1855

1855 (MDCCCLV) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1855th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 855th year of the 2nd millennium, the 55th year of the 19th century, and the 6th year of the 1850s decade. As of the start of 1855, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1855 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1855
MDCCCLV
Ab urbe condita2608
Armenian calendar1304
ԹՎ ՌՅԴ
Assyrian calendar6605
Bahá'í calendar11–12
Balinese saka calendar1776–1777
Bengali calendar1262
Berber calendar2805
British Regnal year18 Vict. 1 – 19 Vict. 1
Buddhist calendar2399
Burmese calendar1217
Byzantine calendar7363–7364
Chinese calendar甲寅(Wood Tiger)
4551 or 4491
    — to —
乙卯年 (Wood Rabbit)
4552 or 4492
Coptic calendar1571–1572
Discordian calendar3021
Ethiopian calendar1847–1848
Hebrew calendar5615–5616
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1911–1912
 - Shaka Samvat1776–1777
 - Kali Yuga4955–4956
Holocene calendar11855
Igbo calendar855–856
Iranian calendar1233–1234
Islamic calendar1271–1272
Japanese calendarAnsei 2
(安政2年)
Javanese calendar1783–1784
Julian calendarGregorian minus 12 days
Korean calendar4188
Minguo calendar57 before ROC
民前57年
Nanakshahi calendar387
Thai solar calendar2397–2398
Tibetan calendar阳木虎年
(male Wood-Tiger)
1981 or 1600 or 828
    — to —
阴木兔年
(female Wood-Rabbit)
1982 or 1601 or 829

Events

January–March

April–June

July–September

October–December

Date unknown

Births

January–June

July–December

Date unknown

Deaths

January–June

July–December

References

  1. ^ "Railroad — Western North Carolina Railroad". North Carolina Business History. historync.org. 2006. Archived from the original on October 30, 2013. Retrieved 2013-05-09.
  2. ^ Rose, Leo E. (1971). Nepal: Strategy for Survival. University of California Press. pp. 110–111.
  3. ^ Wine-Searcher. "Classification of Medoc and Graves of 1855". wine-searcher.com. Archived from the original on March 30, 2010..
  4. ^ Hanrahan, David C. (2011). The First Great Train Robbery. London: Robert Hale. ISBN 978-0-7090-9040-3.
  5. ^ "Tennyson Reading 'Maud'". Pre-Raphaelite Online Resource. Birmingham Museums & Art Gallery. Retrieved 2013-05-09.
  6. ^ Demy Sonza. "The Port of Iloilo: 1855 - 2005". Graciano Lopez-Jaena Life and Works and Iloilo History Online Resource. Dr. Graciano Lopez-Jaena (DGLJ) Foundation, Inc. Archived from the original on January 19, 2016. Retrieved January 31, 2016..
  7. ^ Henry Funtecha. "Iloilo's position under colonial rule". thenewstoday.info..
  8. ^ van Dulken, Stephen (2001). Inventing the 19th Century: the great age of Victorian inventions. London: British Library. pp. 30–1. ISBN 0-7123-0881-4.
  9. ^ Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0.

Further reading

1854 United States House of Representatives elections

Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 34th Congress were held during President Franklin Pierce's term at various dates in different states from August 1854 to November 1855.

This midterm election was among the most disruptive in American history, auguring the collapse of the Second Party System. Both major parties, the Democratic Party and Whig Party, organized as rivals for roughly 20 years, lost critical voter support. The Whig Party disintegrated over the slavery issue even as Northern voters, strongly opposing the Kansas–Nebraska Act, shifted sharply against Democrats. The elected majority temporarily coalesced as the Opposition Party. This transitional party included Whigs, Free Soil members, American Party members or Know Nothings, the People's Party of Indiana, Anti-Nebraska candidates, a few disaffected Northern Democrats, and members of the nascent Republican Party, which soon would amalgamate most of these factions, becoming the new rival to the Democrats.

Candidates opposed to the Democratic Party won widely in the North through November 1854, while the American Party, ignoring slavery and opposing immigration particularly by Catholics from Ireland and Germany, won seats from both major parties, but to the net loss of Democrats, in New England and the South in 1855.

