1840 United States Census

The United States Census of 1840 was the sixth census of the United States. Conducted by the Census Office on June 1, 1840, it determined the resident population of the United States to be 17,069,453 — an increase of 32.7 percent over the 12,866,020 persons enumerated during the 1830 Census. The total population included 2,487,355 slaves. In 1840, the center of population was about 260 miles (418 km) west of Washington, near Weston, Virginia.

This was the first census in which:

  • A state recorded a population of over two million (New York)
  • A city recorded a population of over 300,000 (New York)
  • Multiple cities recorded populations of over 100,000 (New York, Baltimore, and New Orleans)
1840 United States Census
Seal of the United States Census Bureau
General information
CountryUnited States
Date takenJune 1, 1840
Total population17,069,453
Percent changeIncrease 32.7%

Controversy over statistics for mental illness among Northern blacks

The 1840 Census was the first that attempted to count Americans who were "insane" or "idiotic". Published results of the census indicated that alarming numbers of black persons living in non-slaveholding States were mentally ill, in striking contrast to the corresponding figures for slaveholding States.

Pro-slavery advocates trumpeted the results as evidence of the beneficial effects of slavery, and the probable consequences of emancipation.[1] Anti-slavery advocates contended, on the contrary, that the published returns were riddled with errors, as detailed in an 1844 report by Edward Jarvis of Massachusetts in the American Journal of the Medical Sciences, later published separately as a pamphlet,[1][2] and in a memorial from the American Statistical Association to Congress, praying that measures be taken to correct the errors.[3]

The memorial was submitted to the House of Representatives by John Quincy Adams, who contended that it demonstrated "a multitude of gross and important errors" in the published returns.[4] In response to the House's request for an inquiry, Secretary of State John C. Calhoun reported that a careful examination of the statistics by the supervisor of the census had fully sustained their correctness.[5][6] The returns were not revised.[7]

Census questions

The 1840 census asked these questions:[8]

  • Name of head of family
  • Address
  • Number of free white males and females
    • in five-year age groups to age 20
    • in 10-year age groups from 20 to 100
    • 100 years and older
  • number of slaves and free colored persons in six age groups
  • number of deaf and dumb, by race
  • number of blind, by race
  • number of insane and idiotic in public or private charge, by race
  • number of persons in each family employed in seven classes of occupation
  • number of schools and number of scholars
  • number of white persons over 20 who could not read and write
  • number of pensioners for Revolutionary or military service

Data availability

No microdata from the 1840 population census are available, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. A compendium of data from the sixth census, organized by States, counties, and principal towns is available on the web site of the Census Bureau.

State rankings

Rank State Population
01 New York 2,428,921
02 Pennsylvania 1,724,033
03 Ohio 1,519,467
04 Virginia 1,025,227
05 Tennessee 829,210
06 Kentucky 779,828
07 North Carolina 753,419
08 Massachusetts 737,699
09 Georgia 691,392
10 Indiana 685,866
11 South Carolina 594,398
12 Alabama 590,756
13 Maine 501,793
14 Illinois 476,183
15 Maryland 470,019
16 Missouri 383,702
17 Mississippi 375,651
18 New Jersey 373,306
19 Louisiana 352,411
20 Connecticut 309,978
21 Vermont 291,948
22 New Hampshire 284,574
X West Virginia [9] 224,537
23 Michigan 212,267
24 Rhode Island 108,830
25 Arkansas 97,574
26 Delaware 78,085
X Florida 54,477
X Iowa 43,112
X District of Columbia [10] 33,745
X Wisconsin 30,945

