1843

1843 (MDCCCXLIII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1843rd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 843rd year of the 2nd millennium, the 43rd year of the 19th century, and the 4th year of the 1840s decade. As of the start of 1843, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1843 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1843
MDCCCXLIII
Ab urbe condita2596
Armenian calendar1292
ԹՎ ՌՄՂԲ
Assyrian calendar6593
Balinese saka calendar1764–1765
Bengali calendar1250
Berber calendar2793
British Regnal yearVict. 1 – 7 Vict. 1
Buddhist calendar2387
Burmese calendar1205
Byzantine calendar7351–7352
Chinese calendar壬寅(Water Tiger)
4539 or 4479
    — to —
癸卯年 (Water Rabbit)
4540 or 4480
Coptic calendar1559–1560
Discordian calendar3009
Ethiopian calendar1835–1836
Hebrew calendar5603–5604
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1899–1900
 - Shaka Samvat1764–1765
 - Kali Yuga4943–4944
Holocene calendar11843
Igbo calendar843–844
Iranian calendar1221–1222
Islamic calendar1258–1259
Japanese calendarTenpō 14
(天保14年)
Javanese calendar1770–1771
Julian calendarGregorian minus 12 days
Korean calendar4176
Minguo calendar69 before ROC
民前69年
Nanakshahi calendar375
Thai solar calendar2385–2386
Tibetan calendar阳水虎年
(male Water-Tiger)
1969 or 1588 or 816
    — to —
阴水兔年
(female Water-Rabbit)
1970 or 1589 or 817

Events

By place

Asia

  • The House of Jamalullail is established at Perlis Darul Sunnah (now known as Perlis Darul Sunnah, Malaysia).

January–March

April–June

July–September

October–December

Date unknown

Births

January–June

July–December

Date unknown

Deaths

January–June

July–December

Date unknown

References

  1. ^ Hao, Yen-p'ing; Wang, Erh-min (1980). Fairbank, John King; Twitchett, Denis Crispin, eds. The Cambridge History of China: Late Ch'ing 1800-1911. Cambridge History of China. 11. Cambridge University Press. p. 148. ISBN 978-0521-2202-93.
  2. ^ Leonard, Jane Kate (1984). Wei Yuan and China's Rediscovery of the Maritime World. Harvard East Asian Monographs. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Council on East Asian Studies, Harvard University. ISBN 978-0674-9485-56.
  3. ^ "Guadeloupe Earthquake, Antilles, 1843". The Illustrated History of Natural Disasters. Springer, Dordrecht. April 3, 2018. pp. 163–163. doi:10.1007/978-90-481-3325-3_38. ISBN 978-90-481-3324-6.
  4. ^ "Emperor Street". World Digital Library. 1860–1870. Retrieved 2013-08-24.
  5. ^ Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 978-0-14-102715-9.
  6. ^ "Royal Visit". The Bristol Mirror. 20 July 1843. pp. 1–2.
  7. ^ Fuegi, John; Francis, Jo (October–December 2003). "Lovelace & Babbage and the creation of the 1843 'notes'". IEEE Annals of the History of Computing. 25 (4): 16–26. doi:10.1109/MAHC.2003.1253887.
  8. ^ "Ada Byron, Lady Lovelace". Archived from the original on July 21, 2010. Retrieved 2010-07-11.
  9. ^ Menabrea, L. F. (1843). "Sketch of the Analytical Engine Invented by Charles Babbage". Scientific Memoirs. 3. Archived from the original on September 13, 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-01.
  10. ^ p. 345 of the Lutheran Cyclopedia
  11. ^ "William Rowan Hamilton Plaque". Geograph. 2007. Retrieved 2011-03-08.
  12. ^ Wen-Hsin Yeh, The Alienated Academy: Culture and Politics in Republican China, 1919-1937 (Harvard University Asia Center, 2000) p51
  13. ^ Edward Denison and Guang Yu Ren, Building Shanghai: The Story of China's Gateway (John Wiley & Sons, 2013)
  14. ^ George Dennis, A Handbook for Travellers in Sicily: Including Palermo, Messina, Catania, Syracuse, Etna, and the Ruins of the Greek Temples (John Murray Publishers, 1864) p429
  15. ^ Jan Kozák and Vladimir Cermák, The Illustrated History of Natural Disasters (Springer, 2010) p55
  16. ^ Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 266–267. ISBN 978-0-7126-5616-0.
  17. ^ Dickens, Charles (2006). Douglas-Fairhurst, Robert, ed. A Christmas Carol and other Christmas Books. Oxford world's classics. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-280694-9.
  18. ^ Buday, György (1992). "The history of the Christmas card". Omnigraphics: 8.
  19. ^ Joule, J. P. (1843). "On the Mechanical Equivalent of Heat". Abstracts of the Papers Communicated to the Royal Society of London. 5: 839. doi:10.1098/rspl.1843.0196. Retrieved 2012-01-27.
  20. ^ Meggs, Philip B. (1998). A History of Graphic Design (3rd ed.). Wiley. p. 147. ISBN 978-0-471-29198-5. It receives U.S. Patent 5,199 in 1847 and is placed in commercial use the same year.
1842 United States House of Representatives elections

Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 28th Congress were held during President John Tyler's term at various dates in different states between August 1842 and February 1844.

The Whig Party spectacularly lost the seemingly comfortable majority won in 1840. Whig President William Henry Harrison had died within a month of taking office. His successor President John Tyler was only nominally a Whig and had not been properly validated for alignment to Whig policy. Effectively an independent, Tyler was disliked by politicians and unpopular with voters of both parties, leaving the Whigs unexpectedly leaderless and embarrassed by visibly persistent political disarray. Despite the improving economy, rural voters favored Democrats, again rejecting Whig economic nationalism. Whigs won only 73 seats (including William Wright of New Jersey elected as an "Independent Whig" ). Democrats won a majority with 148 seats (including Henry Nes of Pennsylvania elected as an Independent Democrat). In Rhode Island, the Law and Order Party, formed in response to the Dorr Rebellion, won two seats.

1842 and 1843 United States Senate elections

The United States Senate elections of 1842 and 1843 were elections which had the Whigs lose seats but maintain control of the United States Senate. Although they lost three seats in the general elections, they gained two of them back by the start of the first session in special elections.

As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

1843 in France

Events from the year 1843 in France.

1843 in Ireland

Events from the year 1843 in Ireland.

1843 in Sweden

Events from the year 1843 in Sweden

Board game

A board game is a tabletop game that involves counters or pieces moved or placed on a pre-marked surface or "board", according to a set of rules. Some games are based on pure strategy, but many contain an element of chance; and some are purely chance, with no element of skill.

Games usually have a goal that a player aims to achieve. Early board games represented a battle between two armies, and most modern board games are still based on defeating opponents in terms of counters, winning position, or accrual of points.

There are many varieties of board games. Their representation of real-life situations can range from having no inherent theme, like checkers, to having a specific theme and narrative, like Cluedo. Rules can range from the very simple, like Tic-tac-toe, to those describing a game universe in great detail, like Dungeons & Dragons – although most of the latter are role-playing games where the board is secondary to the game, serving to help visualize the game scenario.

The time required to learn to play or master a game varies greatly from game to game, but is not necessarily correlated with the number or complexity of rules; games like chess or Go possess relatively simple rulesets, but have great strategic depth.

Cartoon

A cartoon is a type of illustration, possibly animated, typically in a non-realistic or semi-realistic style. The specific meaning has evolved over time, but the modern usage usually refers to either: an image or series of images intended for satire, caricature, or humor; or a motion picture that relies on a sequence of illustrations for its animation. Someone who creates cartoons in the first sense is called a cartoonist, and in the second sense they are usually called an animator.

The concept originated in the Middle Ages, and first described a preparatory drawing for a piece of art, such as a painting, fresco, tapestry, or stained glass window. In the 19th century, beginning in Punch magazine in 1843, cartoon came to refer – ironically at first – to humorous illustrations in magazines and newspapers. In the early 20th century, it began to refer to animated films which resembled print cartoons.

Colony of Natal

The Colony of Natal was a British colony in south-eastern Africa. It was proclaimed a British colony on 4 May 1843 after the British government had annexed the Boer Republic of Natalia, and on 31 May 1910 combined with three other colonies to form the Union of South Africa, as one of its provinces. It is now the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa.It was originally only about half the size of the present province, with the north-eastern boundaries being formed by the Tugela and Buffalo rivers beyond which lay the independent Kingdom of Zululand (KwaZulu in Zulu).Fierce conflict with the Zulu population led to the evacuation of Durban, and eventually the Boers accepted British annexation in 1844 under military pressure. A British governor was appointed to the region and many settlers emigrated from Europe and the Cape Colony. The British established a sugar cane industry in the 1860s. Farm owners had a difficult time attracting Zulu labourers to work on their plantations, so the British brought thousands of indentured labourers from India. As a result of the importation of Indian labourers, Durban became the home to the largest concentration of Indians outside India.