Congress passed the Kansas–Nebraska Act in May 1854 after aggressive sponsorship by the Pierce Administration and Democrats led by Senator Stephen Douglas, including an outspoken contingent of radical pro-slavery legislators. It repealed the 1820 Missouri Compromise and triggered the Bleeding Kansas conflict. With widely foreseen risks and immediately negative results, the Act publicly discredited the Democratic Party, fueling new partisan and sectional rancor. It created violent uncertainty on the frontier by abruptly making slavery potentially legal in territories originally part of the Louisiana Purchase and attractive to contemporary settlers. Settlers were expected to determine the status of slavery locally. This idea appealed to Democratic politicians and to some voters in its shape and intent, but proved unworkable in Kansas where the status of slavery would be closely disputed between more numerous settlers from the North and geographically closer settlers from the South. Even some Southern voters who supported slavery, particularly Whigs, felt repealing the Missouri Compromise was politically reckless, and that attempting to push slavery by law and force into territories where settlers predictably were unlikely to want it generated needless hostility, politically endangering its continued legal protection even in the South. These fears proved prescient.

The election of the Speaker was the lengthiest and most contentious in history. More than 21 Representatives vied for the post. After two months and 133 ballots, American Party Representative Nathaniel Banks of Massachusetts, who was also a Free Soiler, defeated Democrat William Aiken of South Carolina both by plurality and a margin of three votes.

1854 and 1855 United States Senate elections

The United States Senate elections of 1854 and 1855 were elections which saw the final decline of the Whig Party and the continuing majority of the Democrats. Those Whigs in the South who were opposed to secession ran on the "Opposition Party" ticket, and were elected to a minority. Along with the Whigs, the Senate roster also included Free Soilers, Know Nothings, and a new party: the Republicans. Only five of the twenty-one Senators up for election were re-elected.

As this election was prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

1855 California gubernatorial election

The 1855 California gubernatorial election was held on September 5, 1855 to elect the governor of California. Incumbent governor John Bigler lost his bid for reelection.

1855 in France

Events from the year 1855 in France.

1855 in Ireland

Events from the year 1855 in Ireland.

1855 in Sweden

Events from the year 1855 in Sweden

Bordeaux Wine Official Classification of 1855

The Bordeaux Wine Official Classification of 1855 resulted from the 1855 Exposition Universelle de Paris, when Emperor Napoleon III requested a classification system for France's best Bordeaux wines that were to be on display for visitors from around the world. Brokers from the wine industry ranked the wines according to a château's reputation and trading price, which at that time was directly related to quality.

The wines were ranked in importance from first to fifth growths (crus). All of the red wines that made it on the list came from the Médoc region except for one: Château Haut-Brion from Graves. The white wines, then of much less importance than red wine, were limited to the sweet varieties of Sauternes and Barsac and were ranked only from superior first growth to second growth.

Crimean War

The Crimean War (French: Guerre de Crimée; Russian: Кры́мская война́, translit. Krymskaya voyna or Russian: Восто́чная война́, translit. Vostochnaya voyna, lit. 'Eastern War'; Turkish: Kırım Savaşı; Italian: Guerra di Crimea) was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardinia. The immediate cause involved the rights of Christian minorities in the Holy Land, which was a part of the Ottoman Empire. The French promoted the rights of Roman Catholics, while Russia promoted those of the Eastern Orthodox Church. The longer-term causes involved the decline of the Ottoman Empire and the unwillingness of Britain and France to allow Russia to gain territory and power at Ottoman expense. It has widely been noted that the causes, in one case involving an argument over a key, have never revealed a "greater confusion of purpose", yet led to a war noted for its "notoriously incompetent international butchery".While the churches worked out their differences and came to an agreement, Nicholas I of Russia and the French Emperor Napoleon III refused to back down. Nicholas issued an ultimatum that the Orthodox subjects of the Ottoman Empire be placed under his protection. Britain attempted to mediate and arranged a compromise that Nicholas agreed to. When the Ottomans demanded changes, Nicholas refused and prepared for war. Having obtained promises of support from France and Britain, the Ottomans declared war on Russia in October 1853.