City rankings

Rank City State Population[11] Region (2016)[12]
01 New York New York 312,710 Northeast
02 Baltimore Maryland 102,313 South
03 New Orleans Louisiana 102,193 South
04 Philadelphia Pennsylvania 93,665 Northeast
05 Boston Massachusetts 93,383 Northeast
06 Cincinnati Ohio 46,338 Midwest
07 Brooklyn New York 36,233 Northeast
08 Northern Liberties Pennsylvania 34,474 Northeast
09 Albany New York 33,721 Northeast
10 Charleston South Carolina 29,261 South
11 Spring Garden Pennsylvania 27,849 Northeast
12 Southwark Pennsylvania 27,548 Northeast
13 Washington District of Columbia 23,364 South
14 Providence Rhode Island 23,171 Northeast
15 Kensington Pennsylvania 22,314 Northeast
16 Louisville Kentucky 21,210 South
17 Pittsburgh Pennsylvania 21,115 Northeast
18 Lowell Massachusetts 20,796 Northeast
19 Rochester New York 20,191 Northeast
20 Richmond Virginia 20,153 South
21 Troy New York 19,334 Northeast
22 Buffalo New York 18,213 Northeast
23 Newark New Jersey 17,290 Northeast
24 St. Louis Missouri 16,469 Midwest
25 Portland Maine 15,218 Northeast
26 Salem Massachusetts 15,082 Northeast
27 Moyamensing Pennsylvania 14,573 Northeast
28 New Haven Connecticut 12,960 Northeast
29 Utica New York 12,782 Northeast
30 Mobile Alabama 12,672 South
31 New Bedford Massachusetts 12,087 Northeast
32 Charlestown Massachusetts 11,484 Northeast
33 Savannah Georgia 11,214 South
34 Petersburg Virginia 11,136 South
35 Springfield Massachusetts 10,985 Northeast
36 Norfolk Virginia 10,920 South
37 Allegheny Pennsylvania 10,089 Northeast
38 Hartford Connecticut 9,468 Northeast
39 Lynn Massachusetts 9,367 Northeast
40 Detroit Michigan 9,102 Midwest
41 Roxbury Massachusetts 9,089 Northeast
42 Nantucket Massachusetts 9,012 Northeast
43 Bangor Maine 8,627 Northeast
44 Alexandria District of Columbia 8,459 South
45 Lancaster Pennsylvania 8,417 Northeast
46 Reading Pennsylvania 8,410 Northeast
47 Cambridge Massachusetts 8,409 Northeast
48 Wilmington Delaware 8,367 South
49 Newport Rhode Island 8,333 Northeast
50 Portsmouth New Hampshire 7,887 Northeast
51 Wheeling Virginia 7,885 South
52 Taunton Massachusetts 7,645 Northeast
53 Paterson New Jersey 7,596 Northeast
54 Worcester Massachusetts 7,497 Northeast
55 Georgetown District of Columbia 7,312 South
56 Newburyport Massachusetts 7,161 Northeast
57 Lexington Kentucky 6,997 South
58 Nashville Tennessee 6,929 South
59 Schenectady New York 6,784 Northeast
60 Fall River Massachusetts 6,738 Northeast
61 Warwick Rhode Island 6,726 Northeast
62 Portsmouth Virginia 6,477 South
63 Dover New Hampshire 6,458 Northeast
64 Augusta Georgia 6,403 South
65 Lynchburg Virginia 6,395 South
66 Gloucester Massachusetts 6,350 Northeast
67 Cleveland Ohio 6,071 Midwest
68 Dayton Ohio 6,067 Midwest
69 Nashua New Hampshire 6,054 Northeast
70 Columbus Ohio 6,048 Midwest
71 Harrisburg Pennsylvania 5,980 Northeast
72 Hudson New York 5,672 Northeast
73 Auburn New York 5,626 Northeast
74 Marblehead Massachusetts 5,575 Northeast
75 New London Connecticut 5,519 Northeast
76 Wilmington North Carolina 5,335 South
77 Augusta Maine 5,314 Northeast
78 Plymouth Massachusetts 5,281 Northeast
79 Cumberland Rhode Island 5,225 Northeast
80 Andover Massachusetts 5,207 Northeast
81 Frederick Maryland 5,182 South
82 Bath Maine 5,141 Northeast
83 Middleborough Massachusetts 5,085 Northeast
84 Gardiner Maine 5,042 Northeast
85 Danvers Massachusetts 5,020 Northeast
86 Concord New Hampshire 4,897 Northeast
87 Dorchester Massachusetts 4,875 Northeast
88 Easton Pennsylvania 4,865 Northeast
89 York Pennsylvania 4,779 Northeast
90 Zanesville Ohio 4,766 Midwest
91 Beverly Massachusetts 4,689 Northeast
92 Chicago Illinois 4,470 Midwest
93 Carlisle Pennsylvania 4,351 Northeast
94 Pottsville Pennsylvania 4,345 Northeast
95 Columbia South Carolina 4,340 South
96 Haverhill Massachusetts 4,336 Northeast
97 Barnstable Massachusetts 4,301 Northeast
98 Fayetteville North Carolina 4,285 South
99 Steubenville Ohio 4,247 Midwest
100 New Albany Indiana 4,226 Midwest


