1860 United States Census

The United States Census of 1860 was the eighth Census conducted in the United States starting June 1, 1860, and lasting five months. It determined the population of the United States to be 31,443,321, an increase of 35.4 percent over the 23,191,875 persons enumerated during the 1850 Census. The total population included 3,953,761 slaves.

By the time the 1860 census returns were ready for tabulation, the nation was sinking into the American Civil War. As a result, Census Superintendent Joseph C. G. Kennedy and his staff produced only an abbreviated set of public reports, without graphic or cartographic representations. The statistics did allow the Census staff to produce a cartographic display, including preparing maps of Southern states, for Union field commanders. These maps displayed militarily vital topics, including white population, slave population, predominant agricultural products (by county), and rail and post road transportation routes.

This census saw Philadelphia regain its position as second-most populous American city, which it had lost to Baltimore in 1820. Philadelphia would in turn permanently lose the position to Chicago in 1890.

1860 United States Census
Seal of the United States Census Bureau
1860 census Lindauer Weber
1860 US Census from the state of New York
General information
CountryUnited States
Date takenJune 1, 1860
Total population31,443,321
Percent changeIncrease 35.4%

Census questions

The 1860 census Schedule 1 (Free Inhabitants) was one of two schedules that counted the population of the United States; the other was Schedule 2 (Slave Inhabitants). Schedule 1 collected the following information:[1]

Column Title Notes
1 Dwelling-houses—numbered in the order of visitation.
2 Families numbered in the order of visitation
3 The name of every person whose usual place of abode on the first date of June 1860, was in this family.
4 Description: Age.
5 Description: Sex. M or F
6 Description: Color, (White, black, or mulatto). W, B or M
7 Profession, Occupation, or Trade of each person, male and female, over 15 years of age.
8 Value of Estate Owned: Value of Real Estate.
9 Value of Estate Owned: Value of Personal Estate.
10 Place of Birth, Naming the State, Territory, or Country.
11 Married within the year. Marked with '/'
12 Attended School within the year. Marked with '/'
13 Persons over 20 years of age who can not read and write. Marked with '/'
14 Whether deaf and dumb, blind, insane, idiotic, pauper, or convict.

Data availability

Full documentation for the 1860 population census, including microdata, census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS). Aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System.

Common occupations

National data reveals that farmers (owners and tenants) made up nearly 10% of utilized occupations. Farm laborers (wage workers) represent the next highest percent with 3.2%, followed by general laborers at 3.0%.[2]

More localized data shows that other occupations were common. In the town of Essex, Massachusetts, a large section of the women in the labor force were devoted to shoe-binding, while for men the common occupations were farming and shoe-making.[3] This heavy demand of shoe-related labor reinforces the high demand for rigorous physical laborers in the economy, as supported by the data of very large amounts of farm related work as compared to most other labor options.

IPUMS' data also notes that the share of the population that had been enrolled in school or marked as "Student" stood at 0.2%. This demonstrates a small rate of growth, if any, in the proficiency of the human capital of the time—the skill set a worker has to apply to the labor force, which can increase total output through increased efficiency.

The census of 1860 was the last in which much of Southern wealth was held as slaves—still legally considered property. Analogous to today where wealth can fluctuate with value changes in stocks, factories, and other forms of property, the South suffered a huge loss of total wealth and assets when the American Civil War ended and slaves were no longer counted as physical property.

State rankings

Rank State Population
01 New York 3,880,735
02 Pennsylvania 2,906,215
03 Ohio 2,339,511
04 Illinois 1,711,951
05 Indiana 1,350,428
06 Massachusetts 1,231,066
07 Virginia 1,219,630
08 Missouri 1,182,012
09 Kentucky 1,155,684
10 Tennessee 1,109,801
11 Georgia 1,057,286
12 North Carolina 992,622
13 Alabama 964,201
14 Mississippi 791,305
15 Wisconsin 775,881
16 Michigan 749,113
17 Louisiana 708,002
18 South Carolina 703,708
19 Maryland 687,049
20 Iowa 674,913
21 New Jersey 672,035
22 Maine 628,279
23 Texas 604,215
24 Connecticut 460,147
25 Arkansas 435,450
26 California 379,994
X West Virginia [4] 376,688
27 New Hampshire 326,073
28 Vermont 315,098
29 Rhode Island 174,620
30 Minnesota 172,023
31 Florida 140,424
32 Delaware 112,216
X Kansas 107,206
X New Mexico 87,034
X District of Columbia [5] 75,080
33 Oregon 52,465
X Utah 40,273
X Colorado 34,277
X Nebraska 28,841
X Washington 11,594
X Nevada 6,857
X South Dakota [6] 4,837