The war started in the Balkans in July 1853, when Russian troops occupied the Danubian Principalities (part of modern Romania), which were under Ottoman suzerainty, then began to cross the Danube. Led by Omar Pasha, the Ottomans fought a strong defensive campaign and stopped the advance at Silistra. A separate action on the fort town of Kars in eastern Anatolia led to a siege, and a Turkish attempt to reinforce the garrison was destroyed by a Russian fleet at Sinop. Fearing an Ottoman collapse, France and Britain rushed forces to Gallipoli. They then moved north to Varna in June 1854, arriving just in time for the Russians to abandon Silistra. Aside from a minor skirmish at Köstence (today Constanța), there was little for the allies to do. Karl Marx quipped, "there they are, the French doing nothing and the British helping them as fast as possible".Frustrated by the wasted effort, and with demands for action from their citizens, the allied force decided to attack Russia's main naval base in the Black Sea at Sevastopol on the Crimean peninsula. After extended preparations, the forces landed on the peninsula in September 1854 and marched their way to a point south of Sevastopol after the successful Battle of the Alma. The Russians counterattacked on 25 October in what became the Battle of Balaclava and were repulsed, but at the cost of seriously depleting the British Army forces. A second counterattack, at Inkerman, ended in stalemate. The front settled into a siege and led to brutal conditions for troops on both sides. Smaller actions were carried out in the Baltic, the Caucasus, the White Sea, and in the North Pacific.

Sevastopol fell after eleven months, and neutral countries began to join the Allied cause. Isolated and facing a bleak prospect of invasion from the west if the war continued, Russia sued for peace in March 1856. This was welcomed by France and Britain, as the conflict was growing unpopular at home. The war was ended by the Treaty of Paris, signed on 30 March 1856. Russia was forbidden to host warships in the Black Sea. The Ottoman vassal states of Wallachia and Moldavia became largely independent. Christians there were granted a degree of official equality, and the Orthodox Church regained control of the Christian churches in dispute.The Crimean War was one of the first conflicts to use modern technologies such as explosive naval shells, railways, and telegraphs. The war was one of the first to be documented extensively in written reports and photographs. As the legend of the "Charge of the Light Brigade" demonstrates, the war quickly became an iconic symbol of logistical, medical and tactical failures and mismanagement. The reaction in the UK was a demand for professionalisation, most famously achieved by Florence Nightingale, who gained worldwide attention for pioneering modern nursing while treating the wounded.

The Crimean War proved to be the moment of truth for Nikolaevan Russia. Its humiliating outcome forced Russia’s educated elites to identify the Empire’s problems and recognize the need for fundamental transformations aimed at modernizing and restoring Russia’s position in the ranks of European powers. Historians have studied the role of the Crimean War as a catalyst for the reforms of Russia’s social institutions: serfdom, justice, local self-government, education, and military service. More recently, scholars have also turned their attention to the impact of the Crimean War on the development of Russian nationalistic discourse.

Exposition Universelle (1855)

The Exposition Universelle of 1855 was an International Exhibition held on the Champs-Élysées in Paris from 15 May to 15 November 1855. Its full official title was the Exposition Universelle des produits de l'Agriculture, de l'Industrie et des Beaux-Arts de Paris 1855. Today the exposition's sole physical remnant is the Théâtre du Rond-Point des Champs-Élysées designed by architect Gabriel Davioud, which originally housed the Panorama National.

Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston

Henry John Temple, 3rd Viscount Palmerston, (20 October 1784–18 October 1865) was a British statesman who served twice as Prime Minister in the mid-19th century. Palmerston dominated British foreign policy during the period 1830 to 1865, when Britain was at the height of her imperial power. He held office almost continuously from 1807 until his death in 1865. He began his parliamentary career as a Tory, defected to the Whigs in 1830, and became the first Prime Minister of the newly formed Liberal Party in 1859.

Palmerston succeeded to his father's Irish peerage in 1802. He became a Tory MP in 1807 (his Irish peerage did not bar him from a seat in the House of Commons, because it did not entitle him to a seat in the House of Lords). From 1809 to 1828 he served as Secretary at War, in which post he was responsible for the organisation of the finances of the army. He first attained Cabinet rank in 1827, when George Canning became Prime Minister, but, like other Canningites, he resigned from office one year subsequently.