  1. ^ a b Leon F. Litwack (1958), "The Federal Government and the Free Negro, 1790-1860", Journal of Negro History, 43 (4): 261–78, 263–68, JSTOR 2716144, and sources there cited.
  2. ^ Edward Jarvis (1844). Insanity Among the Coloured Population of the Free States. Philadelphia: T.K. & P.G. Collins, Printers. Retrieved May 31, 2013.
  3. ^ Edward Jarvis; William Brigham; J. Wingate Thornton (1844). Memorial of the American Statistical Association Praying the Adoption of Measures for the Correction of Errors in the Returns of the Sixth Census. Public Documents Printed by Order of the Senate of the United States, Second Session of the Twenty-Eighth Congress. I. Retrieved May 31, 2013.
  4. ^ John Quincy Adams (1877). Charles Francis Adams, ed. Memoirs of John Quincy Adams: comprising portions of his diary from 1795 to 1848. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott & Co. pp. 27–28, 61, 119–20. Retrieved May 31, 2013.
  5. ^ Litwack (1958), 267
  6. ^ John Caldwell Calhoun; South Carolina General Assembly (1859). Richard K. Crallé, ed. The Works of John C. Calhoun: Reports and Public Letters. V. New York: D. Appleton and Company. p. 458. Retrieved May 31, 2013. Calhoun engaged William A. Weaver, the superintendent of the 1840 census, to review the figures and check them against related data from the 1830 census. Ibid. Weaver reported that he had examined "each specification of error" and concluded that the memorialists had themselves erred in their claims. While there doubtless had been minor errors, he said, there had been no glaring methodological mistakes as charged. See William Edwin Hemphill, ed., The Papers of John C. Calhoun: 1845, Columbia, S.C.: Univ. of South Carolina Press, 1993, vol. 21, p. 156.
  7. ^ Litwack (1958), 268
  8. ^ "Library Bibliography Bulletin 88, New York State Census Records, 1790-1925". New York State Library. 1981. Note that several pages on U.S. federal web sites incorrectly assert that the 1840 census questionnaire closely followed that from the 1830 census, which did not include questions concerning mental illness.
  9. ^ Between 1790 and 1860, the state of West Virginia was part of Virginia; the data for each states reflect the present-day boundaries.
  10. ^ The District of Columbia is not a state but was created with the passage of the Residence Act of 1790. The territory that formed that federal capital was originally donated by both Maryland and Virginia; however, the Virginia portion was returned by Congress in 1846.
  11. ^ Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places in the United States: 1790 to 1990, U.S. Census Bureau, 1998
  12. ^ "Regions and Divisions". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on December 3, 2016. Retrieved September 9, 2016.

External links

28th United States Congress

The Twenty-eighth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1843, to March 4, 1845, during the third and fourth years of John Tyler's presidency. The apportionment of seats in this House of Representatives was based on the Sixth Census of the United States in 1840. The Senate had a Whig majority, and the House had a Democratic majority.

Harry Yount

Henry S. Yount (March 18, 1839 – May 16, 1924) was an American Civil War soldier, mountain man, professional hunter and trapper, prospector, wilderness guide and packer, seasonal employee of the United States Department of the Interior, and the first gamekeeper in Yellowstone National Park. He was nicknamed "Rocky Mountain Harry Yount".

Yount served two terms in the Union Army during the American Civil War. He first enlisted for a six-month term in November 1861. He was wounded and taken prisoner by the Confederate States Army in an opening skirmish of the Battle of Pea Ridge in Arkansas in March 1862, and held as a prisoner of war for nearly a month until released in a prisoner exchange. He re-enlisted in August 1862 and served until the end of the war. He was promoted three times and was a company quartermaster sergeant when he was discharged in July 1865.

He worked as a hunter and a prospector, and as a bullwhacker for the U.S. Army, in the years following the Civil War. For seven years in the 1870s he worked as a guide, hunter and wrangler for the expeditions of the Hayden Geological Surveys, which mapped vast areas of the Rocky Mountains.