City rankings

Rank City State Population[7] Region (2016)[8]
01 New York New York 813,669 Northeast
02 Philadelphia Pennsylvania 565,529 Northeast
03 Brooklyn New York 266,661 Northeast
04 Baltimore Maryland 212,418 South
05 Boston Massachusetts 177,840 Northeast
06 New Orleans Louisiana 168,675 South
07 Cincinnati Ohio 161,044 Midwest
08 St. Louis Missouri 160,773 Midwest
09 Chicago Illinois 112,172 Midwest
10 Buffalo New York 81,129 Northeast
11 Newark New Jersey 71,941 Northeast
12 Louisville Kentucky 68,033 South
13 Albany New York 62,367 Northeast
14 Washington District of Columbia 61,122 South
15 San Francisco California 56,802 West
16 Providence Rhode Island 50,666 Northeast
17 Pittsburgh Pennsylvania 49,221 Northeast
18 Rochester New York 48,204 Northeast
19 Detroit Michigan 45,619 Midwest
20 Milwaukee Wisconsin 45,246 Midwest
21 Cleveland Ohio 43,417 Midwest
22 Charleston South Carolina 40,522 South
23 New Haven Connecticut 39,267 Northeast
24 Troy New York 39,235 Northeast
25 Richmond Virginia 37,910 South
26 Lowell Massachusetts 36,827 Northeast
27 Mobile Alabama 29,258 South
28 Jersey City New Jersey 29,226 Northeast
29 Allegheny Pennsylvania 28,702 Northeast
30 Syracuse New York 28,119 Northeast
31 Hartford Connecticut 26,917 Northeast
32 Portland Maine 26,341 Northeast
33 Cambridge Massachusetts 26,060 Northeast
34 Roxbury Massachusetts 25,137 Northeast
35 Charlestown Massachusetts 25,065 Northeast
36 Worcester Massachusetts 24,960 Northeast
37 Reading Pennsylvania 23,162 Northeast
38 Memphis Tennessee 22,623 South
39 Utica New York 22,529 Northeast
40 New Bedford Massachusetts 22,300 Northeast
41 Savannah Georgia 22,292 South
42 Salem Massachusetts 22,252 Northeast
43 Wilmington Delaware 21,258 South
44 Manchester New Hampshire 20,107 Northeast
45 Dayton Ohio 20,081 Midwest
46 Paterson New Jersey 19,586 Northeast
47 Lynn Massachusetts 19,083 Northeast
48 Indianapolis Indiana 18,611 Midwest
49 Columbus Ohio 18,554 Midwest
50 Petersburg Virginia 18,266 South
51 Lawrence Massachusetts 17,639 Northeast
52 Lancaster Pennsylvania 17,603 Northeast
53 Trenton New Jersey 17,228 Northeast
54 Nashville Tennessee 16,988 South
55 Oswego New York 16,816 Northeast
56 Covington Kentucky 16,471 South
57 Bangor Maine 16,407 Northeast
58 Taunton Massachusetts 15,376 Northeast
59 Springfield Massachusetts 15,199 Northeast
60 Poughkeepsie New York 14,726 Northeast
61 Norfolk Virginia 14,620 South
62 Camden New Jersey 14,358 Northeast
63 Wheeling Virginia 14,083 South
64 Norwich Connecticut 14,048 Northeast
65 Peoria Illinois 14,045 Midwest
66 Fall River Massachusetts 14,026 Northeast
67 Sacramento California 13,785 West
68 Toledo Ohio 13,768 Midwest
69 Quincy Illinois 13,718 Midwest
70 Harrisburg Pennsylvania 13,405 Northeast
71 Newburyport Massachusetts 13,401 Northeast
72 Chelsea Massachusetts 13,395 Northeast
73 Dubuque Iowa 13,000 Midwest
74 Alexandria Virginia 12,652 South
75 New Albany Indiana 12,647 Midwest
76 Newburgh New York 12,578 Northeast
77 Augusta Georgia 12,493 South
78 Bridgeport Connecticut 12,106 Northeast
79 North Providence Rhode Island 11,818 Northeast
80 Elizabeth New Jersey 11,567 Northeast
81 Evansville Indiana 11,484 Midwest
82 Davenport Iowa 11,267 Midwest
83 New Brunswick New Jersey 11,256 Northeast
84 Auburn New York 10,986 Northeast
85 Gloucester Massachusetts 10,904 Northeast
86 Concord New Hampshire 10,896 Northeast
87 Lockport New York 10,871 Northeast
88 Newport Rhode Island 10,508 Northeast
89 Saint Paul Minnesota 10,401 Midwest
90 New London Connecticut 10,115 Northeast
91 Nashua New Hampshire 10,065 Northeast
92 Newport Kentucky 10,046 South
93 Waterbury Connecticut 10,004 Northeast
94 Haverhill Massachusetts 9,995 Northeast
95 Dorchester Massachusetts 9,769 Northeast
96 Hoboken New Jersey 9,662 Northeast
97 Columbus Georgia 9,621 South
98 Schenectady New York 9,579 Northeast
99 Atlanta Georgia 9,554 South
100 Wilmington North Carolina 9,552 South

