The United States Census of 1860 was the eighth Census conducted in the United States starting June 1, 1860, and lasting five months. It determined the population of the United States to be 31,443,321, an increase of 35.4 percent over the 23,191,875 persons enumerated during the 1850 Census. The total population included 3,953,761 slaves.
By the time the 1860 census returns were ready for tabulation, the nation was sinking into the American Civil War. As a result, Census Superintendent Joseph C. G. Kennedy and his staff produced only an abbreviated set of public reports, without graphic or cartographic representations. The statistics did allow the Census staff to produce a cartographic display, including preparing maps of Southern states, for Union field commanders. These maps displayed militarily vital topics, including white population, slave population, predominant agricultural products (by county), and rail and post road transportation routes.
This census saw Philadelphia regain its position as second-most populous American city, which it had lost to Baltimore in 1820. Philadelphia would in turn permanently lose the position to Chicago in 1890.
|1860 United States Census|
Seal of the United States Census Bureau
1860 US Census from the state of New York
|Date taken||June 1, 1860|
The 1860 census Schedule 1 (Free Inhabitants) was one of two schedules that counted the population of the United States; the other was Schedule 2 (Slave Inhabitants). Schedule 1 collected the following information:
|1||Dwelling-houses—numbered in the order of visitation.|
|2||Families numbered in the order of visitation|
|3||The name of every person whose usual place of abode on the first date of June 1860, was in this family.|
|5||Description: Sex.||M or F|
|6||Description: Color, (White, black, or mulatto).||W, B or M|
|7||Profession, Occupation, or Trade of each person, male and female, over 15 years of age.|
|8||Value of Estate Owned: Value of Real Estate.|
|9||Value of Estate Owned: Value of Personal Estate.|
|10||Place of Birth, Naming the State, Territory, or Country.|
|11||Married within the year.||Marked with '/'|
|12||Attended School within the year.||Marked with '/'|
|13||Persons over 20 years of age who can not read and write.||Marked with '/'|
|14||Whether deaf and dumb, blind, insane, idiotic, pauper, or convict.|
Full documentation for the 1860 population census, including microdata, census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS). Aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System.
National data reveals that farmers (owners and tenants) made up nearly 10% of utilized occupations. Farm laborers (wage workers) represent the next highest percent with 3.2%, followed by general laborers at 3.0%.
More localized data shows that other occupations were common. In the town of Essex, Massachusetts, a large section of the women in the labor force were devoted to shoe-binding, while for men the common occupations were farming and shoe-making. This heavy demand of shoe-related labor reinforces the high demand for rigorous physical laborers in the economy, as supported by the data of very large amounts of farm related work as compared to most other labor options.
IPUMS' data also notes that the share of the population that had been enrolled in school or marked as "Student" stood at 0.2%. This demonstrates a small rate of growth, if any, in the proficiency of the human capital of the time—the skill set a worker has to apply to the labor force, which can increase total output through increased efficiency.
The census of 1860 was the last in which much of Southern wealth was held as slaves—still legally considered property. Analogous to today where wealth can fluctuate with value changes in stocks, factories, and other forms of property, the South suffered a huge loss of total wealth and assets when the American Civil War ended and slaves were no longer counted as physical property.
|X||West Virginia ||376,688|
|X||District of Columbia ||75,080|
|X||South Dakota ||4,837|
|01||New York||New York||813,669||Northeast|
|14||Washington||District of Columbia||61,122||South|
|28||Jersey City||New Jersey||29,226||Northeast|
|79||North Providence||Rhode Island||11,818||Northeast|
|83||New Brunswick||New Jersey||11,256||Northeast|
Events from the year 1865 in Michigan.Alice Mary Robertson
Alice Mary Robertson (January 2, 1854 – July 1, 1931) was an American educator, social worker, government official, and politician who became the second woman to serve in the United States Congress, and the first from the state of Oklahoma. Robertson was the first woman to defeat an incumbent congressman. She was known for her strong personality, commitment to Native American issues, and anti-feminist stance.
