1872 United States presidential election

The United States presidential election of 1872 was the 22nd quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 5, 1872. Despite a split in the Republican Party, incumbent President Ulysses S. Grant defeated Liberal Republican nominee Horace Greeley. The election is notable for being the only presidential election in which a major party nominee died during the election process.

Grant was unanimously re-nominated at the 1872 Republican National Convention, but his intra-party opponents organized the Liberal Republican Party and held their own convention. The 1872 Liberal Republican convention nominated Greeley, a New York newspaper publisher, and wrote a platform calling for civil service reform and an end to Reconstruction. Democratic Party leaders believed that their only hope of defeating Grant was to unite around Greeley, and the 1872 Democratic National Convention nominated the Liberal Republican ticket.

Despite the union between the Liberal Republicans and Democrats, Greeley proved to be an ineffective campaigner and Grant remained widely popular. Grant decisively won re-election, carrying 31 of the 37 states, including several Southern states that would not again vote Republican until the 20th century. Grant would be the last incumbent to win a second term until William McKinley's victory in the 1900 presidential election, and his popular vote margin of 11.8% was the largest margin between 1852 and 1904.

On November 29, 1872, after the popular vote was counted, but before the Electoral College cast its votes, Greeley died. As a result, electors previously committed to Greeley voted for four different candidates for president and eight different candidates for vice president. It was the last instance until the 2016 presidential election in which more than one presidential elector voted for a candidate to whom they were not pledged.

United States presidential election, 1872

November 5, 1872

All 352 electoral votes of the Electoral College
177 electoral votes needed to win
Turnout71.3%[1] Decrease 6.8 pp
  UlyssesGrant Horace Greeley restored (cropped)
Nominee Ulysses S. Grant Horace Greeley
Party Republican Liberal Republican
Home state Ohio New York
Running mate Henry Wilson Benjamin Gratz Brown
Electoral vote 286 (+14) 0
(66 elected)
States carried 29 (+2) 6
Popular vote 3,598,235 2,834,761
Percentage 55.6% 43.8%

1872 United States presidential election in California1872 United States presidential election in Oregon1872 United States presidential election in Nevada1872 United States presidential election in Nebraska1872 United States presidential election in Kansas1872 United States presidential election in Texas1872 United States presidential election in Minnesota1872 United States presidential election in Iowa1872 United States presidential election in Missouri1872 United States presidential election in Arkansas1872 United States presidential election in Louisiana1872 United States presidential election in Wisconsin1872 United States presidential election in Illinois1872 United States presidential election in Michigan1872 United States presidential election in Indiana1872 United States presidential election in Ohio1872 United States presidential election in Kentucky1872 United States presidential election in Tennessee1872 United States presidential election in Mississippi1872 United States presidential election in Alabama1872 United States presidential election in Georgia1872 United States presidential election in Florida1872 United States presidential election in South Carolina1872 United States presidential election in North Carolina1872 United States presidential election in Virginia1872 United States presidential election in West Virginia1872 United States presidential election in Maryland1872 United States presidential election in Delaware1872 United States presidential election in Pennsylvania1872 United States presidential election in New Jersey1872 United States presidential election in New York1872 United States presidential election in Connecticut1872 United States presidential election in Rhode Island1872 United States presidential election in Maryland1872 United States presidential election in Vermont1872 United States presidential election in New Hampshire1872 United States presidential election in Maine1872 United States presidential election in Massachusetts1872 United States presidential election in Maryland1872 United States presidential election in Delaware1872 United States presidential election in New Jersey1872 United States presidential election in Connecticut1872 United States presidential election in Rhode Island1872 United States presidential election in Massachusetts1872 United States presidential election in Vermont1872 United States presidential election in New HampshireElectoralCollege1872.svg
Presidential election results map. Red denotes states won by Grant/Wilson, blue denotes those won by Greeley, yellow denotes those won by Hendricks, and the various shades of green denote those won by Brown, Jenkins and Davis; this reflects the posthumous scattering of Greeley's electoral votes. Numbers indicate the number of electoral votes allotted to each state.

President before election

Ulysses S. Grant
Republican

Elected President

Ulysses S. Grant
Republican

Nominations

Republican Party nomination

Republican Party (United States)
Republican Party Ticket, 1872
Ulysses S. Grant Henry Wilson
for President for Vice President
UlyssesGrant
Henry Wilson, VP of the United States
18th
President of the United States
(1869–1877)
U.S. Senator from Massachusetts
(1855–1873)
Campaign
Grant-Wilson-campaign-poster

At the 1872 Republican National Convention the Republicans nominated President Ulysses S. Grant for re-election, but nominated Senator Henry Wilson from Massachusetts for vice-president instead of the incumbent Schuyler Colfax, who was implicated in the Credit Mobilier scandal. Others, who had grown weary of the corruption of the Grant administration, bolted to form the Liberal Republican Party.

The opposition fusion nominations

In the hope of defeating Grant, the Democratic party endorsed the nominees of the Liberal Republican Party.