He served as Foreign Secretary from 1830–34, from 1835–41, and from 1846–51. In this office, Palmerston responded efficaciously to a series of conflicts in Europe. His belligerent actions as Foreign Secretary, some of which were highly controversial, have been considered to be prototypes of the practice of liberal interventionism.

Palmerston became Home Secretary in Aberdeen's coalition government, in 1852, subsequent to the Peelite advocacy of the appointment of Lord John Russell to the office of Foreign Secretary. As Home Secretary, Palmerston enacted various social reforms, although he opposed electoral reform. When public antipathy over the Government's policy in the Crimean War lost the Government popular favour, in 1855, Palmerston was the only Prime Minister who was able to sustain a majority in Parliament. He had two periods in office, 1855–1858 and 1859–1865, before his death at the age of 80 years, a few months subsequent to victory in a general election in which he had achieved an increased majority. He remains, to date, the last Prime Minister to die in office.

Palmerston masterfully controlled public opinion by stimulating British nationalism, and, despite the fact that Queen Victoria and most of the political leadership distrusted him, he received and sustained the favour of the press and the populace, from whom he received the affectionate sobriquet 'Pam'. Palmerston's alleged weaknesses included mishandling of personal relations, and continual disagreements with the Queen over the royal role in determining foreign policy.Historians consider Palmerston to be one of the greatest foreign secretaries, as a consequence of his handling of great crises, his commitment to the balance of power, which provided Britain with decisive agency in many conflicts, his analytic skills, and his commitment to British interests. His policies in relation to India, Italy, Belgium and Spain had extensive long-lasting beneficial consequences for Britain: although the consequences of his policies toward France, the Ottoman Empire, and the United States were more ephemeral.

Know Nothing

The Native American Party, renamed the American Party in 1855 and commonly known as the Know Nothing movement, was an American nativist political party that operated nationally in the mid-1850s. It was primarily anti-Catholic, xenophobic, and hostile to immigration, starting originally as a secret society. The movement briefly emerged as a major political party in the form of the American Party. Adherents to the movement were to reply "I know nothing" when asked about its specifics by outsiders, thus providing the group with its common name.

The Know Nothings believed a "Romanist" conspiracy was afoot to subvert civil and religious liberty in the United States and sought to politically organize native-born Protestants in what they described as a defense of their traditional religious and political values. It is remembered for this theme because of fears by Protestants that Catholic priests and bishops would control a large bloc of voters. In most places, Know Nothingism lasted only a year or two before disintegrating because of weak local leaders, few publicly declared national leaders and a deep split over the issue of slavery. In the South, the party did not emphasize anti-Catholicism, but was the main alternative to the dominant Democratic Party.

The collapse of the Whig Party after the passage of the Kansas–Nebraska Act left an opening for the emergence of a new major party in opposition to the Democrats. The Know Nothings elected congressman Nathaniel P. Banks of Massachusetts and several other individuals in the 1854 elections and created a new party organization known as the American Party. Particularly in the South, the American Party served as a vehicle for politicians opposed to the Democratic Party. Many also hoped that it would seek a middle ground between the pro-slavery positions of many Democratic politicians and the anti-slavery positions of the emerging Republican Party. The American Party nominated former President Millard Fillmore in the 1856 presidential election, although he kept quiet about his membership. Fillmore received 21.5% of the popular vote in the 1856 presidential election, finishing behind the Democratic and Republican nominees.

The party declined rapidly after the 1856 election. The 1857 Dred Scott v. Sandford decision further aroused opposition to slavery in the North, where many Know Nothings joined the Republicans. Most of the remaining members of the party supported the Constitutional Union Party in the 1860 presidential election.

List of Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, 1840–1859

This is an incomplete list of Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom for the years 1840–1859. Note that the first parliament of the United Kingdom was held in 1801; parliaments between 1707 and 1800 were either parliaments of Great Britain or of Ireland). For Acts passed up until 1707 see List of Acts of the Parliament of England and List of Acts of the Parliament of Scotland. For Acts passed from 1707 to 1800 see List of Acts of the Parliament of Great Britain. See also the List of Acts of the Parliament of Ireland.