Until the election of Mary Fallin in 2006, Robertson was the only woman elected from Oklahoma to Congress.Allen House (Dyersville, Iowa)
The Allen House is a historic building located in Dyersville, Iowa, United States. T.F. Allen was a land speculator and developer who had this house built in 1857, which was the peak year for building in Dyersville. That year the town was the terminus of the Dubuque and Pacific Railway. Thirty houses were built in the town that year, and others were under contract. Within a year, the railroad had expanded further west, and the town was in an economic depression exacerbated by the Panic of 1857. There is no mention of Allen or his family in Dyersville in the 1860 United States Census.
The two-story brick house exhibits elements of both the Italianate and Federal styles. It features a low-pitched hip roof, broad eaves without brackets, Federal influenced metal lintels on each window, a transom above the main doorway, and nearly full-sized front porch with heavy square wood posts. A two-story wing was added onto the back in the early 20th-century, and a carriage house was built about the same time. The house was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1975.Asahel W. Hubbard
Asahel Wheeler Hubbard (January 19, 1819 – September 22, 1879) was an attorney, judge, Indiana legislator, and three-term Republican U.S. Representative from Iowa's 6th congressional district during the Civil War and the first stage of the Reconstruction era. He was the father of Iowa Congressman Elbert H. Hubbard.
Born in Haddam, Connecticut, Hubbard attended the public schools. He worked as a stonecutter. He subsequently pursued his studies at a select school in Middletown, Connecticut. He moved to Rushville, Indiana, in 1838, where he was employed as a book agent and taught school. He studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1841 and commenced practice in Rushville. He served as member of the Indiana House of Representatives from 1847 to 1849.
In 1857, he moved to Sioux City, Iowa, and engaged in the real estate business. He served as judge of the fourth judicial district from 1859 to 1862.
In 1862, after the 1860 United States Census caused Iowa's seats in the U.S. House to increase from two to six, Hubbard became the first Congressman to represent Iowa's 6th congressional district. Re-elected twice, he served in the Thirty-eighth, Thirty-ninth, and Fortieth Congresses. He was influential in securing legislation which hastened the building of several lines of railroad through his district, besides securing to Sioux City a branch of the Union Pacific Railroad. He was not a candidate for renomination in 1868. In all, he served in Congress from March 4, 1863 to March 3, 1869.
Hubbard was one of the organizers of the First National Bank of Sioux City in 1871, and served as its president until January 15, 1879. He also had interests in railroad building in Iowa and in a mining property in Leadville, Colorado.
He died in Sioux City on September 22, 1879. He was interred in Floyd Cemetery.
In 1880, Hubbard, Nebraska was named in honor of Asahel W. Hubbard.Chauncey Nye
Chauncey Nye (1823–1900) was a pioneer of the U.S. state of Oregon who was best known as the first person to publish an account about Crater Lake.Daniel F. Bakeman
Daniel Frederick Bakeman (October 9, 1759 – April 5, 1869) was the last survivor receiving a veteran's pension for service in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783).Fairhope Plantation
Fairhope Plantation is a historic Carpenter Gothic plantation house and historic district, located one mile east of Uniontown, Alabama, USA. The 2 1⁄2-story wood-framed main house was built in the Gothic Revival style in the late 1850s. The plantation historic district includes six other contributing buildings, in addition to the main house. It was added to the Alabama Register of Landmarks and Heritage on December 19, 1991 and subsequently to the National Register of Historic Places on May 29, 1992, due to its architectural and historical significance.Felix Ives Batson
Felix Ives Batson (September 6, 1819 – March 11, 1871) was a prominent American lawyer and politician from Arkansas.
Born in Dickson County, Tennessee, he later moved to Clarksville, Arkansas and established a law practice. He was admitted to the bar in 1841 and was one of the first attorneys in Johnson County. From 1853 to 1858 he was a circuit judge for the Fourth Judicial Circuit of Arkansas. In 1858 he served as a justice of the Arkansas Supreme Court, a position he resigned in 1860. Batson as a delegate to Arkansas Secession Convention prior to the Civil War in 1861 and voted for secession. During the American Civil War, he represented the First Congressional District of northwest Arkansas in the First Confederate Congress and the Second Confederate Congress House of Representatives. Batson defeated well known Arkansas politician Hugh French Thomason to win election in November 1861.In the first Congress, Batson served on the Inauguration, Military Affairs and Territories and Public Lands committees. During the second Congress he served on the Judiciary Committee and on select committees whose purpose was to inform state governors to lessen the granting of exemptions and to increase the number of Confederate troops in each state.