See also


  1. ^ "1860 Census Questionnaire" (PDF). US Census Bureau. Retrieved March 28, 2013.
  2. ^ "IPUMS 1860 Census Data". IPUMS Data Collection. Retrieved March 1, 2011.
  3. ^ Wilhelm, Kurt. "Essex, MA Census 1860". 1860 Federal Census. Archived from the original on July 23, 2011. Retrieved February 27, 2011.
  4. ^ Between 1790 and 1860, the state of West Virginia was part of Virginia; the data for each states reflect the present-day boundaries.
  5. ^ The District of Columbia is not a state but was created with the passage of the Residence Act of 1790.
  6. ^ Figures recorded for Dakota Territory by the censuses of 1860, 1870, and 1880 are listed here as belonging to South Dakota..
  7. ^ Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places in the United States: 1790 to 1990, U.S. Census Bureau, 1998
  8. ^ "Regions and Divisions". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on December 3, 2016. Retrieved September 9, 2016.

External links

1865 in Michigan

Events from the year 1865 in Michigan.

Alice Mary Robertson

Alice Mary Robertson (January 2, 1854 – July 1, 1931) was an American educator, social worker, government official, and politician who became the second woman to serve in the United States Congress, and the first from the state of Oklahoma. Robertson was the first woman to defeat an incumbent congressman. She was known for her strong personality, commitment to Native American issues, and anti-feminist stance.

Until the election of Mary Fallin in 2006, Robertson was the only woman elected from Oklahoma to Congress.

Allen House (Dyersville, Iowa)

The Allen House is a historic building located in Dyersville, Iowa, United States. T.F. Allen was a land speculator and developer who had this house built in 1857, which was the peak year for building in Dyersville. That year the town was the terminus of the Dubuque and Pacific Railway. Thirty houses were built in the town that year, and others were under contract. Within a year, the railroad had expanded further west, and the town was in an economic depression exacerbated by the Panic of 1857. There is no mention of Allen or his family in Dyersville in the 1860 United States Census.

The two-story brick house exhibits elements of both the Italianate and Federal styles. It features a low-pitched hip roof, broad eaves without brackets, Federal influenced metal lintels on each window, a transom above the main doorway, and nearly full-sized front porch with heavy square wood posts. A two-story wing was added onto the back in the early 20th-century, and a carriage house was built about the same time. The house was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1975.

