The 1870s continued the trends of the previous decade, as new empires, imperialism and militarism rose in Europe and Asia. The United States was recovering from the American Civil War. Germany unified in 1871 and began its Second Reich. Labor unions and strikes occurred worldwide in the later part of the decade, and continued until World War I. The Reconstruction era of the United States brought a legacy of bitterness and segregation that lasted until the 1960s.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
  • Births
  • Deaths
  • By country
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  • Establishments
  • Disestablishments

Politics and wars


Colonization, decolonization and independence

Prominent political events

Science and technology

Edison and phonograph edit1
Photograph of Edison with his phonograph, taken by Mathew Brady in 1877
Light Bulb
The first version of the light bulb was invented by Thomas Edison in 1879


Popular culture

Literature and arts

  • Jules Verne (France) publishes Around The World in Eighty Days
  • Monet, Renoir, Pissarro, and Sisley organized the Société Anonyme Coopérative des Artistes Peintres, Sculpteurs, Graveurs ("Cooperative and Anonymous Association of Painters, Sculptors, and Engravers") for the purpose of exhibiting their artworks independently. Members of the association, which soon included Cézanne, Berthe Morisot, and Edgar Degas, were expected to forswear participation in the Salon. The organizers invited a number of other progressive artists to join them in their inaugural exhibition, including the slightly older Eugène Boudin, whose example had first persuaded Monet to take up plein air painting years before.[1] Another painter who greatly influenced Monet and his friends, Johan Jongkind, declined to participate, as did Manet. In total, thirty artists participated in their first exhibition, held in April 1874 at the studio of the photographer Nadar. The group soon became known as the Impressionists.[2]
  • Jeanne Calment, born 1875, would eventually become the longest-living human being with a verified lifespan. She lived until 1997, at the age of 122. She still holds the record as of 2018.
  • Lewis Carroll publishes Through the Looking-Glass.
  • Henrik Ibsen releases A Doll's House in 1879



World leaders


Famous and infamous people

See also

Further reading


  1. ^ Denvir (1990), p.32.
  2. ^ Bernard Denvir, The Thames and Hudson Encyclopaedia of Impressionism (1990).
1870 in Ireland

Events from the year 1870 in Ireland.

1871 in Ireland

Events from the year 1871 in Ireland.

1872 in Ireland

Events from the year 1872 in Ireland.

1873 in Ireland

Events from the year 1873 in Ireland.

1874 in Ireland

Events from the year 1874 in Ireland.

1875 in Ireland

Events from the year 1875 in Ireland.

1876 in Ireland

Events from the year 1876 in Ireland.

1877 in Ireland

Events from the year 1877 in Ireland.

1878 in Denmark

Events from the year 1878 in Denmark.

1878 in Ireland

Events from the year 1878 in Ireland.

1879 in Denmark

Events from the year 1879 in Denmark.

1879 in Ireland

Events from the year 1879 in Ireland.

Buckingham (UK Parliament constituency)

Buckingham /ˈbʌkɪŋm̩/ is a constituency represented in the House of Commons of the UK Parliament since 1997 by former Conservative MP John Bercow, who later became Speaker of the House of Commons.

Greenwich, California

Greenwich is a former settlement in Kern County, California. It was located 3 miles (4.8 km) east of Old Town, near the modern-day site of Tehachapi.Greenwich was founded by Peter D. Greene in the 1870s. A post office operated at Greenwich from 1875 to 1893, when the service was moved to Tehachapi.

List of public art in Mayfair

This is a list of public art in Mayfair, a district in the City of Westminster, London.

Mayfair is a residential and commercial area dominated by terraces of town houses. In Grosvenor Square there are several memorials with an American theme, including a memorial garden commemorating the September 11 attacks, due to the former presence on that square of the US Embassy. At the southern end of the district, the courtyard of Burlington House (home of the Royal Academy) on Piccadilly is frequently used as a temporary exhibition space for artworks.

Musashi Province

Musashi Province (武蔵の国, Musashi no kuni) was a province of Japan, which today comprises Tokyo Metropolis, most of Saitama Prefecture and part of Kanagawa Prefecture. It was sometimes called Bushū (武州). The province encompassed Kawasaki and Yokohama. Musashi bordered on Kai, Kōzuke, Sagami, Shimōsa, and Shimotsuke Provinces.

Musashi was the largest province in the Kantō region.

North German Confederation

The North German Confederation (German: Norddeutscher Bund) was the German federal state which existed from July 1867 to December 1870. Some historians also use the name for the alliance of 22 German states formed on 18 August 1866 (Augustbündnis). In 1870–1871, the south German states of Baden, Hesse-Darmstadt, Württemberg and Bavaria joined the country. On 1 January 1871, the country adopted a new constitution, which was written under the title of a new "German Confederation" but already gave it the name "German Empire" in the preamble and article 11. As the state system largely remained the same in the German Empire, the North German Confederation continues as the German nation state which still exists.The federal constitution established a constitutional monarchy with the Prussian king as the bearer of the Bundespräsidium, or head of state. Laws could only be enabled with the consent of the Reichstag (a parliament based on universal male suffrage) and the Federal Council (a representation of the states). During the four years of the North German Confederation, a conservative-liberal cooperation undertook important steps to unify (Northern) Germany with regard to law and infrastructure. The political system (and the political parties) remained essentially the same in the years after 1870.

The North German Confederation had nearly 30 million inhabitants, of whom eighty percent lived in Prussia. Three quarters of the people of the 1871 Empire had already been "North German"'.

Old River, California

Old River is an unincorporated community in Kern County, California. It is located 9.5 miles (15 km) southwest of Bakersfield, at an elevation of 344 feet (105 m).The settlement was founded in the 1870s and named from the old Kern River bed.

History of the 19th century

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