Liberal Republican Party nomination

An influential group of dissident Republicans split from the party to form the Liberal Republican Party in 1870. At the party's only national convention, held in Cincinnati in 1872, New York Tribune editor Horace Greeley was nominated for president on the sixth ballot, defeating Charles Francis Adams. Missouri Governor Benjamin Gratz Brown was nominated for vice-president on the second ballot.

Liberal Republican Party Ticket, 1872
Horace Greeley Benjamin G. Brown
for President for Vice President
Horace Greeley restored (cropped)
BGratzBrown
Former U.S. Representative
for New York's 6th
(1848–1849)
20th
Governor of Missouri
(1871–1873)
Campaign
Greeley-Brown-1872
Candidates in this section are sorted by their highest vote count on the nominating ballots
Charles Francis Adams Sr. Lyman Trumbull Benjamin Gratz Brown David Davis Andrew Gregg Curtin Salmon P. Chase
C. F. Adams - Warren. LCCN2013651550
Lyman Trumbull - Brady-Handy
BGratzBrown
David Davis Supreme Court justice - Brady-Handy
AndrewCurtin
CJ-SPC
Fmr. Envoy to the United Kingdom from Massachusetts
(1861–1868)
U.S. Senator
from Illinois
(1855–1873)
20th
Governor of Missouri
(1871–1873)
Associate Justice
from Illinois
(1862–1877)
15th
Governor of Pennsylvania
(1861–1867)
Chief Justice
from Ohio
(1864–1873)
324 votes 156 votes 95 votes 93 votes 62 votes 32 votes

Democratic Party nomination

Democratic Party (United States)
Democratic Party Ticket, 1872
Horace Greeley Benjamin G. Brown
for President for Vice President
Horace Greeley restored (cropped)
BGratzBrown
Former U.S. Representative
for New York's 6th
(1848–1849)
20th
Governor of Missouri
(1871–1873)

The 1872 Democratic National Convention met in Baltimore, Maryland, on July 9–10. Because of its strong desire to defeat Ulysses S. Grant, the Democratic Party also nominated the Liberal Republicans' Greeley/Brown ticket[2] and adopted their platform.[3] Greeley received 686 of the 732 delegate votes cast, while Brown received 713. Accepting the Liberal platform meant the Democrats had accepted the New Departure strategy, which rejected the anti-Reconstruction platform of 1868. They realized that to win the election they had to look forward, not try to re-fight the Civil War.[4] Also, they realized they would only split the anti-Grant vote if they nominated a candidate other than Greeley. However, Greeley's long reputation as the most aggressive antagonist of the Democratic party, its principles, its leadership, and its activists cooled Democrats' enthusiasm for the nominee.

Some Democrats were worried that backing Greeley would effectively be condemning the party to extinction, much like the moribund Whig Party had been doomed by endorsing the Know Nothing candidacy of Millard Fillmore in 1856, though others felt that the Democrats were in a much stronger position on a regional level than the Whigs had been at the time of their demise, and predicted (correctly, as it turned out) that the Liberal Republicans would not be viable in the long-term due to their lack of distinctive positions compared to the main Republican Party. A sizable minority led by James A. Bayard sought to act independently of the Liberal Republican ticket, but the bulk of the party agreed to endorse Greeley's candidacy. The convention, which lasted only six hours stretched over two days, is the shortest major political party convention in history.

The Liberal Republican Party fused with the Democratic Party in all states except for Louisiana and Texas. In states where Republicans were stronger, the Liberal Republicans fielded a majority of the joint slate of candidates for lower offices; while in states where Democrats were stronger, the Democrats fielded the most candidates. In many states, such as Ohio, each party nominated half of a joint slate of candidates. Even initially reluctant Democratic leaders like Thomas F. Bayard came to support Greeley.[5]

Other nominations

Labor Reform Party

Presidential Candidates:

Charles O'Conor David Davis
Charles OConor - Brady-Handy
JudgeDDavis
Lawyer from New York
(Declined Nomination)
Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court from Illinois
(Nominee – Withdrew on June 24, 1872)

The Labor Reform Party had only been organized in 1870, with its first National Convention meeting held in St. Louis, Missouri, on February 22, 1872. Initially, there was a fair amount of discussion as to whether the party should actually nominate anyone for the presidency at that time, or if they should wait at least for the Liberal Republicans to nominate their own ticket first. Every motion to that effect lost, and a number of ballots were taken that resulted in the nomination of David Davis, who was the frontrunner for the Liberal Republican nomination at that time. Joel Parker, the Governor of New Jersey, was nominated for vice-president.

While Davis did not decline the nomination of the Labor Reform party, he decided to hinge his campaign in large part on the success of attaining the Liberal Republican nomination, so that he might at least have their resources behind him. After their convention, in which he failed to attain the nomination, Davis telegraphed the Labor Reform party and informed them of his intention to withdraw from the presidential contest entirely. Joel Parker soon followed suit.

