The United States Census of 1870 was the ninth United States Census. Conducted by the Census Bureau in June 1870, the 1870 Census was the first census to provide detailed information on the African-American population, only years after the culmination of the Civil War when slaves were granted freedom. The population was said to be 38,555,983 individuals, a 22.62% increase since 1860. The 1870 Census' population estimate is controversial, as many believed it underestimated the true population numbers, especially in New York and Pennsylvania.
This was the first census in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 10,000.
|1870 United States Census|
Seal of the United States Census Bureau
|Date taken||June 1870|
Under the Census Act of 1850, two new structural changes during the 1870 Census occurred: marshals had to return the completed population questionnaire to the Census Office in September and penalties for refusing to reply to enumerator questions were extended to encompass every question on the questionnaires.
The commonly past-used slave questionnaires were redesigned to reflect the American society after the Civil War. The five schedules for the 1870 Census were the following: General Population, Mortality, Agriculture, Products of Industry, and Social Statistics.
The general population saw a 22.62% increase to 38,555,983 individuals in 1870. Charges of an undercount, however, have been brought against Francis Amasa Walker, the Superintendent of the Census.
Mortality rates in 1870, in general, decreased as a fraction of the total population by 0.03% from 1860 and by 0.11% from 1850. The lower death rates indicate that the standard of living increased, due to some exogenous factor, over the period of twenty years from 1850 to 1870.
In terms of products of industry, total U.S. wealth increases by 17.3% from 1860 to 1870, to reach an assessed wealth of $14,178,986,732. The four main state contributors to this wealth were New York, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Ohio, in that order. Most of the wealth was concentrated in the developed Northeast region, as newer states like Wyoming were beginning to develop their young economies.
The 1870 Census was the first of its kind to record the nativity of the American population. This social statistic indicates which areas were more highly composed of immigrants than native-born Americans. New York City had the most foreign-born individuals, with 419,094 foreigners, who comprised 44.5% of the city's total population. Philadelphia, Chicago, St. Louis, and San Francisco also had a great population of foreigners that made up a significant fraction of their total populations. Therefore, a great ethnic and cultural change was witnessed from 1860 to 1870, as part of the population growth was due to immigrants moving in and a shuffling of residents across state borders.
The 1870 census collected the following information
Full documentation for the 1870 population census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
Although Francis Walker, the Superintendent of the 1870 Census, defended the quality of the census, arguing that standardized, clear, and statistical approaches and practices were carried out across all regions of the United States, the public at the time was disappointed in the national growth rate and suspected underenumeration. With especially bitter complaints coming from New York and Philadelphia claiming up to a third of the population was not counted, the President made the rare move to order a recount in those areas. While it was thought a large fraction of the population was not counted for being indoors in the wintry cold, newer estimates resulted in only a 2.5% increase in Philadelphia's population and a 2% increase in New York's.
This controversy of the 1870 undercount resurfaced in 1890, when the national growth rate between 1880 and 1890 was discovered to be much lower than it was between 1870 and 1880. Critics then asserted that the 1870 population must have been underenumerated by over 1.2 million people to account for the discrepancy between growth rates; it was presumed that the growth rate in 1880 had to be exaggerated because of the 1870 undercount. Despite the fact that modern investigations have yet to quantify the exact effect of the undercount, most modern social scientists do not believe the undercount was as severe as 1890 investigators assumed. Today most analyzers compare the 1870 undercount to the non-response rates seen in most modern census data.