Cumberland County, Illinois

Cumberland County is a county located in the U.S. state of Illinois. As of the 2010 census, the population was 11,048. Its county seat is Toledo.Cumberland County is part of the Charleston–Mattoon, IL Micropolitan Statistical Area.

Free Church of Scotland (1843–1900)

The Free Church of Scotland was a Scottish denomination which was formed in 1843 by a large withdrawal from the established Church of Scotland in a schism or division known as the Disruption of 1843. In 1900 the vast majority of the Free Church of Scotland joined with the United Presbyterian Church of Scotland to form the United Free Church of Scotland (which itself mostly re-united with the Church of Scotland in 1929). The House of Lords judged that the minority continuing after the 1900 union were entitled to all the assets. While the denomination clearly had a starting date, in their own eyes their leaders had a legitimate claim to an unbroken succession of leaders going all the way back to the Apostles.The minority of the Free Church of Scotland who continued outside the union of 1900, retained the title the Free Church of Scotland.

List of Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, 1840–1859

This is an incomplete list of Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom for the years 1840–1859. Note that the first parliament of the United Kingdom was held in 1801; parliaments between 1707 and 1800 were either parliaments of Great Britain or of Ireland). For Acts passed up until 1707 see List of Acts of the Parliament of England and List of Acts of the Parliament of Scotland. For Acts passed from 1707 to 1800 see List of Acts of the Parliament of Great Britain. See also the List of Acts of the Parliament of Ireland.

For Acts of the devolved parliaments and assemblies in the United Kingdom, see the List of Acts of the Scottish Parliament from 1999, the List of Acts of the Northern Ireland Assembly, and the List of Acts and Measures of the National Assembly for Wales; see also the List of Acts of the Parliament of Northern Ireland.

The number shown after each Act's title is its chapter number. Acts passed before 1963 are cited using this number, preceded by the year(s) of the reign during which the relevant parliamentary session was held; thus the Union with Ireland Act 1800 is cited as "39 & 40 Geo. 3 c. 67", meaning the 67th Act passed during the session that started in the 39th year of the reign of George III and which finished in the 40th year of that reign. Note that the modern convention is to use Arabic numerals in citations (thus "41 Geo. 3" rather than "41 Geo. III"). Note also that Acts of the last session of the Parliament of Great Britain and the first session of the Parliament of the United Kingdom are both cited as "41 Geo. 3". Acts passed from 1963 onwards are simply cited by calendar year and chapter number.

All modern Acts have a short title, e.g. the Local Government Act 2003. Some earlier Acts also have a short title given to them by later Acts, such as by the Short Titles Act 1896.

List of United States Supreme Court cases, volume 42

This is a list of all the United States Supreme Court cases from volume 42 of the United States Reports. This was the first volume reported by Benjamin Chew Howard.

List of United States congressional districts

Congressional districts in the United States are electoral divisions for the purpose of electing members of the United States House of Representatives. The number of voting seats in the House of Representatives is currently set at 435 with each one representing approximately 711,000 people. That number has applied since 1913, excluding a temporary increase to 437 after the admissions of Alaska and Hawaii. The total number of state members is capped by the Reapportionment Act of 1929. In addition, each of the five inhabited U.S. territories and the federal district of Washington, D.C. sends a non-voting delegate to the House of Representatives.

The Bureau of the Census conducts a constitutionally mandated decennial census whose figures are used to determine the number of congressional districts to which each state is entitled, in a process called "apportionment". The 2012 elections were the first to be based on the congressional districts which were defined based on the 2010 United States Census.Each state is responsible for the redistricting of districts within their state, and several states have one "at-large" division. Redistricting must take place if the number of members changes following a reapportionment, or may take place at any other time if demographics represented in a district has changed substantially. Districts may sometimes retain the same boundaries while changing their district numbers.

The following is a complete list of the 435 current congressional districts for the House of Representatives, and over 200 obsolete districts, and the six current and one obsolete non-voting delegations.

Macmillan Publishers

Macmillan Publishers Ltd (occasionally known as the Macmillan Group) is an international publishing company owned by Holtzbrinck Publishing Group. It has offices in 41 countries worldwide and operates in more than thirty others.