A second convention was called on August 22 in Philadelphia, where it was decided, rather than making the same mistake again, that the party would cooperate with the new Straight-Out Democratic Party that had recently formed. After the election, the various state affiliates grew less and less active, and by the following year, the party ceased to exist.[6] Labor Reform party activity continued to 1878, when the Greenback and Labor Reform parties, with other organizations, formed a National Party.[7]

Straight-Out Democratic Party

Unwilling to support the Democratic party nominee Greeley, a group of mostly Southern Democrats held what they called a Straight-Out Democratic Party convention in Louisville, Kentucky on August 11, 1872. They nominated as presidential candidate Charles O'Conor, who declined their nomination by telegram; as vice president they nominated John Quincy Adams II. Without time to choose a substitute, the party ran the two candidates anyway. They received 0.36% of the popular votes, and no Electoral College votes.

General election

Campaign

Grant's administration and his Radical Republican supporters had been widely accused of corruption, and the Liberal Republicans demanded civil service reform and an end to the Reconstruction process, including withdrawal of federal troops from the South. Both Liberal Republicans and Democrats were disappointed in their candidate Greeley. As wits asked, "Why turn out a knave just to replace him with a fool?"[8] A poor campaigner with little political experience, Greeley's career as a newspaper editor gave his opponents a long history of eccentric public positions to attack. With memories of his victories in the Civil War to run on, Grant was unassailable. Grant also had a large campaign budget to work with. One historian was quoted saying, "Never before was a candidate placed under such great obligation to men of wealth as was Grant." A large portion of Grant's campaign funds came from entrepreneurs, including Jay Cooke, Cornelius Vanderbilt, Alexander Turney Stewart, Henry Hilton, and John Astor.[9]

Women's suffrage

This was the first election after the formation of the National Woman Suffrage Association and the American Woman Suffrage Association in 1869. As a result, protests for women's suffrage became more prevalent. The National Woman's Suffrage Association held its annual convention in New York City on May 9, 1872. Some of the delegates supported Victoria Woodhull, who had spent the year since the previous NWSA annual meeting touring the New York City environs and giving speeches on why women should be allowed to vote. The delegates selected Victoria Woodhull to run for president, and named Frederick Douglass for vice- president. He did not attend the convention and never acknowledged the nomination, though he would serve as a presidential elector in the United States Electoral College for the State of New York. Woodhull gave a series of speeches around New York City during the campaign. Her finances were very thin, and when she borrowed money from supporters, she often was unable to repay them. On the day before the election, Woodhull was arrested for "publishing an obscene newspaper" and so was unable to cast a vote for herself. Woodhull was ineligible to be president on Inauguration Day, not because she was a woman (the Constitution and the law were silent on the issue), but because she would not reach the constitutionally prescribed minimum age of 35 until September 23, 1873; historians have debated whether to consider her activities a true election campaign. Woodhull and Douglass are not listed in "Election results" below, as the ticket received a negligible percentage of the popular vote and no electoral votes.[10] In addition, several suffragists would attempt to vote in the election. Susan B. Anthony was arrested and fined $100 for attempting to vote.

Results and disputed votes

PresidentialCounty1872Colorbrewer
Results by county explicitly indicating the percentage of the winning candidate in each county. Shades of red are for Grant (Republican) and shades of blue are for Greeley (Liberal Republican/Democratic).

Grant won an easy re-election over Greeley by a margin of 56% to 44%. Grant garnered 286 electoral votes to what would have been 66 electoral votes for Greeley. However, Greeley died on November 29, 1872, just twenty-four days after the election and before any of his pledged electors (from Texas, Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, Georgia, and Maryland) could cast their votes. Most of Greeley's electors cast their votes for other Democrats.

Of the 2,171 counties making returns, Grant won in 1,335 while Greeley carried 833. Three counties were split evenly between Grant and Greeley.

During the joint session of Congress for the counting of the electoral vote on February 12, 1873, numerous objections were raised to some of the results. However, unlike the objections which would be made in 1877, these had no impact on the outcome of the election.[11]

  • The electors of Arkansas and Louisiana were rejected due to irregularities.[12] They were not included in the total number of electors. Both states had voted for Grant.
  • Three Georgia electors had voted for Greeley for president. Their votes for Greeley were rejected because Greeley was dead when the electors cast their ballots. Their votes for B. Gratz Brown for vice-president were not affected. The electors were included in the total number of electors.
  • Protests were raised against the votes of Texas, Mississippi, and of Mississippi elector James J. Spelman. These electoral votes were ultimately accepted.

This election was the last in which Arkansas voted for a Republican until 1972 and the last in which it voted against the Democrats until 1968. Alabama and Mississippi would not be carried by a Republican again until 1964 and they wouldn't vote against the Democrats until 1948. North Carolina and Virginia wouldn't vote Republican again until 1928. West Virginia, Delaware and New Jersey wouldn't vote Republican again until 1896.

