1838 (MDCCCXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1838th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 838th year of the 2nd millennium, the 38th year of the 19th century, and the 9th year of the 1830s decade. As of the start of 1838, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
1838 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1838
Ab urbe condita2591
Armenian calendar1287
Assyrian calendar6588
Balinese saka calendar1759–1760
Bengali calendar1245
Berber calendar2788
British Regnal yearVict. 1 – 2 Vict. 1
Buddhist calendar2382
Burmese calendar1200
Byzantine calendar7346–7347
Chinese calendar丁酉(Fire Rooster)
4534 or 4474
    — to —
戊戌年 (Earth Dog)
4535 or 4475
Coptic calendar1554–1555
Discordian calendar3004
Ethiopian calendar1830–1831
Hebrew calendar5598–5599
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1894–1895
 - Shaka Samvat1759–1760
 - Kali Yuga4938–4939
Holocene calendar11838
Igbo calendar838–839
Iranian calendar1216–1217
Islamic calendar1253–1254
Japanese calendarTenpō 9
Javanese calendar1765–1766
Julian calendarGregorian minus 12 days
Korean calendar4171
Minguo calendar74 before ROC
Nanakshahi calendar370
Thai solar calendar2380–2381
Tibetan calendar阴火鸡年
(female Fire-Rooster)
1964 or 1583 or 811
    — to —
(male Earth-Dog)
1965 or 1584 or 812






Date unknown




Date unknown





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  3. ^ "Cilley-Graves Duel", in Historical Dictionary of the Jacksonian Era and Manifest Destiny, by Mark R. Cheathem and Terry Corps (Rowman & Littlefield, 2016) p98
  4. ^ Kinga Frojimovics, Géza Komoróczy, Jewish Budapest: Monuments, Rites, History (Central European University Press, 1999) p58
  5. ^ Catherine Delafield, Serialization and the Novel in Mid-Victorian Magazines (Routledge, 2016) p6
  6. ^ "Steamship Curaçao". Archived from the original on December 24, 2010. Retrieved 2011-02-02.
  7. ^ "Icons, a portrait of England 1820-1840". Archived from the original on September 22, 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-12.
  8. ^ a b Sandoval, Victor Hugo. "Federal Republic of Central America". Monedas de Guatemala. Retrieved 2013-11-05.
  9. ^ Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0.
  10. ^ "Iowa Territory Legal Materials", by David Hanson, in Prestatehood Legal Materials: A Fifty-State Research Guide, Including New York City and the District of Columbia (The Haworth Information Press, 2006) p388
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  12. ^ "Quincy, Illinois: A Temporary Refuge, 1838-39". BYU Religious Studies Center. Archived from the original on October 29, 2013. Retrieved 2013-10-27.
  13. ^ "World suffrage timeline – women and the vote". New Zealand Ministry of Culture and Heritage.
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1838 United States House of Representatives elections

Elections to the United States House of Representatives for the 26th Congress were held during President Martin Van Buren's term at various dates in different states from July 1838 to November 1839.

The Panic of 1837 and consequent economic downturn drove Whig Party gains. Van Buren's Democratic Party had lost popularity and Whig policies of economic nationalism appealed to a larger number of voters. Democrats were able, however, to contain the political fallout by blaming banks for the crisis. The Anti-Masonic Party, influential in New York, Pennsylvania, and other Northern states, lost seats, while the Southern Nullifier Party disappeared. Two Virginia representatives were elected on that state's Conservative Party ticket.

Early business of the new House reflected the close partisan division. When Congress first Convened on December 3, 1839, two contingents of New Jersey representatives-elect, one composed of Democrats and the other of Whigs, arrived and both requested to be seated as members. Charging the Whigs with election fraud and facing loss of control of the House, the Democratic Party majority (119 to 118 Whigs from outside New Jersey) refused to seat all but one Whig. Massachusetts Representative John Quincy Adams presided as "chairman" of the House after the clerk lost control.

Two weeks later, when voting for speaker of the House finally commenced, 11 ballots were needed before Robert M. T. Hunter, a compromise Whig candidate, was elected, receiving 119 votes (out of 232 cast). The 26th Congress also passed the first Independent Treasury bill.

1838 United States elections

The 1838 United States elections occurred in the middle of Democratic President Martin Van Buren's term, during the Second Party System. Members of the 26th United States Congress were chosen in this election.

Whigs picked up a moderate number of seats in both the House and Senate, but the Democratic Party retained a majority in both chambers. However, due to a split in the Democratic party, Whig Congressman Robert M. T. Hunter was elected Speaker of the House.