Asahel W. Hubbard

Asahel Wheeler Hubbard (January 19, 1819 – September 22, 1879) was an attorney, judge, Indiana legislator, and three-term Republican U.S. Representative from Iowa's 6th congressional district during the Civil War and the first stage of the Reconstruction era. He was the father of Iowa Congressman Elbert H. Hubbard.

Born in Haddam, Connecticut, Hubbard attended the public schools. He worked as a stonecutter. He subsequently pursued his studies at a select school in Middletown, Connecticut. He moved to Rushville, Indiana, in 1838, where he was employed as a book agent and taught school. He studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1841 and commenced practice in Rushville. He served as member of the Indiana House of Representatives from 1847 to 1849.

In 1857, he moved to Sioux City, Iowa, and engaged in the real estate business. He served as judge of the fourth judicial district from 1859 to 1862.

In 1862, after the 1860 United States Census caused Iowa's seats in the U.S. House to increase from two to six, Hubbard became the first Congressman to represent Iowa's 6th congressional district. Re-elected twice, he served in the Thirty-eighth, Thirty-ninth, and Fortieth Congresses. He was influential in securing legislation which hastened the building of several lines of railroad through his district, besides securing to Sioux City a branch of the Union Pacific Railroad. He was not a candidate for renomination in 1868. In all, he served in Congress from March 4, 1863 to March 3, 1869.

Hubbard was one of the organizers of the First National Bank of Sioux City in 1871, and served as its president until January 15, 1879. He also had interests in railroad building in Iowa and in a mining property in Leadville, Colorado.

He died in Sioux City on September 22, 1879. He was interred in Floyd Cemetery.

In 1880, Hubbard, Nebraska was named in honor of Asahel W. Hubbard.

Chauncey Nye

Chauncey Nye (1823–1900) was a pioneer of the U.S. state of Oregon who was best known as the first person to publish an account about Crater Lake.

Daniel F. Bakeman

Daniel Frederick Bakeman (October 9, 1759 – April 5, 1869) was the last survivor receiving a veteran's pension for service in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783).

Fairhope Plantation

Fairhope Plantation is a historic Carpenter Gothic plantation house and historic district, located one mile east of Uniontown, Alabama, USA. The ​2 1⁄2-story wood-framed main house was built in the Gothic Revival style in the late 1850s. The plantation historic district includes six other contributing buildings, in addition to the main house. It was added to the Alabama Register of Landmarks and Heritage on December 19, 1991 and subsequently to the National Register of Historic Places on May 29, 1992, due to its architectural and historical significance.

Felix Ives Batson

Felix Ives Batson (September 6, 1819 – March 11, 1871) was a prominent American lawyer and politician from Arkansas.

Born in Dickson County, Tennessee, he later moved to Clarksville, Arkansas and established a law practice. He was admitted to the bar in 1841 and was one of the first attorneys in Johnson County. From 1853 to 1858 he was a circuit judge for the Fourth Judicial Circuit of Arkansas. In 1858 he served as a justice of the Arkansas Supreme Court, a position he resigned in 1860. Batson as a delegate to Arkansas Secession Convention prior to the Civil War in 1861 and voted for secession. During the American Civil War, he represented the First Congressional District of northwest Arkansas in the First Confederate Congress and the Second Confederate Congress House of Representatives. Batson defeated well known Arkansas politician Hugh French Thomason to win election in November 1861.In the first Congress, Batson served on the Inauguration, Military Affairs and Territories and Public Lands committees. During the second Congress he served on the Judiciary Committee and on select committees whose purpose was to inform state governors to lessen the granting of exemptions and to increase the number of Confederate troops in each state.

After the war Batson returned to Clarksville to practice law. It is estimated he lost 75 percent of his fortune during the war years. In Batson died in Clarksville, Arkansas and was buried in Oakland Cemetery.The 1860 United States Census Slave Schedule states that Batson owned 14 slaves, ranging from 1 to 35 years old.His only daughter, Emma, married Jordan Edgar Cravens, a Colonel in the Confederate Army who served in the United States House of Representatives from 1877-1883. In 1898 Emma Batson Cravens organized Chapter 221 of the United Daughters of the Confederacy and named the chapter after Felix I. Batson.