Results

Presidential candidate Party Home state Popular vote Electoral
vote
Running mate
Count Percentage Vice-presidential candidate Home state Electoral vote
Ulysses S. Grant (Incumbent) Republican Ohio 3,598,235 55.6% 286 Henry Wilson Massachusetts 286
Thomas A. Hendricks Democratic Indiana (a) 42 (c) 42
Benjamin Gratz Brown Liberal Republican/ Democratic Missouri (a) 18 (c) 18
Horace Greeley Liberal Republican/ Democratic New York 2,834,761 43.8% 3(b) Benjamin Gratz Brown Missouri 3(b)
Charles J. Jenkins Democratic Georgia (a) 2 (c) 2
David Davis Liberal Republican Illinois (a) 1 (c) 1
Charles O'Conor Straight-Out Democrats New York 18,602 0.3% 0 John Quincy Adams II Massachusetts 0
James Black Prohibition Pennsylvania 5,607 0.1% 0 John Russell Michigan 0
Other 10,473 0.2% 0
Total 6,467,678 100.0% 352(d)
Needed to win 177(d)

Source (popular vote): Leip, David. "1872 Presidential Election Results". Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections. Retrieved July 27, 2005.

Source (electoral vote): "Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996". National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved July 31, 2005.

(a) These candidates received votes from Electors who were pledged to Horace Greeley, who died before the electoral votes were cast.
(b) Horace Greeley received three electoral votes for president, but these votes were disqualified because of his death.
(c) See Breakdown by ticket below.
(d) The 14 electoral votes from Arkansas and Louisiana were not counted, and are not included in this count. If these electoral votes were included, there would be 366 electoral votes total, and 184 would be needed to win.

Popular vote
Grant
55.58%
Greeley
43.78%
O'Conor
0.36%
Others
0.27%
Electoral vote
Grant
81.25%
Greeley
18.75%

Geography of results

1872 Electoral Map
1872nationwidecountymapshadedbyvoteshare

Results by county, shaded according to winning candidate's percentage of the vote

Cartographic gallery

PresidentialCounty1872Colorbrewer

Map of presidential election results by county

RepublicanPresidentialCounty1872Colorbrewer

Map of Republican presidential election results by county

LiberalRepublicanPresidentialCounty1872Colorbrewer

Map of Liberal Republican/Democratic presidential election results by county

OtherPresidentialCounty1872Colorbrewer

Map of "other" presidential election results by county

CartogramPresidentialCounty1872Colorbrewer

Cartogram of presidential election results by county

CartogramRepublicanPresidentialCounty1872Colorbrewer

Cartogram of Republican presidential election results by county

CartogramLiberalRepublicanPresidentialCounty1872Colorbrewer

Cartogram of Liberal Republican/Democratic presidential election results by county

CartogramOtherPresidentialCounty1872Colorbrewer

Cartogram of "other" presidential election results by county

Results by state

Source: Data from Walter Dean Burnham, Presidential ballots, 1836–1892 (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1955) pp 247–57.[13]

States won by Grant/Wilson
States won by Greeley/Brown
Ulysses S. Grant
Republican
Horace Greeley
Democratic/Liberal Republican
Charles O'Conor
Straight-Out Democrat
Margin State Total
State electoral
votes
# % electoral
votes
# % electoral
votes
# % electoral
votes
# % #
Alabama 10 90,272 53.19 10 79,444 46.81 - - - - 10,828 6.38 169,716 AL
Arkansas 6 41,373 52.17 0 37,927 47.83 - - - - 3,446 4.35 79,300 AR
California 6 54,007 56.38 6 40,717 42.51 - 1,061 1.11 - 13,290 13.87 95,785 CA
Connecticut 6 50,314 52.41 6 45,695 47.59 - - - - 4,619 4.81 96,009 CT
Delaware 3 11,129 51.00 3 10,205 46.76 - 488 2.24 - 924 4.23 21,822 DE
Florida 4 17,763 53.52 4 15,427 46.48 - - - - 2,336 7.04 33,190 FL
Georgia 11 62,550 45.03 - 76,356 54.97 11 - - - -13,806 -9.94 138,906 GA
Illinois 21 241,936 56.27 21 184,884 43.00 - 3,151 0.73 - 57,052 13.27 429,971 IL
Indiana 15 186,147 53.00 15 163,632 46.59 - 1,417 0.40 - 22,515 6.41 351,196 IN
Iowa 11 131,566 60.81 11 81,636 37.73 - 2,221 1.03 - 49,930 23.08 216,365 IA
Kansas 5 66,805 66.46 5 32,970 32.80 - 156 0.16 - 33,835 33.66 100,512 KS
Kentucky 12 88,766 46.44 - 99,995 52.32 12 2,374 1.24 - -11,229 -5.87 191,135 KY
Louisiana 8 71,663 55.69 0 57,029 44.31 - - - - 14,634 11.37 128,692 LA
Maine 7 61,426 67.86 7 29,097 32.14 - - - - 32,329 35.71 90,523 ME
Maryland 8 66,760 49.66 - 67,687 50.34 8 - - - -927 -0.69 134,447 MD
Massachusetts 13 133,455 69.20 13 59,195 30.69 - - - - 74,260 38.50 192,864 MA
Michigan 11 138,758 62.66 11 78,551 35.47 - 2,875 1.30 - 60,207 27.19 221,455 MI
Minnesota 5 55,708 61.27 5 35,211 38.73 - - - - 20,497 22.54 90,919 MN
Mississippi 8 82,175 63.48 8 47,282 36.52 - - - - 34,893 26.95 129,457 MS
Missouri 15 119,196 43.65 - 151,434 55.46 15 2,429 0.89 - -32,238 -11.81 273,059 MO
Nebraska 3 18,329 70.68 3 7,603 29.32 - - - - 10,726 41.36 25,932 NE
Nevada 3 8,413 57.43 3 6,236 42.57 - - - - 2,177 14.86 14,649 NV
New Hampshire 5 37,168 53.94 5 31,425 45.61 - - - - 5,743 8.33 68,906 NH
New Jersey 9 91,656 54.52 9 76,456 45.48 - - - - 15,200 9.04 168,112 NJ
New York 35 440,738 53.23 35 387,282 46.77 - - - - 53,456 6.46 828,020 NY
North Carolina 10 94,772 57.38 10 70,130 42.46 - 261 0.16 - 24,642 14.92 165,163 NC
Ohio 22 281,852 53.24 22 244,321 46.15 - 1,163 0.22 - 37,531 7.09 529,436 OH
Oregon 3 11,818 58.66 3 7,742 38.43 - 587 2.91 - 4,076 20.23 20,147 OR
Pennsylvania 29 349,589 62.07 29 212,041 37.65 - - - - 137,548 24.42 563,262 PA
Rhode Island 4 13,665 71.94 4 5,329 28.06 - - - - 8,336 43.89 18,994 RI
South Carolina 7 72,290 75.73 7 22,699 23.78 - 204 0.21 - 49,591 51.95 95,452 SC
Tennessee 12 85,655 47.84 - 93,391 52.16 12 - - - -7,736 -4.32 179,046 TN
Texas 8 47,468 40.71 - 66,546 57.07 8 2,580 2.21 - -19,078 -16.36 116,594 TX
Vermont 5 41,480 78.29 5 10,926 20.62 - 553 1.04 - 30,554 57.67 52,980 VT
Virginia 11 93,463 50.47 11 91,647 49.49 - 85 0.05 - 1,816 0.98 185,195 VA
West Virginia 5 32,320 51.74 5 29,532 47.28 - 615 0.98 - 2,788 4.46 62,467 WV
Wisconsin 10 104,994 54.60 10 86,477 44.97 - 834 0.43 - 18,517 9.16 192,305 WI
TOTALS: 366 3,597,439 55.58 286 2,833,710 43.78 66 23,054 0.36 - 763,729 11.80 6,471,983 US