1838 and 1839 United States Senate elections

The United States Senate elections of 1838 and 1839 were elections which had the Democratic Party lose seven seats in the United States Senate, but still retain a majority.

As this election was prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures.

1838 in France

Events from the year 1838 in France.

1838 in Ireland

Events from the year 1838 in Ireland.

1838 in Sweden

Events from the year 1838 in Sweden

25th United States Congress

The Twenty-fifth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1837, to March 4, 1839, during the first two years of Martin Van Buren's presidency.

The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Fifth Census of the United States in 1830. Both chambers had a Democratic majority.


Chartism was a working-class movement for political reform in Britain that existed from 1838 to 1857. It took its name from the People's Charter of 1838 and was a national protest movement, with particular strongholds of support in Northern England, the East Midlands, the Staffordshire Potteries, the Black Country, and the South Wales Valleys. Support for the movement was at its highest in 1839, 1842, and 1848, when petitions signed by millions of working people were presented to the House of Commons. The strategy employed was to use the scale of support which these petitions and the accompanying mass meetings demonstrated to put pressure on politicians to concede manhood suffrage. Chartism thus relied on constitutional methods to secure its aims, though there were some who became involved in insurrectionary activities, notably in south Wales and in Yorkshire.

The People's Charter called for six reforms to make the political system more democratic:

A vote for every man twenty-one years of age, of sound mind, and not undergoing punishment for a crime.

The secret ballot to protect the elector in the exercise of his vote.

No property qualification for Members of Parliament in order to allow the constituencies to return the man of their choice.

Payment of Members, enabling tradesmen, working men, or other persons of modest means to leave or interrupt their livelihood to attend to the interests of the nation.

Equal constituencies, securing the same amount of representation for the same number of electors, instead of allowing less populous constituencies to have as much or more weight than larger ones.

Annual Parliamentary elections, thus presenting the most effectual check to bribery and intimidation, since no purse could buy a constituency under a system of universal manhood suffrage in each twelve-month period.The leader of the chartist movement was Sir Dudley. His speeches where famous for becoming increasingly rowdy. A prime example of this is when a man named Dan supposedly jumped on the stage whilst Dudley was giving a speech, did an egg dance and then shouted, ‘don’t play the game, play the game!’ Dudley went on to use this as his slogan when trying to run for prime Minister. Sadly, The Duke of Wellington won the vote due to being a ‘massive suck up’ to Queen Victoria. It was rumoured that Victoria even had a nickname for Wellington, ‘The Velvet Duke’. Chartism saw themselves fighting against political corruption and for democracy in an industrial society, but attracted support beyond the radical political groups for economic reasons, such as opposing wage cuts and unemployment.

G. P. Putnam's Sons

G. P. Putnam's Sons is an American book publisher based in New York City, New York. Since 1996, it has been an imprint of the Penguin Group.


The light-year is a unit of length used to express astronomical distances and measures about 9.46 trillion kilometres (9.46 x 1012 km) or 5.88 trillion miles (5.88 x 1012 mi). As defined by the International Astronomical Union (IAU), a light-year is the distance that light travels in vacuum in one Julian year (365.25 days). Because it includes the word "year", the term light-year is sometimes misinterpreted as a unit of time.

The light-year is most often used when expressing distances to stars and other distances on a galactic scale, especially in nonspecialist and popular science publications. The unit most commonly used in professional astrometry is the parsec (symbol: pc, about 3.26 light-years; the distance at which one astronomical unit subtends an angle of one second of arc).

List of United States Supreme Court cases, volume 37

This is a list of all the United States Supreme Court cases from volume 37 of the United States Reports. This was the 12th volume reported by Richard Peters.

President of Nicaragua

The President of Nicaragua (Spanish: Presidente de Nicaragua) officially known as the President of the Republic of Nicaragua (Spanish: Presidente de la República de Nicaragua) is the head of state of Nicaragua. The office was created in the Constitution of 1854. From 1825 until the Constitution of 1838, the head of state of Nicaragua was styled simply as Head of State (Jefe de Estado), and from 1838 to 1854 as Supreme Director (Supremo Director).

Rebellions of 1837–1838

The Rebellions of 1837–1838 (French: Les rébellions de 1837) were two armed uprisings that took place in Lower and Upper Canada in 1837 and 1838. Both rebellions were motivated by frustrations with political reform. A key shared goal was responsible government, which was eventually achieved in the incidents' aftermath. The rebellions led directly to Lord Durham's Report on the Affairs of British North America and to The British North America Act, 1840 which partially reformed the British provinces into a unitary system and eventually led to the British North America Act, 1867 which created Canada and its government.