In 1880, Yount was hired by the United States Secretary of the Interior, Carl Schurz, to be the first gamekeeper in Yellowstone National Park, and during his 14 months in that job wrote two annual reports for Schurz, which were then submitted to Congress. His reports described the challenges of protecting the wildlife in the first U.S. national park and influenced the culture of the National Park Service, which was founded 35 years later in 1916. Horace Albright, the second director of the National Park Service, called Yount the "father of the ranger service, as well as the first national park ranger". Yount was a prospector during much of the last four decades of his life.

Henry Merrill

For the comic book writer, see Dick Merrill

Henry Merrill (also spelled Henry Merrell) (August 7, 1804–May 5, 1874) was an American businessman and politician.

Merrill was born in Utica, New York in 1804, and moved with his family to Sackett's Harbor in 1819.In 1834 he was appointed sutler and postmaster of Fort Winnebago; he remained in the area for the rest of his life. Merrill served as a superintendent of the Bank of Wisconsin, which was established in 1835.

Merrill witnessed the effects of Winnebago Treaty of 1837, signed November 1, 1837, in which members of the Ho-Chunk (or Winnebago) nation were defrauded into handing over there lands by 1845. He helped conduct the 1840 United States Census within the Wisconsin Territory, and was clerk of court in Portage County in 1842.

Merrill was elected to the Wisconsin State Senate as a Whig, serving in 1848 and 1849.

Merrill died in 1874. He was a member of the Episcopal Church in Portage. His house was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1993.

Herschel Vespasian Johnson

Herschel Vespasian Johnson (September 18, 1812 – August 16, 1880) was an American politician. He was the 41st Governor of Georgia from 1853 to 1857 and the vice presidential nominee of the Douglas wing of the Democratic Party in the 1860 U.S. presidential election. He also served as one of Georgia's Confederate States senators.

Homer V. M. Miller

Homer Virgil Milton Miller (April 29, 1814 – May 31, 1896) was an American physician and politician from the U.S. state of Georgia, who practiced medicine for the Confederacy in the American Civil War and served as a U.S. Senator from Georgia for seven days in 1871.

Born in Pendleton, South Carolina on April 29, 1814, Miller moved with his parents to Rabun County, Georgia in 1820. He attended the common schools and graduated from the Medical College of South Carolina in 1835. He continued medical studies in Paris and commenced practice in Cassville, Georgia, in 1838. Miller was an unsuccessful Whig candidate for election as a U.S. Representative to the twenty-ninth United States Congress in 1844.

Miller was a slave owner. In 1840, he owned 10 slaves. In 1850, he owned 3 slaves. In 1860, he owned 20 slaves.During the Civil War, Miller served in the Confederate army as a surgeon and as a medical director, surgeon of posts, and inspector of hospitals in Georgia. He resumed the practice of medicine in Rome, Georgia and was a member of the faculty of the Atlanta Medical College. Subsequently, he was trustee of the University of Georgia in Athens.

Miller was a member of the state Reconstruction convention in 1867. Upon the restoration of Georgia's congressional representation, Miller was elected as a Democrat to the U.S. Senate on July 28, 1868. However, he did not qualify (and thus was not seated) until February 24, 1871. He served until the end of his term on March 3, 1871.

Miller's tenure in the Senate, at a mere seven days long, ranks (as of 2017) as the second-shortest in American history. The shortest Senate tenure belongs to Sen. Louis C. Wyman from New Hampshire, who served for only three days from his appointment on December 31, 1974, to the end of his term on January 3, 1975. (The second tenure of Sen. Salmon P. Chase from Ohio is shorter, lasting two days from the beginning of his term on March 4, 1861, to his resignation on March 6, 1861; however, Chase had previously already served a full term from March 4, 1849, to March 3, 1855, so he is not the shortest-serving senator.) The third-shortest Senate tenure belongs to Sen. Alva M. Lumpkin from South Carolina, who served three days longer than Miller; he served for ten days from his appointment on July 22, 1941, to his death on August 1, 1941.Miller died in Atlanta on May 31, 1896, and was interred in Myrtle Hill Cemetery in Rome, Georgia.