Close states

Red font color denotes states won by Republican Ulysses S. Grant; blue denotes those won by Democrat/Liberal Republican Horace Greeley.

States where the margin of victory was under 5% (51 electoral votes)

  1. Maryland 0.69%
  2. Virginia 0.98%
  3. Delaware 4.23%
  4. Tennessee 4.32%
  5. Arkansas 4.35%
  6. West Virginia 4.46%
  7. Connecticut 4.81%

Margin of victory between 5% and 10% (133 electoral votes):

  1. Kentucky 5.87%
  2. Alabama 6.38%
  3. Indiana 6.41%
  4. New York 6.46%
  5. Florida 7.04%
  6. Ohio 7.09%
  7. New Hampshire 8.33%
  8. New Jersey 9.04%
  9. Wisconsin 9.16%
  10. Georgia 9.94%
Vice Presidential candidate Party State Electoral vote
Henry Wilson Republican Massachusetts 286
Benjamin Gratz Brown Democratic/Liberal Republican Missouri 47
Alfred H. Colquitt Democratic Georgia 5
George Washington Julian Liberal Republican Indiana 5
Thomas E. Bramlette Democratic Kentucky 3
John M. Palmer Democratic Illinois 3
Nathaniel P. Banks Liberal Republican Massachusetts 1
William S. Groesbeck Democratic/Liberal Republican Ohio 1
Willis Benson Machen Democratic Kentucky 1
John Quincy Adams II Straight-Out Democratic Massachusetts 0
John Russell Prohibition Michigan 0
Total 352
Needed to win 177

Source: "Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996". National Archives and Records Administration. Retrieved July 31, 2005.

Breakdown by ticket

Presidential candidate Running mate Electoral vote(a)
Ulysses S. Grant Henry Wilson 286
Thomas Andrews Hendricks Benjamin Gratz Brown 41 .. 42
Benjamin Gratz Brown Alfred Holt Colquitt 5
Benjamin Gratz Brown George Washington Julian 4 .. 5
Benjamin Gratz Brown Thomas E. Bramlette 3
Horace Greeley Benjamin Gratz Brown 3 (b)
Benjamin Gratz Brown John McAuley Palmer 2 .. 3
Charles J. Jenkins Benjamin Gratz Brown 2
Benjamin Gratz Brown Nathaniel Prentiss Banks 1
Benjamin Gratz Brown Willis Benson Machen 1
Benjamin Gratz Brown William Slocum Groesbeck 0 .. 1
David Davis Benjamin Gratz Brown 0 .. 1
David Davis William Slocum Groesbeck 0 .. 1
David Davis George Washington Julian 0 .. 1
David Davis John McAuley Palmer 0 .. 1
Thomas Andrews Hendricks William Slocum Groesbeck 0 .. 1
Thomas Andrews Hendricks George Washington Julian 0 .. 1
Thomas Andrews Hendricks John McAuley Palmer 0 .. 1

(a) The used sources had insufficient data to determine the pairings of 4 electoral votes in Missouri; therefore, the possible tickets are listed with the minimum and maximum possible number of electoral votes each.
(b) Greeley was disqualified, having previously died and thus become ineligible for the Presidency, but the Brown vice-presidential votes were counted.

