeded 5,000.The chamber hosted President Grant on December 13, 1879, President Howard Taft on October 31, 1911 and Treasury Secretary John Connally on January 31, 1972.In 2000 the chamber partnered with the Allegheny Conference, the Pennsylvania Economy League of Greater Pittsburgh and the Pittsburgh Regional Alliance, a partnership that was extended in 2003 with a joint venture that merged memberships and leadership of all four organizations.

Hamilton Academical F.C.

Hamilton Academical Football Club, often known as Hamilton Accies, or The Accies, are a Scottish football club from Hamilton in South Lanarkshire who currently compete in the Scottish Premiership, having been promoted from the 2013–14 Scottish Championship. They were established in 1874 from the school football team at Hamilton Academy and remain the only professional club in British football to have originated from a school team. Hamilton have won the Scottish Challenge Cup twice and have finished runners-up in the Scottish Cup twice. The club currently play their home games at New Douglas Park.

Brian Rice is the club's manager, and was appointed in January 2019.

List of feminists

This is a list of important participants in the development of feminism, originally sorted by surname within each period.

It may include, for instance, earlier authors who did not self-identify as feminists but have been claimed to have furthered "feminist consciousness" by a resistance of male dominance expressed in their works.

Restoration (Spain)

The Restoration (Spanish: Restauración), or Bourbon Restoration (Restauración borbónica), is the name given to the period that began on 29 December 1874 — after a coup d'état by Martínez Campos ended the First Spanish Republic and restored the monarchy under Alfonso XII — and ended on 14 April 1931 with the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic.

After almost a whole century of political instability and many civil wars, the aim of the Restoration was to create a new political system, which ensured stability by the practice of turnismo. This was the deliberate rotation of the Liberal and Conservative parties in the government, so no sector of the bourgeoisie felt isolated, while all other parties were excluded from the system. This was achieved by electoral fraud. Opposition to the system came from republicans, socialists, anarchists, Basque and Catalan nationalists, and Carlists.

Solar eclipse of April 16, 1874

A total solar eclipse occurred on April 16, 1874. A solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between Earth and the Sun, thereby totally or partly obscuring the image of the Sun for a viewer on Earth. A total solar eclipse occurs when the Moon's apparent diameter is larger than the Sun's, blocking all direct sunlight, turning day into darkness. Totality occurs in a narrow path across Earth's surface, with the partial solar eclipse visible over a surrounding region thousands of kilometres wide.

United States Reports

The United States Reports are the official record (law reports) of the rulings, orders, case tables (list of every case decided), in alphabetical order both by the name of the petitioner (the losing party in lower courts) and by the name of the respondent (the prevailing party below), and other proceedings of the Supreme Court of the United States. United States Reports, once printed and bound, are the final version of court opinions and cannot be changed. Opinions of the court in each case are prepended with a headnote prepared by the Reporter of Decisions, and any concurring or dissenting opinions are published sequentially. The Court's Publication Office oversees the binding and publication of the volumes of United States Reports, although the actual printing, binding, and publication are performed by private firms under contract with the United States Government Publishing Office.

White League

The White League, also known as the White Man's League, was a white paramilitary organization started in the Southern United States in 1874 to kick Republicans out of office and intimidate freedmen from voting and politically organizing. The group was affiliated with the Democratic Party. Its first chapter was formed in Grant Parish, Louisiana and neighboring parishes and was made up of many of the Confederate veterans who had participated in the Colfax massacre in April 1873. Chapters were soon founded in New Orleans and other areas of the state.

George C. Rable describes the White League as "the military arm of the Democratic Party." Through violence and intimidation of blacks and allied whites, their members suppressed Republican voting and contributed to the Democrats' taking control of the Louisiana Legislature in 1876 (and to Democratic control in other southern states).After white Democrats regained control of the state legislature in 1876, members of the White Leagues were absorbed into the state militias and the National Guard.

Yomiuri Shimbun

The Yomiuri Shimbun (読売新聞, Yomiuri Shinbun) is a Japanese newspaper published in Tokyo, Osaka, Fukuoka, and other major Japanese cities. It is part of the Yomiuri Group, Japan's largest media conglomerate. It is one of the five national newspapers in Japan; the other four are the Asahi Shimbun, the Mainichi Shimbun, Nihon Keizai Shimbun, and the Sankei Shimbun. The headquarters is in Otemachi, Chiyoda, Tokyo.Founded in 1874, the Yomiuri Shimbun is credited with having the largest newspaper circulation in the world, having a combined morning and evening circulation of 14,323,781 through January 2002. In 2010, the daily was the number one in the list of the world's biggest selling newspapers with a circulation of 10,021,000. As of mid-year 2011, it still had a combined morning-evening circulation of almost 13.5 million for its national edition. The paper is printed twice a day and in several different local editions.

Yomiuri Shimbun established the Yomiuri Prize in 1948. Its winners have included Yukio Mishima and Haruki Murakami.

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