John Brown Gordon

John Brown Gordon (February 6, 1832 – January 9, 1904) was an attorney, a planter, general in the Confederate States Army, and politician in the postwar years. By the end of the Civil War, he had become "one of Robert E. Lee's most trusted generals".After the war, Gordon strongly opposed Reconstruction during the late 1860s. A member of the Democratic Party, he was elected by the state legislature to serve as a U.S. Senator, from 1875 to 1881, and again from 1891 to 1897. He also was elected as the 53rd Governor of Georgia, serving from 1886 to 1890.

John Coleman House

The John Coleman House, also known as Grassdale, is a historic plantation house in Eutaw, Alabama, United States. The two-story wood-frame I-house was built by John Coleman from Edgefield, South Carolina, on property that he settled in 1819. Coleman held 75 slaves during the 1840 United States Census of Greene County. The house was placed on the National Register of Historic Places as part of the Antebellum Homes in Eutaw Thematic Resource on December 6, 1982, due to its architectural significance. Coleman family members, as well as many slaves, are buried in a cemetery close to the house. The house is currently used as a hunting lodge.

John M. Berrien

John Macpherson Berrien (August 23, 1781 – January 1, 1856) of Georgia was a United States senator from Georgia and Andrew Jackson's Attorney General.

John Pendleton King

John Pendleton King (April 3, 1799 – March 19, 1888) was an attorney, planter and politician, serving as United States Senator from Georgia. He resigned in 1837 before the end of his term to devote himself to his plantation and business, serving for nearly 40 years as president of the Georgia Railroad and Banking Company and becoming a cotton manufacturer. He acquired large plantation holdings and by 1860 owned 69 slaves to work the cotton fields and related trades.

Maryland's 7th congressional district

Maryland's 7th congressional district elects a representative to the United States House of Representatives every two years. The seat is currently represented by Elijah Cummings (D). It encompasses just over half of Baltimore City, most of the majority African American sections of Baltimore County, and the majority of Howard County. The district was created following the census of 1950, which gave Maryland one additional representative in the House. It has been drawn as a majority-African American district since 1973.

New Orleans

New Orleans (, locally ; French: La Nouvelle-Orléans [la nuvɛlɔʁleɑ̃] (listen)) is a consolidated city-parish located along the Mississippi River in the southeastern region of the U.S. state of Louisiana. With an estimated population of 393,292 in 2017, it is the most populous city in Louisiana. A major port, New Orleans is considered an economic and commercial hub for the broader Gulf Coast region of the United States.

New Orleans is world-renowned for its distinct music, Creole cuisine, unique dialect, and its annual celebrations and festivals, most notably Mardi Gras. The historic heart of the city is the French Quarter, known for its French and Spanish Creole architecture and vibrant nightlife along Bourbon Street. The city has been described as the "most unique" in the United States, owing in large part to its cross-cultural and multilingual heritage. Founded in 1718 by French colonists, New Orleans was once the territorial capital of French Louisiana before being traded to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase of 1803. New Orleans in 1840 was the third-most populous city in the United States, and it was the largest city in the American South from the Antebellum era until after World War II. The city's location and flat elevation have historically made it very vulnerable to flooding. State and federal authorities have installed a complex system of levees and drainage pumps in an effort to protect the city.New Orleans was severely affected by Hurricane Katrina in 2005, which resulted in flooding more than 80% of the city, thousands of deaths, and so much displacement because of damaged communities and lost housing as to cause a population decline of over 50%. Since Katrina, major redevelopment efforts have led to a rebound in the city's population. Concerns about gentrification, new residents buying property in formerly closely knit communities, and displacement of longtime residents have been expressed.The city and Orleans Parish (French: paroisse d'Orléans) are coterminous. As of 2017, Orleans Parish is the third most-populous parish in Louisiana, behind East Baton Rouge Parish and neighboring Jefferson Parish. The city and parish are bounded by St. Tammany Parish and Lake Pontchartrain to the north, St. Bernard Parish and Lake Borgne to the east, Plaquemines Parish to the south, and Jefferson Parish to the south and west.

The city anchors the larger New Orleans metropolitan area, which had an estimated population of 1,275,762 in 2017. It is the most populous metropolitan area in Louisiana and the 46th-most populated MSA in the United States.

North Carolina's 13th congressional district

The Thirteenth congressional district of North Carolina was re-established in 2002 after the state gained population in the 2000 United States Census. Previously, the state had 13 districts from the first election following the 1810 United States Census until the reapportionment following the 1840 United States Census.

