The 1833 territorial division of Spain divided Spain into provinces, classified into "historic regions" (Spanish: regiones históricas). Many of these regions correspond to present-day autonomous communities of Spain and nearly all of the provinces retain roughly or precisely these borders, although five provinces have changed their names to reflect local languages other than Castilian Spanish and three to match the name of a coterminous autonomous community.
Immediately after the death of King Ferdinand VII on 29 September 1833, the regent Maria Christina attempted to find a moderate third way between the absolutist Carlists—the followers of the Infante Carlos—and the liberals. This mission was given to First Secretary of State Francisco Cea Bermúdez, leader of a government that lasted only into the following January, having been unable to satisfy either side, let alone both. Despite his vain efforts to gain the support of either the liberals or the Carlists, his government undertook a major reform of the territorial division of Spain whose effects are still felt after more than a century-and-a-half: the division of Spain into provinces.
A royal decree of 20 November 1833 ratified a plan put forth by Javier de Burgos, secretary of state for development (secretario de estado de Fomento), which created the basis for a centralized state divided into 49 provinces. All but four of the provinces received the name of their capital cities; those four—Navarre with its capital at Pamplona, Álava with Vitoria, Gipuzkoa with San Sebastián, and Biscay (Spanish: Vizcaya) with Bilbao—reflected long standing entities, and retained their historic names.
Javier de Burgos's division is practically the same as the short-lived 1822 territorial division of Spain, dating from the "Liberal Trienium" (Trienio Liberal), but without the provinces of Calatayud, Vierzo, and Játiva; also, in contrast to the 1822 division, several provinces were given names other than those of their capitals.
Rather than the merit of having initiated, directed and produced a new provincial division of Spain, Don Javier de Burgos deserves credit for the courage and political will have put in place the previous division of 1822 with the adjustments and modifications that he believed appropriate.— Gonzalo Martínez Díez
Javier de Burgos' 1833 provincial division included 49 provinces. The same decree that created the provincial division grouped the provinces into "historic regions". However, these were merely honorary and classificatory: there was no level of administration between the central government and the provinces. These "historic regions" had no powers, no administrative organs, no common jurisdiction over the provinces grouped within them. Each province had a governor (jefe político, "political chief") appointed by the central government.
|Andalusia||Almería, Cádiz, Córdoba, Granada, Huelva, Jaén, Málaga, Sevilla|
|Aragon||Huesca, Teruel, Zaragoza|
|Balearic Islands||Palma de Mallorca|
|Canary Islands||Santa Cruz de Tenerife (which also included the present-day province of Las Palmas)|
|New Castile||Ciudad Real, Cuenca, Guadalajara, Madrid, Toledo|
|Old Castile||Ávila, Burgos, Logroño, Palencia, Santander, Segovia, Soria, Valladolid|
|Catalonia||Barcelona, Gerona, Lérida, Tarragona|
|Galicia||La Coruña, Lugo, Orense, Pontevedra|
|León||León, Salamanca, Zamora|
|Valencia||Alicante, Castellón, Valencia|
|Basque Provinces||Álava, Gipuzkoa, Vizcaya|
|Source: Real Decreto de 30 de noviembre de 1833|
Besides looking to the 1822 arrangement, Javier de Burgos took as his model the departments of France. While many of the borders and inclusions in the provinces may at first appear arbitrary from a historical and geographical point of view, he was operating under a set of rational criteria: area (it was intended to be possible to travel between the capital and any point in the province in a single day), population (wherever feasible, the provinces had populations between 100,000 and 400,000), and geographic coherence.
The provincial division restored the traditional names of the Basque provinces and Navarre, which had been renamed in the 1822 territorial division of Spain, but few concessions were made to historic enclaves and exclaves. The most important of these that were retained were the Rincón de Ademuz (part of Valencia, but located between Teruel and Cuenca) and the Treviño enclave (part of Burgos, but surrounded by Álava); another notable exclave is Llívia (part of Gerona, but one must pass 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) through France to reach it).
The provincial division consolidated rapidly and remains with rather few changes down to the present day. This is in part because the provincial capitals all became the seats of basic government institutions. The jefes políticos would eventually be replaced by civil governors, and eventually delegates of the central government. The provincial division was followed by all branches of government and formed the basis for all future divisions and combinations. Each of Spain's municipalities (ayuntamientos) falls within a single province.
In 1834, Spain was divided into legal districts (partidos judiciales); these took provincial borders into account. These legal districts later became the basis of electoral districts and tax districts. Civil health districts also followed provincial lines (though military health districts sometimes did not). By 1868 there were 463 legal districts; the number of municipalities has repeatedly risen and fallen.