Oregon Trail

The Oregon Trail is a 2,170-mile (3,490 km) historic East–West, large-wheeled wagon route and emigrant trail in the United States that connected the Missouri River to valleys in Oregon. The eastern part of the Oregon Trail spanned part of the future state of Kansas, and nearly all of what are now the states of Nebraska and Wyoming. The western half of the trail spanned most of the future states of Idaho and Oregon.

The Oregon Trail was laid by fur traders and traders from about 1811 to 1840, and was only passable on foot or by horseback. By 1836, when the first migrant wagon train was organized in Independence, Missouri, a wagon trail had been cleared to Fort Hall, Idaho. Wagon trails were cleared increasingly farther west, and eventually reached all the way to the Willamette Valley in Oregon, at which point what came to be called the Oregon Trail was complete, even as almost annual improvements were made in the form of bridges, cutoffs, ferries, and roads, which made the trip faster and safer. From various starting points in Iowa, Missouri, or Nebraska Territory, the routes converged along the lower Platte River Valley near Fort Kearny, Nebraska Territory and led to rich farmlands west of the Rocky Mountains.

From the early to mid-1830s (and particularly through the years 1846–69) the Oregon Trail and its many offshoots were used by about 400,000 settlers, farmers, miners, ranchers, and business owners and their families. The eastern half of the trail was also used by travelers on the California Trail (from 1843), Mormon Trail (from 1847), and Bozeman Trail (from 1863), before turning off to their separate destinations. Use of the trail declined as the first transcontinental railroad was completed in 1869, making the trip west substantially faster, cheaper, and safer. Today, modern highways, such as Interstate 80 and Interstate 84, follow parts of the same course westward and pass through towns originally established to serve those using the Oregon Trail.

Pulaski County, Illinois

Pulaski County is a county located in the U.S. state of Illinois. According to the 2010 census, it had a population of 6,161. Its county seat is Mound City. It is located along the Ohio River in the southwestern portion of the state, known locally as "Little Egypt".

Robert Southey

Robert Southey ( or ; 12 August 1774 – 21 March 1843) was an English poet of the Romantic school, one of the Lake Poets along with William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge, and England's Poet Laureate for 30 years from 1813 until his death in 1843. Although his fame has been eclipsed by that of Wordsworth and Coleridge, his verse still enjoys some popularity.

The Economist

The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London. Continuous publication began under its founder James Wilson in September 1843. In 2015, its average weekly circulation was a little over 1.5 million, about half of which were sold in the United States. Pearson PLC held a 50% shareholding via The Financial Times Limited until August 2015. At that time, Pearson sold their share in the Economist. The Agnelli family's Exor paid £287m to raise their stake from 4.7% to 43.4% while the Economist paid £182m for the balance of 5.04m shares which will be distributed to current shareholders. Aside from the Agnelli family, smaller shareholders in the company include Cadbury, Rothschild (21%), Schroder, Layton and other family interests as well as a number of staff and former staff shareholders.A board of trustees formally appoints the editor, who cannot be removed without its permission. Although The Economist has a global emphasis and scope, about two-thirds of the 75 staff journalists are based in the London borough of Westminster. For the year to March 2016, the Economist Group declared operating profit of £61m. Previous major shareholders include Pearson PLC.The Economist takes an editorial stance of classical and economic liberalism that supports free trade, globalisation, free immigration and cultural liberalism (such as supporting legal recognition for same-sex marriage or drug liberalisation). The publication has described itself as "a product of the Caledonian liberalism of Adam Smith and David Hume". It targets highly educated, cultured readers and claims an audience containing many influential executives and policy-makers. The publication's CEO described this recent global change, which was first noticed in the 1990s and accelerated in the beginning of the 21st century as a "new age of Mass Intelligence".

Tivoli Gardens

Tivoli Gardens (or simply Tivoli) is an amusement park and pleasure garden in Copenhagen, Denmark. The park opened on 15 August 1843 and is the second-oldest operating amusement park in the world, after Dyrehavsbakken in nearby Klampenborg, also in Denmark.

With 4.6 million visitors in 2017, Tivoli is the second-most popular seasonal amusement park in the world after Europa-Park. Tivoli is the most-visited theme park in Scandinavia, and the fifth most-visited theme park in Europe, only behind Disneyland Park, Europa-Park, Walt Disney Studios Park and Efteling.

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