For Acts of the devolved parliaments and assemblies in the United Kingdom, see the List of Acts of the Scottish Parliament from 1999, the List of Acts of the Northern Ireland Assembly, and the List of Acts and Measures of the National Assembly for Wales; see also the List of Acts of the Parliament of Northern Ireland.

The number shown after each Act's title is its chapter number. Acts passed before 1963 are cited using this number, preceded by the year(s) of the reign during which the relevant parliamentary session was held; thus the Union with Ireland Act 1800 is cited as "39 & 40 Geo. 3 c. 67", meaning the 67th Act passed during the session that started in the 39th year of the reign of George III and which finished in the 40th year of that reign. Note that the modern convention is to use Arabic numerals in citations (thus "41 Geo. 3" rather than "41 Geo. III"). Note also that Acts of the last session of the Parliament of Great Britain and the first session of the Parliament of the United Kingdom are both cited as "41 Geo. 3". Acts passed from 1963 onwards are simply cited by calendar year and chapter number.

All modern Acts have a short title, e.g. the Local Government Act 2003. Some earlier Acts also have a short title given to them by later Acts, such as by the Short Titles Act 1896.

List of United Kingdom by-elections (1847–57)

This is a list of parliamentary by-elections in the United Kingdom held between 1847 and 1857, with the names of the previous incumbent and the victor in the by-election and their respective parties. Where seats changed political party at the election, the result is highlighted: light blue for a Conservative gain, orange for a Whig (including their Peelite allies) gain and green for Irish Repeal gain.

List of United States Supreme Court cases, volume 58

This is a list of all the United States Supreme Court cases from volume 58 of the United States Reports. This was the 17th volume reported by Benjamin Chew Howard.

List of counties in Kansas

This is a list of counties in the U.S. state of Kansas. Select from the links at right to go directly to an article, or browse the listing below for additional information. Every license plate issued by the state contains the same two-letter abbreviation for the county in which its vehicle is registered.

Kansas has 105 counties, the sixth-highest total of any state. Many of the counties in the eastern part of the state are named after prominent Americans from the late 18th and early-to-mid-19th centuries, while those in the central and western part of the state are named for figures in the American Civil War. Several counties throughout the state bear names of Native American origin.

Wyandotte County and the city of Kansas City, and Greeley County and the city of Tribune, operate as unified governments.

Miller Brewing Company

The Miller Brewing Company is an American beer brewing company headquartered in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, that was owned until October 11, 2016 by the MillerCoors division of the SABMiller–Molson Coors joint venture. The company has brewing facilities in Albany, Georgia; Chippewa Falls, Wisconsin; Fort Worth, Texas; Irwindale, California; Milwaukee, Wisconsin; and Trenton, Ohio. On July 1, 2008, Miller formed MillerCoors, a joint venture with rival Molson Coors to consolidate the production and distribution of its products in the United States, with each parent company's corporate operations and international operations to remain separate and independent of the joint venture.

The joint venture ended after the SABMiller operation was acquired by Anheuser-Busch InBev (AB InBev) on October 10, 2016. The new company is called Anheuser-Busch InBev SA/NV (AB InBev). On October 11, 2016, the company sold the Miller brand portfolio outside the US and Puerto Rico to Molson Coors, which also retained "the rights to all of the brands currently in the MillerCoors portfolio for the U.S. and Puerto Rico".Molson Coors is the sole owner of Miller Brewing Company and plans to keep the MillerCoors name and the Chicago headquarters and to operate the company in much the same manner as before October 11, 2016. For the consumer, and for employees, the change to 100 percent ownership (from the previous 42 percent) by Molson Coors will not be apparent in the U.S., according to Jon Stern, MillerCoors' director of media relations. "The good news is that none of this impacts Milwaukee or Wisconsin. It'll be business as usual. Miller Lite, Coors Light, Miller High Life and Leinenkugel's – and frankly all the rest of our brands will continue to be brewed by us."

