1847

1847 (MDCCCXLVII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1847th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 847th year of the 2nd millennium, the 47th year of the 19th century, and the 8th year of the 1840s decade. As of the start of 1847, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1847 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1847
MDCCCXLVII
Ab urbe condita2600
Armenian calendar1296
ԹՎ ՌՄՂԶ
Assyrian calendar6597
Bahá'í calendar3–4
Balinese saka calendar1768–1769
Bengali calendar1254
Berber calendar2797
British Regnal year10 Vict. 1 – 11 Vict. 1
Buddhist calendar2391
Burmese calendar1209
Byzantine calendar7355–7356
Chinese calendar丙午(Fire Horse)
4543 or 4483
    — to —
丁未年 (Fire Goat)
4544 or 4484
Coptic calendar1563–1564
Discordian calendar3013
Ethiopian calendar1839–1840
Hebrew calendar5607–5608
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1903–1904
 - Shaka Samvat1768–1769
 - Kali Yuga4947–4948
Holocene calendar11847
Igbo calendar847–848
Iranian calendar1225–1226
Islamic calendar1263–1264
Japanese calendarKōka 4
(弘化4年)
Javanese calendar1774–1775
Julian calendarGregorian minus 12 days
Korean calendar4180
Minguo calendar65 before ROC
民前65年
Nanakshahi calendar379
Thai solar calendar2389–2390
Tibetan calendar阳火马年
(male Fire-Horse)
1973 or 1592 or 820
    — to —
阴火羊年
(female Fire-Goat)
1974 or 1593 or 821

Events

January–March

April–June

July–September

First US Stamps 1847 Issue
The first U.S. postage stamps have portraits of Benjamin Franklin and George Washington. Though highly collectable, they are far from being the most valuable.

October–December

Date unknown

Births

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

November

December

Date unknown

Deaths

January–June

July–December

References

  1. ^ "The History of Birkenhead Park". Archived from the original on June 26, 2008. Retrieved 2007-09-13.
  2. ^ "The Exmouth - a terrible tragedy on Islay". Isle of Islay. 2011. Retrieved 2012-07-13.
  3. ^ "The Exmouth shipwreck off the Antrim Coast, Northern Ireland". My Secret Northern Ireland. Retrieved 2012-07-13.
  4. ^ Marshall, John (1989). The Guinness Railway Book. Enfield: Guinness Books. ISBN 0-8511-2359-7. OCLC 24175552.
  5. ^ First communicated to the Medico-Chirurgical Society of Edinburgh, November 10, and published in a pamphlet, Notice of a New Anæsthetic Agent, in Edinburgh, November 12.
  6. ^ Gordon, H. Laing (2002). Sir James Young Simpson and Chloroform (1811–1870). Minerva Group, Inc. ISBN 978-1-4102-0291-8. Retrieved 2011-11-11.
1846 United States House of Representatives elections

Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 30th Congress were held during President James K. Polk's term at various dates in different states from August 1846 to November 1847.

The Whigs gained 37 seats to win 116 and a change in partisan control, while the rival Democrats lost 30, falling to 112. The Whigs gained seats in the Mid-Atlantic and the South. The nativist and anti-Catholic American Party was reduced to a single seat. One Independent, Amos Tuck, was elected from New Hampshire.

The Mexican–American War was the main issue. The incumbent House had voted for war by 174 to 14, but Polk had won the Presidency only by plurality in 1844 over his more famous opponent Henry Clay. War with Mexico was enthusiastically supported west of the Appalachian Mountains, but voters in northeastern, more urban regions widely opposed the war. Growing divisions over slavery factored, as Congressional rejection of the Wilmot Proviso aggravated sectional tensions.

Notable freshmen included Abraham Lincoln, elected as a Whig to his only term in Congress.