Demise of the Liberal Republicans

Though the national party organization disappeared after 1872, several Liberal Republican members continued to serve in Congress after the 1872 elections. Most Liberal Republican Congressmen eventually joined the Democratic Party. Outside of the South, some Liberal Republicans sought the creation of a new party opposed to Republicans, but Democrats were unwilling to abandon their old party affiliation and even relatively successful efforts like Wisconsin's Reform Party collapsed. Even the strong Missouri Liberal Republican Party collapsed as the Democrats re-established themselves as the major opposition party to the Republicans. In the following years, former Liberal Republicans became members in good standing of both major parties.[14]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Voter Turnout in Presidential Elections". The American Presidency Project. UC Santa Barbara.
  2. ^ Official Proceedings of the National Democratic Convention, Held at Baltimore, July 9, 1872. Boston: Rockwell & Churchill, Printers. 1872.
  3. ^ Paul F. Boller, Jr. (2004). Presidential Campaigns: from George Washington to George W. Bush. Oxford University Press. pp. 128–129. ISBN 0-19-516716-3.
  4. ^ Dunning 198
  5. ^ Ross (1910)
  6. ^ Bewig, Matthew S. R. (2010). "Third Parties After the Civil War". In Robertson, Andrew. Encyclopedia of U.S. Political History. 3. Sage. pp. 360–361.
  7. ^ Haynes, Frederick Emory (1916). Third Party Movements Since the Civil War, with Special Reference to Iowa. State Historical Society of Iowa. p. 122. Retrieved 27 January 2018.
  8. ^ Dunning 197
  9. ^ Guide to U.S. Elections. Volume 1 (Fifth ed.). CQ Press. November 17, 2005. ISBN 1-56802-981-0.
  10. ^ "Our Campaigns – Candidate – Victoria C. Woodhull".
  11. ^ United States Congress (1873). Senate Journal. 42nd Congress, 3rd Session, February 12. pp. 334–346. Retrieved March 23, 2006.
  12. ^ David A. McKnight (1878). The Electoral System of the United States: A Critical and Historical Exposition of Its Fundamental Principles in the Constitution and the Acts and Proceedings of Congress Enforcing It. Wm. S. Hein Publishing. p. 313. ISBN 978-0-8377-2446-1.
  13. ^ "1872 Presidential General Election Data – National". Retrieved May 7, 2013.
  14. ^ Ross, pp. 192-239

Further reading

  • American Annual Cyclopedia...for 1872 (1873), comprehensive collection of facts online edition
  • Blaine, James G. (1885). Twenty Years of Congress. vol. 2. pp. 520–31. online edition
  • Donald, David Herbert. Charles Sumner and the Rights of Man (1970).
  • Downey, Matthew T. "Horace Greeley and the Politicians: The Liberal Republican Convention in 1872," The Journal of American History, Vol. 53, No. 4. (Mar. 1967), pp. 727–750. in JSTOR
  • Dunning, William Archibald (1905). Reconstruction: Political & Economic, 1865–1877. ch. 12. online edition
  • Lunde, Erik S. "The Ambiguity of the National Idea: the Presidential Campaign of 1872" Canadian Review of Studies in Nationalism 1978 5(1): 1-23. ISSN 0317-7904.
  • McPherson, James M. "Grant or Greeley? The Abolitionist Dilemma in the Election of 1872" American Historical Review 1965 71(1): 43–61. in JSTOR
  • Porter, Kirk H.; Johnson, Donald Bruce, eds. (1956). National Party Platforms, 1840–1956.
  • Prymak, Andrew. "The 1868 and 1872 Elections," in Edward O. Frantz, ed. A Companion to the Reconstruction Presidents 1865–1881 (Wiley Blackwell Companions to American History) (2014) pp. 235–56 online
  • Republican Campaign Clubs, Horace Greeley Unmasked. New York: Republican Campaign Clubs, 1872. —Campaign pamphlet.
  • Rhodes, James Ford. History of the United States from the Compromise of 1850 to the McKinley-Bryan Campaign of 1896. Volume: 7 ch 39–40. (1920)
  • Ross, Earle Dudley. The Liberal Republican Movement (1910) full text online
  • Slap, Andrew L. The Doom of Reconstruction: The Liberal Republicans in the Civil War Era (2006) online edition
  • Strauss, Dafnah. "Ideological closure in newspaper political language during the US 1872 election campaign." Journal of Historical Pragmatics 15.2 (2014): 255-291. DOI: 10.1075/jhp.15.2.06str online
  • Summers, Mark Wahlgren. The Press Gang: Newspapers and Politics, 1865–1878 (1994) ch 15
  • Summers, Mark Wahlgren. The Era of Good Stealings (1993), covers corruption 1868–1877
  • Van Deusen, Glyndon G. Horace Greeley, Nineteenth-Century Crusader (1953) online edition

External links

1872 United States presidential election in Arkansas

The 1872 United States presidential election in Arkansas took place on November 5, 1872, as part of the 1872 United States presidential election. Voters chose six representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Arkansas voted for the Republican candidate, Ulysses S. Grant, over Liberal Republican candidate Horace Greeley. Grant won Arkansas by a margin of 4.34%. However, due to the turbulent conditions of Reconstruction, Congress did not certify Arkansas's six electoral votes.Neighboring Louisiana's electoral votes were also not counted.