|X||District of Columbia ||131,700|
|01||New York||New York||942,292||Northeast|
|12||Washington||District of Columbia||109,199||South|
|17||Jersey City||New Jersey||82,546||Northeast|
|65||North Providence||Rhode Island||20,495||Northeast|
|99||New Brunswick||New Jersey||15,058||Northeast|
Events from the year 1875 in Michigan.Ad Gumbert
Addison Courtney Gumbert (October 10, 1868 – April 23, 1925) was a pitcher for Major League Baseball in the 19th century. His brother Billy Gumbert and great nephew Harry Gumbert were also Major League Baseball players.Baldwin Township, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania
Baldwin Township is a township in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, United States. The population was 1,992 at the 2010 census.Barretville, Tennessee
Barretville is an unincorporated community in Shelby County, Tennessee, United States, close to the border of Tipton County, and near the community of Rosemark. It has an elevation of 354 feet. The community is locally known for its large number of domesticated peacocks, originally cared for by Paul Barret, Jr.Big Nose Kate
Mary Katherine Horony-Cummings (born as Mária Izabella Magdolna Horony, November 9, 1849 – November 2, 1940), also known as Big Nose Kate, was a Hungarian-born prostitute and longtime companion and common-law wife of Old West gunfighter Doc Holliday.Collier Township, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania
Collier Township is a township in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, United States. The population was 7,080 at the 2010 census.Crescent Township, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania
Crescent Township is a township in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, United States and is part of the Pittsburgh Metro Area. The population was 2,640 at the 2010 census.The township was created in 1855 and was given the name Crescent because it was formed from a portion of Moon Township. Crescent Township has been assigned the ZIP code 15046.
Crescent Township has two unincorporated villages:
WiretonCrescent is part of the Pittsburgh Metropolitan Statistical Area.Effie Anderson Smith
Effie Anderson Smith (September 29, 1869 – April 21, 1955), also known as Mrs. A.Y. Smith, was an early Arizona impressionist painter of desert landscapes, many of Cochise County and the Grand Canyon.Henry Edwards (entomologist)
Henry Edwards (27 August 1827 – 9 June 1891), known as "Harry", was an English stage actor, writer and entomologist who gained fame in Australia, San Francisco and New York City for his theatre work.
Edwards was drawn to the theatre early in life, and he appeared in amateur productions in London. After sailing to Australia, Edwards appeared professionally in Shakespearean plays and light comedies primarily in Melbourne and Sydney. Throughout his childhood in England and his acting career in Australia, he was greatly interested in collecting insects, and the National Museum of Victoria used the results of his Australian fieldwork as part of the genesis of their collection.
In San Francisco, Edwards was a founding member of the Bohemian Club, and a gathering in Edwards' honour was the spark which began the club's traditional summer encampment at the Bohemian Grove. As well, Edwards cemented his reputation as a preeminent stage actor and theatre manager. After writing a series of influential studies on Pacific Coast butterflies and moths he was elected life member of the California Academy of Sciences. Relocating to the East Coast, Edwards spent a brief time in Boston theatre. This led to a connection to Wallack's Theatre and further renown in New York City. There, Edwards edited three volumes of the journal Papilio and published a major work about the life of the butterfly. His large collection of insect specimens served as the foundation of the American Museum of Natural History's butterfly and moth studies.
Edwards' wide-ranging studies and observations of insects brought him into contact with specimens not yet classified. Upon discovering previously unknown insects he would give them names, which led to a number of butterfly, moth and beetle species bearing "Hy. Edw." (for Henry Edwards) as an attribution. From his theatre interests to entomology, Edwards carried forward an appreciation of Shakespeare—in the designation of new insect species he favoured female character names from Shakespeare's plays.Henry Oxley
Henry Havelock Oxley (January 4, 1858 – October 9, 1945) was a Canadian-born athlete who played Major League Baseball in 1884 for the New York Gothams (now known as the San Francisco Giants) and the New York Metropolitans. He is one of only three players from Prince Edward Island to have played in Major League Baseball.Herman Charles Koenig
Herman Charles Koenig (November 28, 1893 – July 6, 1959) was an avid collector of first editions and fantasy literature and a friend of the fantasy writer H. P. Lovecraft (1890–1937), and a member of his literary circle, the Kalem Club (the last names of the early members started with the letters K, L or M).
Koenig was born in Hoboken, New Jersey, the last child in the family of Herman Koenig (listed as “Henry König” in the 1870 United States Census) and Anna Poggenburg, German immigrants. He graduated magna cum laude from Cooper Union, and worked as the laboratory manager at Electrical Testing Laboratories in New York City.
A lifelong fan of fantasy fiction, he contributed articles to early fanzines in this field, and published his own fanzine The Reader and Collector, printing twenty issues from 1938 to 1946.