Scaritinae

Scaritinae is a subfamily of beetles in the family Carabidae, containing the following genera:

Acanthoscelis Dejean, 1825

Afroclivina Kult, 1959

Afrosyleter Basilewsky, 1959

Akephorus LeConte, 1851

Alpiodytes Jeannel, 1957

Ancus Putzeys, 1866

Androzelma Dostal, 1993

Anomophaenus Fauvel, 1882

Antilliscaris Banninger, 1949

Ardistomis Putzeys, 1846

Aspidoglossa Putzeys, 1846

Baenningeria Reichardt, 1976

Basilewskyana Kult, 1959

Bohemaniella Bousquet, 2002

Brachypelus Putzeys, 1866

Caledyschirius Bulirsch, 2010

Cameroniola Baehr, 1999

Camptidius Putzeys, 1866

Camptodontus Dejean, 1826

Carenum Bonelli, 1813

Catalanodytes Sciaky, 1989

Climax Putzeys, 1863

Clivina Latreille, 1802

Clivinarchus Sloane, 1896

Clivinopsis Bedel, 1895

Conopterum Chaudoir, 1868

Coptolobus Chaudoir, 1857

Corintascaris Basilewsky, 1952

Coryza Putzeys, 1866

Crepidopterus Chaudoir, 1855

Cribrodyschirius Bruneau de Mire, 1952

Cryptomma Putzeys, 1846

Cryptoscaphus Chaudoir, 1855

Dalmatoreicheia Magrini & Bulirsch, 2005

Dimorphoreicheia Magrini, Fancello & Leo, 2002

Dinoscaris Alluaud, 1902

Distichus Motschulsky, 1858

Dyscaris Banninger, 1937

Dyscherinus Jeannel, 1955

Dyscherus Chaudoir, 1855

Dyschiriomimus Iablokoff-Khnzorian, 1960

Dyschirius Bonelli, 1810

Epilectus Blackburn, 1888

Euryscaphus MacLeay, 1865

Forcipator Maindron, 1904

Geoscaptus Chaudoir, 1855

Glyptogrus Bates, 1881

Gnaphon Andrewes, 1920

Halocoryza Alluaud, 1919

Haplogaster Chaudoir, 1879

Haplotrachelus Chaudoir, 1855

Holoprizus Putzeys, 1866

Iberodytes Jeannel, 1949

Italodytes Muller, 1938

Kearophus Dajoz, 2004

Kenyoreicheia Bulirsch & Magrini, 2007

Kultianella Perrau, 1994

Laccopterum MacLeay, 1887

Lachenus Putzeys, 1846

Laoreicheia Balkenohl, 2005

Leleuporella Basilewsky, 1956

Lophocoryza Alluaud, 1941

Macromorphus Chaudoir, 1857

Madascaris Banninger, 1937

Mamboicus Bates, 1886

Mecynoscaris Alluaud, 1930

Menigius Chaudoir, 1879

Mesus Chevrolat, 1858

Monocentrum Chaudoir, 1868

Mouhotia Castelnau, 1862

Nannoryctes Baehr, 1999

Neocarenum Castelnau, 1867

Neochryopus Banninger, 1931

Neodyschirius Kult, 1954

Neoscaphus Sloane, 1888

Nyctosyles Putzeys, 1866

Obadius Burmeister, 1875

Ochyropus Schiodte, 1847

Orictites Andrewes, 1931

Orientoreicheia Bulirsch & Hurka, 1994

Oxydrepanus Putzeys, 1866

Oxygnathopsis Louwerens, 1953

Oxygnathus Dejean, 1826

Oxylobus Chaudoir, 1855

Pachyodontus Chaudoir, 1879

Paracoryza Basilewsky, 1952

Paradyscherus Basilewsky, 1971

Parareicheia Jeannel, 1957

Parathlibops Basilewsky, 1958

Pasimachus Bonelli, 1813

Passalidius Chaudoir, 1863

Philoscaphus MacLeay, 1871

Pilades Heyne, 1895

Platysphyrus Sloane, 1905

Prodyscherodes Jeannel, 1955

Prodyscherus Jeannel, 1946

Pseudoclivina Kult, 1947

Psilidius Jeannel, 1957

Pyramoides Bousquet, 2002

Reicheadella Reitter, 1913

Reicheia Saulcy, 1862

Reicheidius Jeannel, 1957

Reicheiodes Ganglbauer, 1891

Rhysocara Sloane, 1916

Rugiluclivina Balkenohl, 1996

Salcedia Fairmaire, 1899

Scapterus Dejean, 1826

Scaraphites Westwood, 1842

Scarites Fabricius, 1775

Schizogenius Putzeys, 1846

Semiardistomis Kult, 1950

Semiclivina Kult, 1947

Setodyschirius Fedorenko, 1996

Sinesetosa Balkenohl, 1996

Soesilascarites Makhan, 2010

Solenogenys Westwood, 1859

Sparostes Putzeys, 1866

Spelaeodytes L.Miller, 1863

Steganomma MacLeay, 1887

Storthodontus Chaudoir, 1855

Stratiotes Putzeys, 1846

Syleter Andrewes, 1941

Tapinoscaris Jeannel, 1946

Thliboclivina Kult, 1959

Thlibops Putzeys, 1866

Tibioscarites Banninger, 1929

Tonkinoscaris Banninger, 1956

Torretassoa Schatzmayr & Koch, 1933