1846 and 1847 United States Senate elections

The United States Senate elections of 1846 and 1847 were elections which had the Democratic Party gain four seats in the United States Senate.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

1847 United Kingdom general election

The 1847 United Kingdom general election saw candidates calling themselves Conservatives win the most seats, in part because they won a number of uncontested seats. However, the split among the Conservatives between the majority of Protectionists, led by Lord Stanley, and the minority of free traders, known also as the Peelites, led by former prime minister Sir Robert Peel, left the Whigs, led by Prime Minister Lord John Russell, in a position to continue in government.

The Irish Repeal group won more seats than in the previous general election, while the Chartists gained the only seat they were ever to hold, Nottingham's second seat, held by Chartist leader Feargus O'Connor.

The election also witnessed the election of Britain's first Jewish MP, the Liberal Lionel de Rothschild in the City of London. Members being sworn in were however required to swear the Christian Oath of Allegiance, meaning Rothschild was unable actually to take his seat until the passage of the Jews Relief Act in 1858.

1847 in France

Events from the year 1847 in France.

1847 in Ireland

Events from the year 1847 in Ireland.

1847 in Sweden

Events from the year 1847 in Sweden

American Medical Association

The American Medical Association (AMA), founded in 1847 and incorporated in 1897, is the largest association of physicians—both MDs and DOs—and medical students in the United States.The AMA's mission is "to promote the art and science of medicine and the betterment of public health." The Association also publishes the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA). The AMA also publishes a list of Physician Specialty Codes which are the standard method in the U.S. for identifying physician and practice specialties.

The American Medical Association is governed by a House of Delegates as well as a board of trustees in addition to executive management. The organization maintains the AMA Code of Medical Ethics that is the guide to ethical practice of medicine and the AMA Physician Masterfile containing data on United States Physicians. The Current Procedural Terminology coding system was first published in 1966, and is maintained by the Association. It has also published works such as the Guides to Evaluation of Permanent Impairment and established the American Medical Association Foundation and the American Medical Political Action Committee.

Bram Stoker

Abraham "Bram" Stoker (8 November 1847 – 20 April 1912) was an Irish author, best known today for his 1897 Gothic novel Dracula. During his lifetime, he was better known as the personal assistant of actor Sir Henry Irving and business manager of the Lyceum Theatre in London, which Irving owned.

Cartier (jeweler)

CARTIER International SNC, or simply Cartier (; French: [kaʁtje]), is a French luxury goods conglomerate which designs, manufactures, distributes, and sells jewellery and watches. Founded by Louis-François Cartier in Paris in 1847, the company remained under family control until 1964. The company maintains its headquarters in Paris, although it has been a wholly owned subsidiary of the Swiss Richemont Group. Cartier operates more than 200 stores in 125 countries, with three Temples (Historical Maison) in London, New York, and Paris. Cartier is regarded as one of the most prestigious jewellery manufacturers in the world. In 2018, it is ranked by Forbes as the world's 59th most valuable brand. Cartier has a long history of sales to royalty. King Edward VII of Great Britain referred to Cartier as "the jeweller of kings and the king of jewellers." For his coronation in 1902, Edward VII ordered 27 tiaras and issued a royal warrant to Cartier in 1904. Similar warrants soon followed from the courts of Spain, Portugal, Russia, Siam, the House of Orleans, and so on.

Great Famine (Ireland)