After the war Batson returned to Clarksville to practice law. It is estimated he lost 75 percent of his fortune during the war years. In Batson died in Clarksville, Arkansas and was buried in Oakland Cemetery.The 1860 United States Census Slave Schedule states that Batson owned 14 slaves, ranging from 1 to 35 years old.His only daughter, Emma, married Jordan Edgar Cravens, a Colonel in the Confederate Army who served in the United States House of Representatives from 1877-1883. In 1898 Emma Batson Cravens organized Chapter 221 of the United Daughters of the Confederacy and named the chapter after Felix I. Batson.Herschel Vespasian Johnson
Herschel Vespasian Johnson (September 18, 1812 – August 16, 1880) was an American politician. He was the 41st Governor of Georgia from 1853 to 1857 and the vice presidential nominee of the Douglas wing of the Democratic Party in the 1860 U.S. presidential election. He also served as one of Georgia's Confederate States senators.James Jeffries (Louisiana)
James A. Jeffries (October 1836 – January 18, 1910) was the 20th Lieutenant Governor of Louisiana, with service from 1888 to 1892 under Governor Francis T. Nicholls.L. Rowley Jacobs
L. Rowley (L. R.) Jacobs was an itinerant American portrait artist, who worked in the United States during the middle of the 19th century.
L. R. was born in New York City circa 1823, of Italian parents. According to the 1860 United States Census, he was an artist working in Cincinnati, Ohio. He was living there with his wife Anna and two children. This artist's work falls under the "folk art" category. His portraits are found beginning in the 1850s. He is known to have also worked in Illinois and New York. Beside working in the traditional oil method, he also worked in the medium of Reverse glass painting.
It is said he died in Springfield, Illinois, after 1890.Linn City, Oregon
Linn City was a community in Clackamas County, Oregon, United States, that existed from 1843-1861. The former site of Linn City was incorporated into the city of West Linn.List of plantations in West Virginia
Plantations that operated within the present-day boundaries of West Virginia were located in the counties of the Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians and in the Kanawha and Ohio River valley regions. Beginning in the mid-to-late 18th century, members of the Washington family and other prominent Virginia families began to build elegant Georgian mansions on their plantations in the Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians region of present-day West Virginia. Plantations initially developed in the counties lying within the Northern Neck Proprietary of Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron within the Shenandoah Valley and South Branch Potomac River valleys. Slavery as practiced through plantations in the American South was carried over from the plantations of the Piedmont and Tidewater regions of Virginia, where plantations had become the foundation of society and industry. Following the French and Indian War, settlement and agricultural development continued unabated in the Shenandoah and South Branch Potomac valleys. Early instances of western Virginia plantations with grand homes include the John Ariss-designed Harewood (1774) for George Washington's brother Samuel Washington and Happy Retreat (1780) built by Washington's younger brother Charles Washington, both of which are located near Charles Town in present-day Jefferson County. In Hampshire County, Nicholas Casey constructed a Georgian mansion (1774) at his Wappocomo plantation, one of the first plantation houses of its kind in the South Branch Potomac River valley.Plantations continued to develop along the fringes of present-day West Virginia. By the close of the 18th century, Harman Blennerhassett had constructed a mansion on his plantation on Blennerhassett Island and Moses Shepherd had built Shepherd Hall near Wheeling, both in the Ohio River valley. Despite the agricultural development of then western Virginia's bottomlands and the resulting wealth of the plantation owners, the hinterlands of the Allegheny Mountains and Allegheny Plateau regions remained underpopulated and inhabited by subsistence farmers of meager means into the middle of the 19th century. By the 1860 United States Census, Berkeley, Greenbrier, Hampshire, Hardy, Jefferson, Kanawha, and Monroe counties consequently had the largest populations of slaves in present-day West Virginia.The economic and political differences between western and eastern Virginia began to grow. Following Virginia's secession from the Union in 1861, the Restored Government of Virginia was established at Wheeling during the American Civil War. Despite West Virginia receiving Union statehood on June 20, 1863, sympathies and loyalties within the state's borders remained divided, especially within areas economically dependent upon the plantation system. However, slaveowners in western Virginia tended to own fewer slaves than their counterparts in eastern Virginia and many did not support Virginia's secession. In Mason