1872 United States presidential election in California

In the 1872 United States presidential election, California voted for the Republican incumbent, Ulysses S. Grant, over the Liberal Republican nominee, New York Tribune publisher Horace Greeley.

1872 United States presidential election in Connecticut

The 1872 United States presidential election in Connecticut took place on November 5, 1872. All contemporary 37 states were part of the 1872 United States presidential election. The state voters chose six electors to the Electoral College, which selected the president and vice president.

Connecticut was won by the Republican nominees, incumbent President Ulysses S. Grant of Illinois and his running mate Senator Henry Wilson of Massachusetts. Grant and Wilson defeated the Liberal Republican and Democratic nominees, former Congressman Horace Greeley of New York and his running mate former Senator and Governor Benjamin Gratz Brown of Missouri by a narrow margin of 4.82%.

1872 United States presidential election in Delaware

The 1872 United States presidential election in Delaware took place on November 5, 1872, as part of the 1872 United States presidential election. Voters chose three representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Delaware voted for the Republican candidate, Ulysses S. Grant, over Liberal Republican candidate Horace Greeley. Grant won Delaware by a margin of 4.24%.

1872 United States presidential election in Florida

The 1872 United States presidential election in Florida took place on November 5, 1872, as part of the 1872 United States presidential election. Voters chose four representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Florida voted for the Republican candidate, Ulysses S. Grant, over Liberal Republican candidate, Horace Greeley. Grant won Florida by a margin of 7.04%.

1872 United States presidential election in Louisiana

The 1872 United States presidential election in Louisiana took place on November 5, 1872, as part of the 1872 United States presidential election. Voters chose eight representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Louisiana voted for the Republican candidate, Ulysses S. Grant, over Liberal Republican candidate Horace Greeley. Grant won Louisiana by a margin of 11.38%. However, due to the turbulent conditions of Reconstruction, Congress did not certify Louisiana's eight electoral votes.Neighboring Arkansas's electoral votes were also not counted.

1872 United States presidential election in Massachusetts

The 1872 United States presidential election in Massachusetts took place on November 5, 1872. All contemporary 37 states were part of the 1872 United States presidential election. The state voters chose 13 electors to the Electoral College, which selected the president and vice president.

Massachusetts was won by the Republican nominees, incumbent President Ulysses S. Grant of Illinois and his running mate Senator Henry Wilson of Massachusetts. Grant and Wilson defeated the Liberal Republican and Democratic nominees, former Congressman Horace Greeley of New York and his running mate former Senator and Governor Benjamin Gratz Brown of Missouri by a margin of 38.51%.

With 69.20% of the popular vote, Massachusetts would be Grant's fifth strongest victory in terms of percentage in the popular vote after Vermont, South Carolina, Rhode Island and Nebraska.

1872 United States presidential election in Michigan

The 1872 United States presidential election in Michigan took place on November 5, 1872, as part of the 1872 United States presidential election. Michigan voters chose eleven electors to the Electoral College, which selected the president and vice president.

Michigan again went for Republican incumbent Ulysses S. Grant, increasing his margin of victory over his challenger (Liberal Republican Horace Greeley) to more than 27%.

1872 United States presidential election in Minnesota

The 1872 United States presidential election in Minnesota took place on November 5, 1872, as part of the 1872 United States presidential election. Voters chose five representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Minnesota voted for the Republican candidate, Ulysses S. Grant, over Liberal Republican candidate, Horace Greeley. Grant won Minnesota by a margin of 22.54%.

1872 United States presidential election in Mississippi

The 1872 United States presidential election in Mississippi took place on November 5, 1872, as part of the 1872 United States presidential election. Voters chose eight representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Mississippi voted for the Republican candidate, Ulysses S. Grant, over Liberal Republican candidate Horace Greeley. Grant won Mississippi by a margin of 26.96%.

1872 United States presidential election in Missouri

The 1872 United States presidential election in Missouri took place on November 5, 1872, as part of the 1872 United States presidential election. Voters chose fifteen representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Missouri voted for the Liberal Republican candidate, Horace Greeley, over Republican candidate, Ulysses S. Grant. Greely won Missouri by a margin of 11.81%. However, Greely died prior to the Electoral College meeting, allowing Missouri's fifteen electors to vote for the candidate of their choice.