Trichocarenum Blackburn, 1892

Trilophidius Jeannel, 1957

Trilophus Andrewes, 1927

Typhloreicheia Hohdhaus, 1924

Typhloscaris Kuntzen, 1914

Whiteheadiana Perrault, 1994

Siege of Sevastopol (1854–55)

The Siege of Sevastopol (at the time called in English the Siege of Sebastopol) lasted from October 1854 until September 1855, during the Crimean War. The allies (French, Ottoman, and British) landed at Eupatoria on 14 September 1854, intending to make a triumphal march to Sevastopol, the capital of the Crimea, with 50,000 men. The 56-kilometre (35 mi) traverse took a year of fighting against the Russians. Major battles along the way were Alma (September 1854), Balaklava (October 1854), Inkerman (November 1854), Tchernaya (August 1855), Redan (September 1855), and, finally, Sevastopol (September 1855). During the siege, the allied navy undertook six bombardments of the capital, on 17 October 1854; and on 9 April, 6 June, 17 June, 17 August, and 5 September 1855.

Sevastopol is one of the classic sieges of all time. The city of Sevastopol was the home of the Tsar's Black Sea Fleet, which threatened the Mediterranean. The Russian field army withdrew before the allies could encircle it. The siege was the culminating struggle for the strategic Russian port in 1854–55 and was the final episode in the Crimean War.

During the Victorian Era, these battles were repeatedly memorialized. The Siege of Sevastopol was the subject of Crimean soldier Leo Tolstoy's Sebastopol Sketches and the subject of the first Russian feature film, Defence of Sevastopol. The Battle of Balaklava was made famous by Alfred, Lord Tennyson's poem "The Charge of the Light Brigade" and Robert Gibb's painting The Thin Red Line. A panorama of the siege itself was painted by Franz Roubaud.

The Jamaican and English nurses who treated the wounded during these battles were much celebrated, most famously Mary Seacole and Florence Nightingale.

The Daily Telegraph

The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally. It was founded by Arthur B. Sleigh in 1855 as Daily Telegraph & Courier.

The Telegraph is widely regarded as a national "newspaper of record" and it maintains an international reputation for quality, having been described by the BBC as "one of the world's great titles". The paper's motto, "Was, is, and will be", appears in the editorial pages and has featured in every edition of the newspaper since 19 April 1858.The paper had a circulation of 363,183 in December 2018, having declined following industry trends from 1.4 million in 1980. Its sister paper, The Sunday Telegraph, which started in 1961, had a circulation of 281,025 as of December 2018. The Daily Telegraph has the largest circulation for a broadsheet newspaper in the UK and the sixth largest circulation of any UK newspaper as of 2016. The two sister newspapers are run separately, with different editorial staff, but there is cross-usage of stories. Articles published in either may be published on the Telegraph Media Group's www.telegraph.co.uk website, under the title of The Telegraph.

The Telegraph has been the first newspaper to report on a number of notable news scoops, including the 2009 MP expenses scandal, which led to a number of high-profile political resignations and for which it was named 2009 British Newspaper of the Year, and its 2016 undercover investigation on the England football manager Sam Allardyce. However, critics, including the paper's former chief political commentator Peter Oborne, accuse it of being unduly influenced by advertisers, especially HSBC.

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