County, where small farms were reliant upon slavery, its residents overwhelmingly supported the Union cause. During the war, many plantations in West Virginia served as preferred venues for military headquarters and meeting places for both Union and Confederate military officers due to their adequate accommodations and resources. Altona near Charles Town was utilized as a military headquarters and meeting place for Union generals Philip Sheridan and Ulysses S. Grant, with Sheridan making use of the farm's horses and carriage. Other plantations, like Mill Island and Willow Wall near Moorefield, and Elmwood near Shepherdstown, were utilized as hospitals for wounded soldiers and irregulars.In anticipation of the passage of the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, the West Virginia Legislature at Wheeling passed an act abolishing slavery in West Virginia on February 3, 1865, thus ending the institution of the plantation in West Virginia. Since the 1960s, many of West Virginia's plantation houses have acquired places on the National Register of Historic Places, the United States government's official list of sites, buildings, and structures deemed worthy of preservation. The house at Traveller's Rest, near Kearneysville, is West Virginia's sole plantation house designated as a National Historic Landmark for its national-level historical significance. As of 2015, the majority of West Virginia's plantation houses remain under private ownership.Pitts' Folly
Pitts' Folly is a historic antebellum Greek Revival residence located in Uniontown, Alabama. The house was built by Philip Henry Pitts as his main house. It was designed by architect B. F. Parsons, who also designed the nearby Perry County Courthouse in Marion. Many local legends detail how the house gained its name, but they all center on the people of Uniontown believing it to be folly, or foolishness, that Pitts was building such a large house.Robert Toombs
Robert Augustus Toombs (July 2, 1810 – December 15, 1885) was an American lawyer, planter, and politician from Georgia who became one of the organizers of the Confederacy and served as its first Secretary of State. He served in Jefferson Davis' cabinet as well as in the Confederate States Army, but later became one of Davis' critics. He fled the United States after the Confederate defeat, returning in 1867 after his daughter's death. He regained political power in Georgia as Congressional Reconstruction ended.
A lawyer by training, Toombs gained renown in the antebellum years as speaker in the U.S. House of Representatives, and later in the U.S. Senate. A slaveholder, he found common ground with fellow-Georgian Alexander H. Stephens and advocated states' rights and the extension of slavery to western territories. Toombs supported the Compromise of 1850, but later advocated secession. Toombs had emotive oratory and a strong physical presence, but his intemperate habits and volatile personality limited his career. In the newly formed Confederate Government, Toombs was appointed Secretary of State. He criticised the attack on Fort Sumter, which put him at odds with President Jefferson Davis (whose position he had coveted), and he quit the administration to join the Confederate States Army. He became a Brigadier-General, and was wounded at the Battle of Antietam. In 1863, Toombs resigned his commission in the Confederate Army to join the Georgia militia. He was subsequently denied higher promotion and resigned as he continued to feud with Davis. When the war ended, he fled to Cuba. He returned to Georgia in 1867, but refused to request a presidential pardon and was prohibited from holding political office until after the Reconstruction era ended.Waldwic
Waldwic, also known as the William M. Spencer, III, House, is a historic Carpenter Gothic plantation house and historic district located on the west side of Alabama Highway 69, south of Gallion, Alabama. Waldwic is included in the Plantation Houses of the Alabama Canebrake and Their Associated Outbuildings Multiple Property Submission. The main house and plantation outbuildings were added to the National Register of Historic Places on July 22, 1994.Westwood (Uniontown, Alabama)
Westwood is a historic plantation in Uniontown, Alabama, United States. The main house was built between 1836 and 1850 by James Lewis Price. It is in the Greek Revival style with some Italianate influence. The outbuildings include a smokehouse with architectural detailing identical to the main house, a carriage house, a dairy, and a cook's quarters. Westwood Plantation was added to the National Register of Historic Places as a historic district on November 21, 1974. Boundary increases were made to the district on March 15, 1984 and December 10, 1984.William Bishop (politician)
William Bishop (1817 – May 2, 1879) was an American businessman, military officer and politician in the 19th century. He served as the State Treasurer of Missouri from 1865 to 1869.William R. Baker
William Robinson Baker (1820–1890) was a railroad executive, Texas State Senator and Mayor of Houston, Texas.