From 2003 to 2013 the district included most of northern Wake County, all of Person and Caswell counties as well as parts of Rockingham, Granville, Guilford, and Alamance counties.

However, reapportionment after the 2010 census shifted the district more to the south and east. As a result, it lost its share of Alamance, Caswell, Guilford, Person, and Rockingham counties. In place of those five counties, portions of Durham, Edgecombe, Franklin, Nash, Vance, Wayne, and Wilson counties were added. More of Wake County and less of Granville County were also included. While Barack Obama carried the old 13th with 59 percent of the vote in 2008, John McCain would have won it with 54 percent of the vote had it existed under the new lines.

As a result, Congressman Brad Miller (Democrat), who represented the district from its creation in 2003, announced he would not seek re-election to office in 2012. From 2013 to 2017, the district was represented by Republican George Holding.

After a mid-decade redistricting, most of the old 13th was essentially merged with the old 2nd District. A new 13th was created, stretching from the northern suburbs of Charlotte to Greensboro. Republican Ted Budd became the first congressman from this new district.

Plantation economy

A plantation economy is an economy based on agricultural mass production, usually of a few commodity crops grown on large farms called plantations. Plantation economies rely on the export of cash crops as a source of income. Prominent crops included cotton, rubber, sugar cane, tobacco, figs, rice, kapok, sisal, and species in the genus Indigofera, used to produce indigo dye.

The longer a crop's harvest period, the more efficient plantations become. Economies of scale are also achieved when the distance to market is long. Plantation crops usually need processing immediately after harvesting. Sugarcane, tea, sisal, and palm oil are most suited to plantations, while coconuts, rubber, and cotton are suitable to a lesser extent.

Robert F. Flemming Jr.

Robert Francis Flemming Jr. (July, 1839 – February 23, 1919) was an African-American inventor and Union sailor in the American Civil War. He was the first crew member aboard the USS Housatonic to spot the H.L. Hunley before it sank the USS Housatonic. The sinking of USS Housatonic is renowned as the first sinking of an enemy ship in combat by a submarine.

Robert M. Charlton

Robert Milledge Charlton (January 19, 1807 – January 18, 1854) was an American politician and jurist. He served as a Senator representing Georgia from 1852 to 1853.

Charlton was born in Savannah, Georgia on January 19, 1807. A lawyer by training, Charlton served in various positions at the city and state level in addition to his U.S. Senate term. He was a member of the Georgia House of Representatives (1828), and he was appointed and subsequently elected a judge of the Eastern Circuit of Georgia in 1832. Charlton was also appointed as a United States District Attorney.

He was appointed as a Democrat to the United States Senate to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of John M. Berrien. Charlton served as the mayor of Savannah from 1839 to 1841. The father of Robert Charlton, Thomas U.P. Charlton, had previously served as the appointed mayor of Savannah in 1815 and again in 1819.

In 1829 Robert Charlton married Margaret Shick. Charlton ward, Savannah and Charlton County, Georgia are named after him. Charlton died in Savannah on January 18, 1854, the day before his 47th birthday, and is buried in Laurel Grove Cemetery in that city.

He was also a slave owner. In 1830, he owned 3 slaves. In 1840, he owned 14 slaves. In 1850, he owned 13 slaves.

Robert Toombs

Robert Augustus Toombs (July 2, 1810 – December 15, 1885) was an American lawyer, planter, and politician from Georgia who became one of the organizers of the Confederacy and served as its first Secretary of State. He served in Jefferson Davis' cabinet as well as in the Confederate States Army, but later became one of Davis' critics. He fled the United States after the Confederate defeat, returning in 1867 after his daughter's death. He regained political power in Georgia as Congressional Reconstruction ended.

A lawyer by training, Toombs gained renown in the antebellum years as speaker in the U.S. House of Representatives, and later in the U.S. Senate. A slaveholder, he found common ground with fellow-Georgian Alexander H. Stephens and advocated states' rights and the extension of slavery to western territories. Toombs supported the Compromise of 1850, but later advocated secession. Toombs had emotive oratory and a strong physical presence, but his intemperate habits and volatile personality limited his career. In the newly formed Confederate Government, Toombs was appointed Secretary of State. He criticised the attack on Fort Sumter, which put him at odds with President Jefferson Davis (whose position he had coveted), and he quit the administration to join the Confederate States Army. He became a Brigadier-General, and was wounded at the Battle of Antietam. In 1863, Toombs resigned his commission in the Confederate Army to join the Georgia militia. He was subsequently denied higher promotion and resigned as he continued to feud with Davis. When the war ended, he fled to Cuba. He returned to Georgia in 1867, but refused to request a presidential pardon and was prohibited from holding political office until after the Reconstruction era ended.