He collaborated with the writer August Derleth (1909–1971), one of Lovecraft’s many correspondents, who founded the publishing company Arkham House to print Lovecraft’s work after his death. Koenig was one of the few people who printed some of Lovecraft’s writings during the latter’s lifetime. Based on a long letter Lovecraft had written to Koenig in 1936, he privately printed in mimeograph form the essay Charleston. It included photo copies of Lovecraft’s sketches of architectural highlights of that South Carolina city.
Koenig is also acknowledged for his efforts in fostering in the United States the writings of British author William Hope Hodgson (1877–1918), circulating copies of Hodgson’s books to Lovecraft and others. When Arkham House reprinted four of Hodgson’s novels (The House on the Borderland and Other Novels) in 1946, Derleth asked Koenig to write the introduction.Ira W. Claflin
Ira Wallace Claflin (June 21, 1834 – November 18, 1867) was a United States Army West Point regular officer who took command of the 6th US Cavalry during the critical days of July 1863 during the Gettysburg Campaign. He was an instructor of Union cavalry tactics for West Virginia and later taught at West Point.McCandless, Pennsylvania
McCandless is a Home Rule Municipality in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, United States. The population was 28,457 at the 2010 census. It obtained a home rule charter on January 1, 1975, and changed its name from "McCandless Township" to "Town of McCandless". Though McCandless no longer operates under the First Class Township Code, it is classified as a first-class township for certain purposes.The inclusion of the word "Town" in its name sometimes causes confusion, since with one exception, a "town" is not a municipal unit in Pennsylvania. Bloomsburg, in Columbia County, was incorporated as a town in 1870, and is legally recognized as "the only incorporated town" in Pennsylvania.
McCandless is part of the North Allegheny School District and participates in the multi-municipality Northland Public Library.
It has been ranked highly among Money Magazine's "Best Places to Live."Penn Hills Township, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania
Penn Hills is a township with home rule status in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, United States. The population as of the 2010 census was 42,329. Penn Hills is the second-largest municipality in Allegheny County, after the city of Pittsburgh.Reserve Township, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania
Reserve Township is a township in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, United States. The population was 3,333 at the 2010 census.Reserve Township was named for a broader area of land, including the township, which the state had reserved from sale for its own purposes.Richland Township, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania
Richland Township is a township in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, United States. The population was 11,100 at the 2010 census.
The township was named for its fertile soil.Ulysses J. Lincoln Peoples
Ulysses J. Lincoln Peoples (February 1865 - after 1940) was an American architect based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Five schools located in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania that were designed by Peoples have listed on the National Register of Historic Places.Peoples was born in Pennsylvania in 1865. He was the son of William Peoples, a stair builder. At the time of the 1870 United States Census, Peoples was living with his parents and three siblings in Allegheny, Pennsylvania. At the time of the 1880 United States Census, Peoples was living in Chester, Pennsylvania. At the time of the 1900 United States Census, Peoples was living in Pittsburgh with his wife Emma and daughter Edith. By the time of the 1910 Census, Peoples also had a son Ulysses, Jr. He remained in Pittsburgh at the time of the 1920 and 1930 Censuses. By the time of the 1940 Census, Peoples and his wife Emma had relocated to Uniontown, Pennsylvania, where both were employed as taxi cab dispatchers.Peoples' works include:
Larimer School, Larimer Avenue at Winslow Street, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, NRHP-listed
Madison Elementary School, Milwaukee and Orion Streets, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, NRHP-listed
McCleary Elementary School, Holmes Street and McCandless Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, NRHP-listed
Oakland Public School, Dawson Street near Edith Place, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, NRHP-listed
Wightman School (1897), (now Wightman School Community Building), 5604 Solway Street, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, NRHP-listedUpper St. Clair Township, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania
Upper St. Clair Township is a township with home rule status in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, United States.
An affluent suburb located about 10 miles (16 km) south of Pittsburgh, Upper St. Clair possesses a nationally recognized school district. The population was 19,229 at the 2010 census.West Deer Township
West Deer Township is a township in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania in the United States. The population was 11,771 at the 2010 census.