The Great Famine (Irish: an Gorta Mór, [anˠ ˈgɔɾˠt̪ˠa mˠoːɾˠ]), or the Great Hunger, was a period in Ireland between 1845 and 1849 of mass starvation, disease, and emigration. With the most severely affected areas in the west and south of Ireland, where the Irish language was primarily spoken, the period was contemporaneously known in Irish as An Drochshaol, loosely translated as the "hard times" (or literally, "The Bad Life"). The worst year of the period, that of "Black 47", is known in Irish as Bliain an Drochshaoil. During the famine, about one million people died and a million more emigrated from Ireland, causing the island's population to fall by between 20% and 25%.Sharing much in common with the similar famines in India under British rule, the proximate cause of the famine was a natural event, a potato blight, which infected potato crops throughout Europe during the 1840s, precipitating some 100,000 deaths in total in the worst affected areas and among similar tenant farmers of Europe. The food crisis influenced much of the unrest in the more widespread European Revolutions of 1848. The event is sometimes referred to as the Irish Potato Famine, mostly outside Ireland.The famine was a watershed in the history of Ireland, which from 1801 to 1922 was ruled directly by Westminster as part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Together with the Napoleonic Wars, the Great Famine in Ireland produced the greatest loss of life in 19th-century Europe. The famine and its effects permanently changed the island's demographic, political, and cultural landscape, producing an estimated two million refugees and spurring a century-long population decline. For both the native Irish and those in the resulting diaspora, the famine entered folk memory. The already strained relations between many Irish and the British Crown soured further both during and after the famine, heightening ethnic and sectarian tensions, and boosting Irish nationalism and republicanism in Ireland and among Irish emigrants in the United States and elsewhere.

The potato blight returned to Europe in 1879, but by that point the labourers of Ireland had, in the Legacy of the Great Irish Famine, begun the "Land War", described as one of the largest agrarian movements to take place in 19th-century Europe. The movement, organized by the Land League, continued the political campaign for the Three Fs, issued in 1850 by the Tenant Right League and initially developed during the Great Famine. When the potato blight returned in 1879, the League boycotted "notorious landlords" and its members physically blocked evictions of farmers. As a result, the consequent reduction in homelessness and house demolition resulted in a drastic reduction in the number of deaths.

Liberia

Liberia ( (listen)), officially the Republic of Liberia, is a country on the West African coast. It is bordered by Sierra Leone to its northwest, Guinea to its north, Ivory Coast to its east, and the Atlantic Ocean to its south-southwest. It covers an area of 111,369 square kilometers (43,000 sq mi) and has a population of around 4,700,000 people. English is the official language and over 20 indigenous languages are spoken, representing the numerous ethnic groups who make up more than 95% of the population. The country's capital and largest city is Monrovia.

Liberia began as a settlement of the American Colonization Society (ACS), who believed black people would face better chances for freedom and prosperity in Africa than in the United States. The country declared its independence on July 26, 1847. The U.S. did not recognize Liberia's independence until February 5, 1862, during the American Civil War. Between January 7, 1822, and the American Civil War, more than 15,000 freed and free-born black people who faced legislated limits in the U.S., and 3,198 Afro-Caribbeans, relocated to the settlement. The black settlers carried their culture and tradition with them to Liberia. The Liberian constitution and flag were modeled after those of the U.S. On January 3, 1848, Joseph Jenkins Roberts, a wealthy, free-born African American from Virginia who settled in Liberia, was elected as Liberia's first president after the people proclaimed independence.Liberia was the first African republic to proclaim its independence, and is Africa's first and oldest modern republic. Liberia retained its independence during the Scramble for Africa. During World War II, Liberia supported the United States war efforts against Germany and in turn, the U.S. invested in considerable infrastructure in Liberia to help its war effort, which also aided the country in modernizing and improving its major air transportation facilities. In addition, President William Tubman encouraged economic changes. Internationally, Liberia was a founding member of the League of Nations, United Nations, and the Organisation of African Unity.

The Americo-Liberian settlers did not relate well to the indigenous peoples they encountered, especially those in communities of the more isolated "bush". The colonial settlements were raided by the Kru and Grebo from their inland chiefdoms. Americo-Liberians developed as a small elite that held on to political power, and the indigenous tribesmen were excluded from birthright citizenship in their own lands until 1904, in a repetition of the United States' treatment of Native Americans. The Americo-Liberians promoted religious organizations to set up missions and schools to educate the indigenous peoples.