The Times Group

Bennett Coleman and Company Limited, commonly known as The Times Group, is India’s largest media conglomerate, according to Financial Times as of March 2015. The Audit Bureau of Circulations reported in May 2014 that the Times of India had the largest circulation of any English-language newspaper in the world, with 3,321,702 average qualifying sales. The company remains a family-owned business as the descendants of Sahu Jain own a majority stake in The Times Group. The Times Group has over 11,000 employees and revenue exceeding $1.5 billion.

The Times of India

The Times of India (TOI) is an Indian English-language daily newspaper owned by The Times Group

It is the third-largest newspaper in India by circulation and largest selling English-language daily in the world according to Audit Bureau of Circulations (India). It is the oldest English-language newspaper in India still in circulation, albeit under different names since its first edition published in 1838. It is also the second-oldest Indian newspaper still in circulation after the Bombay Samachar.

Near the beginning of the 20th century, Lord Curzon, the Viceroy of India, called The Times of India "the leading paper in Asia". In 1991, the BBC ranked The Times of India among the world's six best newspapers.It is owned and published by Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd. (B.C.C.L.), which is owned by the Sahu Jain family. In the Brand Trust Report 2012, The Times of India was ranked 88th among India's most-trusted brands. In 2017, however, the newspaper was ranked 355th.

Treaty of London (1839)

The Treaty of London of 1839, also called the First Treaty of London, the Convention of 1839, the Treaty of Separation, the Quintuple Treaty of 1839, or the Treaty of the XXIV articles, was a treaty signed on 19 April 1839 between the Concert of Europe, the United Kingdom of the Netherlands and the Kingdom of Belgium. It was a direct follow-up to the 1831 Treaty of the XVIII Articles which the Netherlands had refused to sign, and the result of negotiations at the London Conference of 1838–1839.Under the treaty, the European powers recognized and guaranteed the independence and neutrality of Belgium and established the full independence of the German-speaking part of Luxembourg. Article VII required Belgium to remain perpetually neutral, and by implication committed the signatory powers to guard that neutrality in the event of invasion.

Trent Bridge

Trent Bridge is a cricket ground mostly used for Test, One-day international and County cricket located in West Bridgford, Nottinghamshire, England, just across the River Trent from the city of Nottingham. Trent Bridge is also the headquarters of Nottinghamshire County Cricket Club. As well as International cricket and Nottinghamshire's home games, the ground has hosted the Finals Day of the Twenty20 Cup twice. In 2009 the ground was used for the ICC World Twenty20 and hosted the semi-final between South Africa and Pakistan. The site takes its name from the nearby main bridge over the Trent, and is also close to Meadow Lane and the City Ground, the football stadia of Notts County and Nottingham Forest respectively.

Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star

"Twinkle, Twinkle, Little Star" is a popular English lullaby. The lyrics are from an early-19th-century English poem by Jane Taylor, "The Star". The poem, which is in couplet form, was first published in 1806 in Rhymes for the Nursery, a collection of poems by Taylor and her sister Ann. It is sung to the tune of the French melody Ah! vous dirai-je, maman, which was published in 1761 and later arranged by several composers including Mozart with Twelve Variations on "Ah vous dirai-je, Maman". The English lyrics have five stanzas, although only the first is widely known. It has a Roud Folk Song Index number of 7666. This song is usually performed in the key of C major.

The song is in the public domain, and has many adaptations around the world.

United States Exploring Expedition

The United States Exploring Expedition of 1838–1842 was an exploring and surveying expedition of the Pacific Ocean and surrounding lands conducted by the United States. The original appointed commanding officer was Commodore Thomas ap Catesby Jones. Funding for the original expedition was requested by President John Quincy Adams in 1828, however, Congress would not implement funding until eight years later. In May 1836, the oceanic exploration voyage was finally authorized by Congress and created by President Andrew Jackson.

The expedition is sometimes called the "U.S. Ex. Ex." for short, or the "Wilkes Expedition" in honor of its next appointed commanding officer, United States Navy Lieutenant Charles Wilkes. The expedition was of major importance to the growth of science in the United States, in particular the then-young field of oceanography. During the event, armed conflict between Pacific islanders and the expedition was common and dozens of natives were killed in action, as well as a few Americans.

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