Herschel Vespasian Johnson

Herschel Vespasian Johnson (September 18, 1812 – August 16, 1880) was an American politician. He was the 41st Governor of Georgia from 1853 to 1857 and the vice presidential nominee of the Douglas wing of the Democratic Party in the 1860 U.S. presidential election. He also served as one of Georgia's Confederate States senators.

James Jeffries (Louisiana)

James A. Jeffries (October 1836 – January 18, 1910) was the 20th Lieutenant Governor of Louisiana, with service from 1888 to 1892 under Governor Francis T. Nicholls.

L. Rowley Jacobs

L. Rowley (L. R.) Jacobs was an itinerant American portrait artist, who worked in the United States during the middle of the 19th century.

L. R. was born in New York City circa 1823, of Italian parents. According to the 1860 United States Census, he was an artist working in Cincinnati, Ohio. He was living there with his wife Anna and two children. This artist's work falls under the "folk art" category. His portraits are found beginning in the 1850s. He is known to have also worked in Illinois and New York. Beside working in the traditional oil method, he also worked in the medium of Reverse glass painting.

It is said he died in Springfield, Illinois, after 1890.

Linn City, Oregon

Linn City was a community in Clackamas County, Oregon, United States, that existed from 1843-1861. The former site of Linn City was incorporated into the city of West Linn.

List of plantations in West Virginia

Plantations that operated within the present-day boundaries of West Virginia were located in the counties of the Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians and in the Kanawha and Ohio River valley regions. Beginning in the mid-to-late 18th century, members of the Washington family and other prominent Virginia families began to build elegant Georgian mansions on their plantations in the Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians region of present-day West Virginia. Plantations initially developed in the counties lying within the Northern Neck Proprietary of Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron within the Shenandoah Valley and South Branch Potomac River valleys. Slavery as practiced through plantations in the American South was carried over from the plantations of the Piedmont and Tidewater regions of Virginia, where plantations had become the foundation of society and industry. Following the French and Indian War, settlement and agricultural development continued unabated in the Shenandoah and South Branch Potomac valleys. Early instances of western Virginia plantations with grand homes include the John Ariss-designed Harewood (1774) for George Washington's brother Samuel Washington and Happy Retreat (1780) built by Washington's younger brother Charles Washington, both of which are located near Charles Town in present-day Jefferson County. In Hampshire County, Nicholas Casey constructed a Georgian mansion (1774) at his Wappocomo plantation, one of the first plantation houses of its kind in the South Branch Potomac River valley.Plantations continued to develop along the fringes of present-day West Virginia. By the close of the 18th century, Harman Blennerhassett had constructed a mansion on his plantation on Blennerhassett Island and Moses Shepherd had built Shepherd Hall near Wheeling, both in the Ohio River valley. Despite the agricultural development of then western Virginia's bottomlands and the resulting wealth of the plantation owners, the hinterlands of the Allegheny Mountains and Allegheny Plateau regions remained underpopulated and inhabited by subsistence farmers of meager means into the middle of the 19th century. By the 1860 United States Census, Berkeley, Greenbrier, Hampshire, Hardy, Jefferson, Kanawha, and Monroe counties consequently had the largest populations of slaves in present-day West Virginia.The economic and political differences between western and eastern Virginia began to grow. Following Virginia's secession from the Union in 1861, the Restored Government of Virginia was established at Wheeling during the American Civil War. Despite West Virginia receiving Union statehood on June 20, 1863, sympathies and loyalties within the state's borders remained divided, especially within areas economically dependent upon the plantation system. However, slaveowners in western Virginia tended to own fewer slaves than their counterparts in eastern Virginia and many did not support Virginia's secession. In Mason County, where small farms were reliant upon slavery, its residents overwhelmingly supported the Union cause. During the war, many plantations in West Virginia served as preferred venues for military headquarters and meeting places for both Union and Confederate military officers due to their adequate accommodations and resources. Altona near Charles Town was utilized as a military headquarters and meeting place for Union generals Philip Sheridan and Ulysses S. Grant, with Sheridan making use of the farm's horses and carriage. Other plantations, like Mill Island and Willow Wall near Moorefield, and Elmwood near Shepherdstown, were utilized as hospitals for wounded soldiers and irregulars.In anticipation of the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, the West Virginia Legislature at Wheeling passed an act abolishing slavery in West Virginia on February 3, 1865, thus ending the institution of the plantation in West Virginia. Since the 1960s, many of West Virginia's plantation houses have acquired places on the National Register of Historic Places, the United States government's official list of sites, buildings, and structures deemed worthy of preservation. The house at Traveller's Rest, near Kearneysville, is West Virginia's sole plantation house designated as a National Historic Landmark for its national-level historical significance. As of 2015, the majority of West Virginia's plantation houses remain under private ownership.