Political tensions from the rule of William R. Tolbert resulted in a military coup in 1980 during which Tolbert was killed, marking the beginning of years-long political instability. Five years of military rule by the People's Redemption Council and five years of civilian rule by the National Democratic Party of Liberia were followed by the First and Second Liberian Civil Wars. These resulted in the deaths of 250,000 people (about 8% of the population), the displacement of many more, and shrunk Liberia's economy by 90%. A peace agreement in 2003 led to democratic elections in 2005, in which Ellen Johnson Sirleaf was elected President. Recovery proceeds, but about 85% of the population lives below the international poverty line.

List of Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, 1840–1859

This is an incomplete list of Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom for the years 1840–1859. Note that the first parliament of the United Kingdom was held in 1801; parliaments between 1707 and 1800 were either parliaments of Great Britain or of Ireland). For Acts passed up until 1707 see List of Acts of the Parliament of England and List of Acts of the Parliament of Scotland. For Acts passed from 1707 to 1800 see List of Acts of the Parliament of Great Britain. See also the List of Acts of the Parliament of Ireland.

For Acts of the devolved parliaments and assemblies in the United Kingdom, see the List of Acts of the Scottish Parliament from 1999, the List of Acts of the Northern Ireland Assembly, and the List of Acts and Measures of the National Assembly for Wales; see also the List of Acts of the Parliament of Northern Ireland.

The number shown after each Act's title is its chapter number. Acts passed before 1963 are cited using this number, preceded by the year(s) of the reign during which the relevant parliamentary session was held; thus the Union with Ireland Act 1800 is cited as "39 & 40 Geo. 3 c. 67", meaning the 67th Act passed during the session that started in the 39th year of the reign of George III and which finished in the 40th year of that reign. Note that the modern convention is to use Arabic numerals in citations (thus "41 Geo. 3" rather than "41 Geo. III"). Note also that Acts of the last session of the Parliament of Great Britain and the first session of the Parliament of the United Kingdom are both cited as "41 Geo. 3". Acts passed from 1963 onwards are simply cited by calendar year and chapter number.

All modern Acts have a short title, e.g. the Local Government Act 2003. Some earlier Acts also have a short title given to them by later Acts, such as by the Short Titles Act 1896.

List of United Kingdom by-elections (1847–57)

This is a list of parliamentary by-elections in the United Kingdom held between 1847 and 1857, with the names of the previous incumbent and the victor in the by-election and their respective parties. Where seats changed political party at the election, the result is highlighted: light blue for a Conservative gain, orange for a Whig (including their Peelite allies) gain and green for Irish Repeal gain.

List of United States Supreme Court cases, volume 46

This is a list of all the United States Supreme Court cases from volume 46 of the United States Reports. This was the 5th volume reported by Benjamin Chew Howard.

Mexican–American War

The Mexican–American War, also known in the United States as the Mexican War and in Mexico as the American intervention in Mexico, was an armed conflict between the United States of America and the United Mexican States (Mexico) from 1846 to 1848. It followed in the wake of the 1845 American annexation of the independent Republic of Texas. The unstable Mexican caudillo leadership of President/General Antonio López de Santa Anna still considered Texas to be its northeastern province and never recognized the Republic of Texas, which had seceded a decade earlier. In 1845, newly elected U.S. President James K. Polk sent troops to the disputed area and a diplomatic mission to Mexico. After Mexican forces attacked American forces, Polk cited this in his request that Congress declare war.

U.S. forces quickly occupied the regional capital of Santa Fe de Nuevo México along the upper Rio Grande and the Pacific coast province of Alta California, and then moved south. Meanwhile, the Pacific Squadron of the U.S Navy blockaded the Pacific coast farther south in lower Baja California Territory. The U.S. Army under Major General Winfield Scott eventually captured Mexico City through stiff resistance, having marched west from the port of Veracruz on the Gulf Coast, where the Americans staged their first ever amphibious landing.

The 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, forced onto the remnant Mexican government, ended the war and enforced the Mexican Cession of the northern territories of Alta California and Santa Fe de Nuevo México to the United States. The U.S. agreed to pay $15 million compensation for the physical damage of the war and assumed $3.25 million of debt already owed earlier by the Mexican government to U.S. citizens. Mexico acknowledged the loss of what became the State of Texas and accepted the Rio Grande as its northern border with the United States.