1872 United States presidential election in New Hampshire

The 1872 United States presidential election in New Hampshire took place on November 5, 1872. All contemporary 37 states were part of the 1872 United States presidential election. The state voters chose five electors to the Electoral College, which selected the president and vice president.

New Hampshire was won by the Republican nominees, incumbent President Ulysses S. Grant of Illinois and his running mate Senator Henry Wilson of Massachusetts. Grant and Wilson defeated the Liberal Republican and Democratic nominees, former Congressman Horace Greeley of New York and his running mate former Senator and Governor Benjamin Gratz Brown of Missouri by a margin of 8.33%.

Horace Greeley had been born in New Hampshire. More specifically, in the town of Amherst.

1872 United States presidential election in New Jersey

The 1872 United States presidential election in New Jersey took place on November 5, 1872. All contemporary 37 states were part of the 1872 United States presidential election. The state voters chose nine electors to the Electoral College, which selected the president and vice president.

New Jersey was won by the Republican nominees, incumbent President Ulysses S. Grant of Illinois and his running mate Senator Henry Wilson of Massachusetts. Grant and Wilson defeated the Liberal Republican and Democratic nominees, former Congressman Horace Greeley of New York and his running mate former Senator and Governor Benjamin Gratz Brown of Missouri by a margin of 9.04%.

1872 United States presidential election in New York

The 1872 United States presidential election in New York took place on November 5, 1872. All contemporary 37 states were part of the 1872 United States presidential election. New York voters chose 35 electors to the Electoral College, which selected the president and vice president.

New York was won by the Republican nominees, incumbent President Ulysses S. Grant of Illinois and his running mate Senator Henry Wilson of Massachusetts. Grant and Wilson defeated the Liberal Republican and Democratic nominees, former Congressman Horace Greeley of New York and his running mate former Senator and Governor Benjamin Gratz Brown of Missouri.

Grant carried New York State with 53.23% of the vote to Greeley's 46.77%, a victory margin of 6.46%.

New York weighed in for this election as slightly more than 5% more Democratic/Liberal Republican than the national average.

Grant dominated much of upstate New York and also won some counties downstate in the New York City area, including Richmond County, Queens County, and Suffolk County. Greeley, however, did win New York City proper, including victories in New York County and Kings County. Greeley also won nearby Westchester County and Rockland County, along with a handful of rural upstate counties.

1872 United States presidential election in Pennsylvania

The 1872 United States presidential election in Pennsylvania took place on November 5, 1872, as part of the 1872 United States presidential election. Voters chose 29 representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Pennsylvania voted for the Republican candidate, Ulysses S. Grant, over the Liberal Republican candidate, Horace Greeley. Grant won Pennsylvania by a margin of 24.42%.

1872 United States presidential election in South Carolina

The 1872 United States presidential election in South Carolina took place on November 5, 1872. All contemporary 37 states were part of the 1872 United States presidential election. The state voters chose seven electors to the Electoral College, which selected the president and vice president.

South Carolina was won by the Republican nominees, incumbent President Ulysses S. Grant of Illinois and his running mate Senator Henry Wilson of Massachusetts. Grant and Wilson defeated the Liberal Republican and Democratic nominees, former Congressman Horace Greeley of New York and his running mate former Senator and Governor Benjamin Gratz Brown of Missouri by a margin of 51.95%.

With 75.73% of the popular vote, South Carolina would be Grant's second strongest victory in terms of percentage in the popular vote after Vermont.

1872 United States presidential election in Texas

The 1872 United States presidential election in Texas was held on November 5, 1872. Texas voters chose 8 electors to represent the state in the Electoral College, which chose the president and vice president.

Texas voted for the Liberal Republican nominee Horace Greeley, who received 57% of the vote. Greeley died before Congress could certify the results, leaving Texas electors (and the electors of five other states) free to vote for whoever they chose. All 8 electors voted for Thomas A. Hendricks.

1872 United States presidential election in Vermont

The 1872 United States presidential election in Vermont took place on November 5, 1872. All contemporary 37 states were part of the 1872 United States presidential election. The state voters chose five electors to the Electoral College, which selected the president and vice president.

Vermont was won by the Republican nominees, incumbent President Ulysses S. Grant of Illinois and his running mate Senator Henry Wilson of Massachusetts. Grant and Wilson defeated the Liberal Republican and Democratic nominees, former Congressman Horace Greeley of New York and his running mate former Senator and Governor Benjamin Gratz Brown of Missouri by a margin of 57.67%.

With 78.29% of the popular vote, Vermont would be Grant's strongest victory in terms of percentage in the popular vote.

1872 United States presidential election in Virginia

The 1872 United States presidential election in Virginia took place on November 5, 1872, as part of the 1872 United States presidential election. Voters chose eleven representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president.

Virginia voted for the Republican candidate, incumbent President Ulysses S. Grant over the Democratic and Liberal Republican candidate, former U.S. Representative Horace Greeley. This was the first presidential election that Virginia participated in after the events of the U.S. Civil War. It was also the first presidential election in which the state voted for a Republican candidate and would not occur again until 1928. The election was still very close in this state and Grant won Virginia by a margin of almost 1%.

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