Scientific racism

Scientific racism (sometimes referred to as race biology), is the pseudoscientific belief that empirical evidence exists to support or justify racism (racial discrimination), racial inferiority, or racial superiority. Historically, scientific racist ideas received credence in the scientific community but are no longer considered scientific.Scientific racism employs anthropology (notably physical anthropology), anthropometry, craniometry, and other disciplines or pseudo-disciplines, in proposing anthropological typologies supporting the classification of human populations into physically discrete human races, that might be asserted to be superior or inferior. Scientific racism was common during the period from 1600s to the end of World War I. Since the second half of the 20th century, scientific racism has been criticized as obsolete and discredited, yet historically has persistently been used to support or validate racist world-views, based upon belief in the existence and significance of racial categories and a hierarchy of superior and inferior races.After the end of World War II, scientific racism in theory and action was formally denounced, especially in UNESCO's early antiracist statement "The Race Question" (1950): "The biological fact of race and the myth of 'race' should be distinguished. For all practical social purposes 'race' is not so much a biological phenomenon as a social myth. The myth of 'race' has created an enormous amount of human and social damage. In recent years, it has taken a heavy toll in human lives, and caused untold suffering". Such "biological fact" has not reached a consensus as developments in human evolutionary genetics showed that human genetic differences are often gradual.The term "scientific racism" is generally used pejoratively as applied to more modern theories, as in The Bell Curve (1994). Critics argue that such works postulate racist conclusions unsupported by available evidence such as a connection between race and intelligence. Publications such as the Mankind Quarterly, founded explicitly as a "race-conscious" journal, are generally regarded as platforms of scientific racism for publishing articles on fringe interpretations of human evolution, intelligence, ethnography, language, mythology, archaeology, and race subjects.

Thomas Spalding

Thomas Spalding (March 25, 1774 – January 5, 1851) was a United States Representative from Georgia. He was born in Frederica, Georgia, St. Simons Island, Glynn County, Georgia. He attended the common schools of Georgia and Florida and a private school in Massachusetts. He studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1795, but did not practice. He engaged extensively in agricultural pursuits.Spalding served as a member of the state constitutional convention in 1798. He was a member of the Georgia Senate in 1799. After traveling for 18 months in England and France, he moved to McIntosh County, Georgia, in 1803 and then again served in the Georgia Senate. He successfully contested, as a Democratic-Republican candidate, the election of Federalist party candidate Cowles Mead to the Ninth Congress and served from December 24, 1805, until his resignation in 1806. He served as a trustee of the McIntosh County Academy in 1807 and was one of the founders of the Bank of Darien and of the branch in Milledgeville, Georgia, and president for many years.

Spalding engaged in cultivation of Sea Island Cotton as a commodity crop on Sapelo Island, Georgia. According to the New Georgia Encyclopedia, he owned 350 slaves. In 1830, he owned 400 slaves. In 1840, he owned 348 slaves. In 1850, he owned 200 slaves.In 1826 he was appointed as a commissioner of the State of Georgia to determine the boundary line between Georgia and the Territory of Florida. He served as a commissioner from the United States of America to Bermuda to negotiate relative to property taken or destroyed in the South by the British in the War of 1812. He was a president of the convention at Milledgeville, Georgia in 1850, which resolved that the State of Georgia would resist any act of Congress abolishing slavery. He died in 1851, while en route home, at the residence of his son near Darien, Georgia, named Ashantilly. He was buried in St. Andrew's Cemetery.

William Bellinger Bulloch

William Bellinger Bulloch (1777 – May 6, 1852) was an American Senator from Georgia, the youngest son of Archibald Bulloch, uncle to James Stephens Bulloch, granduncle to James Dunwoody Bulloch, Martha Bulloch Roosevelt, and Irvine Stephens Bulloch, great-granduncle to President Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. and Elliott Bulloch Roosevelt, and great-great-granduncle to First Lady of the United States Eleanor Roosevelt.

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