The victory and territorial expansion Polk envisioned inspired great patriotism in the United States, but the war and treaty drew some criticism in the U.S. for their casualties, monetary cost, and heavy-handedness, particularly early on. The question of how to treat the new acquisitions also intensified the debate over slavery. Mexico's worsened domestic turmoil and losses of life, territory and national prestige left it in what prominent Mexicans called a, "state of degradation and ruin."

Shaler Township, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania

Shaler Township is a township in Allegheny County in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. It consists of much of the community of Glenshaw and several neighboring communities. The population was 28,757 at the 2010 census.

Siemens

Siemens AG (German pronunciation: [ˈziːməns] or [-mɛns]) is a German conglomerate company headquartered in Berlin and Munich and the largest industrial manufacturing company in Europe with branch offices abroad.

The principal divisions of the company are Industry, Energy, Healthcare (Siemens Healthineers), and Infrastructure & Cities, which represent the main activities of the company. The company is a prominent maker of medical diagnostics equipment and its medical health-care division, which generates about 12 percent of the company's total sales, is its second-most profitable unit, after the industrial automation division. The company is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index. Siemens and its subsidiaries employ approximately 372,000 people worldwide and reported global revenue of around €83 billion in 2017 according to its earnings release.

University of Iowa

The University of Iowa (also known as the UI, U of I, UIowa, or simply Iowa) is the flagship public research university of the State of Iowa, United States. Its main campus is in Iowa City, Iowa. Founded in 1847, it is the oldest and the second largest university in the state. The University of Iowa is organized into 11 colleges offering more than 200 areas of study and seven professional degrees.Located on an urban 1,880 acre campus on the banks of the Iowa River, the University of Iowa is classified as a Doctoral University with Highest Research Activity by the Carnegie Classifications. The university is best known for its programs in health care, law, and the fine arts, with programs ranking among the top 25 nationally in those areas. The University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics and the Stead Family Children's Hospital are ranked nationally by U.S. News and World Report in eleven specialties. The university was the original developer of the Master of Fine Arts degree and it operates the Iowa Writer's Workshop, which has produced 17 of the university's 46 Pulitzer Prize winners. Iowa is a member of the Association of American Universities, the Universities Research Association, and the Big Ten Academic Alliance.

Among American universities, the University of Iowa was the first public university to open as coeducational, opened the first coeducational medical school, opened the first Department of Religious Studies at a public university, and was the first university to officially recognize an LGBT student organization. The University of Iowa's 33,000 students take part in nearly 500 student organizations. Iowa's 22 varsity athletic teams, the Iowa Hawkeyes, compete in Division I of the NCAA and are members of the Big Ten Conference. The University of Iowa alumni network exceeds 250,000 graduates located around the globe.

Wuthering Heights

Wuthering Heights, Emily Brontë's only novel, was published in 1847 under the pseudonym "Ellis Bell". It was written between October 1845 and June 1846. Wuthering Heights and Anne Brontë's Agnes Grey were accepted by publisher Thomas Newby before the success of their sister Charlotte's novel Jane Eyre. After Emily's death, Charlotte edited the manuscript of Wuthering Heights and arranged for the edited version to be published as a posthumous second edition in 1850.Although Wuthering Heights is now a classic of English literature, contemporary reviews were deeply polarised; it was controversial because of its unusually stark depiction of mental and physical cruelty, and it challenged strict Victorian ideals regarding religious hypocrisy, morality, social classes and gender inequality. The English poet and painter Dante Gabriel Rossetti, although an admirer of the book, referred to it as "A fiend of a book – an incredible monster [...] The action is laid in hell, – only it seems places and people have English names there."Wuthering Heights contains elements of gothic fiction, and another significant aspect is the moorland setting. The novel has inspired adaptations, including film, radio and television dramatisations, a musical, a ballet, operas, and a song by Kate Bush.

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