Pitts' Folly

Pitts' Folly is a historic antebellum Greek Revival residence located in Uniontown, Alabama. The house was built by Philip Henry Pitts as his main house. It was designed by architect B. F. Parsons, who also designed the nearby Perry County Courthouse in Marion. Many local legends detail how the house gained its name, but they all center on the people of Uniontown believing it to be folly, or foolishness, that Pitts was building such a large house.

Robert Toombs

Robert Augustus Toombs (July 2, 1810 – December 15, 1885) was an American lawyer, planter, and politician from Georgia who became one of the organizers of the Confederacy and served as its first Secretary of State. He served in Jefferson Davis' cabinet as well as in the Confederate States Army, but later became one of Davis' critics. He fled the United States after the Confederate defeat, returning in 1867 after his daughter's death. He regained political power in Georgia as Congressional Reconstruction ended.

A lawyer by training, Toombs gained renown in the antebellum years as speaker in the U.S. House of Representatives, and later in the U.S. Senate. A slaveholder, he found common ground with fellow-Georgian Alexander H. Stephens and advocated states' rights and the extension of slavery to western territories. Toombs supported the Compromise of 1850, but later advocated secession. Toombs had emotive oratory and a strong physical presence, but his intemperate habits and volatile personality limited his career. In the newly formed Confederate Government, Toombs was appointed Secretary of State. He criticised the attack on Fort Sumter, which put him at odds with President Jefferson Davis (whose position he had coveted), and he quit the administration to join the Confederate States Army. He became a Brigadier-General, and was wounded at the Battle of Antietam. In 1863, Toombs resigned his commission in the Confederate Army to join the Georgia militia. He was subsequently denied higher promotion and resigned as he continued to feud with Davis. When the war ended, he fled to Cuba. He returned to Georgia in 1867, but refused to request a presidential pardon and was prohibited from holding political office until after the Reconstruction era ended.


Waldwic, also known as the William M. Spencer, III, House, is a historic Carpenter Gothic plantation house and historic district located on the west side of Alabama Highway 69, south of Gallion, Alabama. Waldwic is included in the Plantation Houses of the Alabama Canebrake and Their Associated Outbuildings Multiple Property Submission. The main house and plantation outbuildings were added to the National Register of Historic Places on July 22, 1994.

Westwood (Uniontown, Alabama)

Westwood is a historic plantation in Uniontown, Alabama, United States. The main house was built between 1836 and 1850 by James Lewis Price. It is in the Greek Revival style with some Italianate influence. The outbuildings include a smokehouse with architectural detailing identical to the main house, a carriage house, a dairy, and a cook's quarters. Westwood Plantation was added to the National Register of Historic Places as a historic district on November 21, 1974. Boundary increases were made to the district on March 15, 1984 and December 10, 1984.

William Bishop (politician)

William Bishop (1817 – May 2, 1879) was an American businessman, military officer and politician in the 19th century. He served as the State Treasurer of Missouri from 1865 to 1869.

William R. Baker

William Robinson Baker (1820–1890) was a railroad executive, Texas State Senator and Mayor of Houston, Texas.

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