The new design arranged by Jorge de Burgos and government officials in Madrid opened a scenario of overt confrontation with the Basque territories and institutions, who kept a separate legal and institutional status, including taxation and customs with the Spanish heartland on the Ebro. Navarre was still a semi-autonomous kingdom with its own parliament and government—the Cortes and Diputación—while Álava, Gipuzkoa and Biscay (the Basque Provinces, known also as "Biscay" up to the Peninsular War), were also autonomous. News of the central government's decision overruling native institutions spread to the Basque districts, sparking uproar and anger. The new design thus notably paved the way to the outbreak of the First Carlist War.
While Jorge de Burgos' design of provincial Spain suppressed enclaves, it did keep the ones located in Basque territories—Trucios in Biscay, and Treviño in Álava. According to the new arrangement, the Basque enclaves were to be attached to the closer Spanish province of Common Fiscal Regime. That meant they would be paying taxes to Madrid, not to the relevant Basque government (Álava, Biscay). Oñati was incorporated into Gipuzkoa—definitely in 1845. Despite their close ties of cultural, linguistic, institutional, and legal nature (cf. fueros), it was decided to nominally regroup the above districts into two different "historic regions": Provincias Vascongadas and Navarra.
As remarked above, the 1833 system of provinces has undergone only minimal changes. Jefes políticos were replaced by civil governors, and eventually by delegates and sub-delegates of the central government. There were a few minor adjustments of borders, and several provinces have been renamed to accord with local languages or in view of other issues of regional identity. The "historic regions" went by the wayside during the Spanish transition to democracy in the later 1970s and early 1980s, when they were replaced by the autonomous communities, many of which coincide precisely with an earlier "historic region". Some authors writing about present-day Spain use the term "historic regions" to refer only to the Basque Country, Catalonia, usually Galicia, and occasionally Andalusia, all of which have historically had the strong local nationalisms.
Under Article 141 of the Spanish Constitution of 1978, the provinces remain Spain's basic units of territorial organization. They are the basis for electoral constituencies (Article 68) and autonomous communities are normally formed out of one or more provinces, with no province divided between two or more autonomous communities (Article 143). The revised Statute of Autonomy of Catalonia that went into effect in August 2006 ignored the provincial division within Catalonia, replacing it with a division into seven veguerias. However, the number of senators or deputies that Catalonia contributes to Spain's parliament, the Cortes Generales: remained regulated by Article 69 of the Constitution in terms of provinces. While the veguerias project remained controversial, the Catalan government intended to put it into effect in January 2010. However, the 2010 Catalan regional election produced a new legislature which has put these plans on hold.
The 1822 territorial division of Spain was a rearrangement of the territory of Spain into various provinces, enacted briefly during the Trienio Liberal of 1820–1823. It is remembered today largely as a precursor to the similar 1833 territorial division of Spain; the provinces established in the latter remain, by and large, the basis for the present-day division of Spain into provinces.Alcañiz
Alcañiz (Spanish pronunciation: [alkaˈɲiθ]) is a town and municipality of Teruel province in the autonomous community of Aragon, Spain. The town is located on the banks of the river Guadalope. Alcañiz is the unofficial capital of the Lower Aragon historical region. It lies some 113 km from Teruel, the provincial capital, and 92 km from Zaragoza, the capital of Aragon.
Alcañiz is the capital of the Bajo Aragón comarca and the second city in the province after Teruel.Asturias de Oviedo
Asturias de Oviedo is one of the historical comarcas in the Kingdom of Asturias. It extended from the Eo River in the west to the Deva River in the east, and from the Bay of Biscay in the north to the Cordillera Cantábrica in the south. Its capital and chief city was Oviedo. To its east lay the comarca of Asturias de Santillana.
The comarca received official status only with the reorganisation enacted by Ferdinand III of Castile in 1230 shortly after his accession to the Kingdom of León. It was designed, in part, to unite the two kingdoms, León and Castile, permanently. While the Asturias de Oviedo remained a part of León, the Asturias de Santillana with their capital in Santillana del Mar was placed within Castilian jurisdiction. In the 1833 territorial division of Spain the comarca was mostly converted into the province of Oviedo, now the province of Asturias.Chinchilla de Montearagón
Chinchilla de Montearagón, more commonly just Chinchilla (Arabic: جنجالة), is a municipality in the province of Albacete in Castile-La Mancha, (Spain) in the region of La Mancha Montearagón.Francisco Cea Bermúdez
Francisco de Paula de Cea Bermúdez y Buzo (Málaga, 28 October 1779 – Paris, 6 July 1850) was a Spanish politician and diplomat who served twice as Prime Minister of Spain.Historical regions of Spain
Historical regions of Spain can refer to:
"Nationalities" (Spanish: nacionalidades) or "historical nationalities" (Spanish: nacionalidades históricas), a constitutional term used to refer to autonomous communities in Spain that are granted special status (see nationalities and regions of Spain).
The "historical regions" (Spanish: regiones históricas) identified in the text of the 1833 territorial division of Spain.
Historical (autonomous) communities (Spanish: comunidades históricas) or historical nationalities, referred to those Spanish regions that had voted for and approved a Statute of Autonomy before the unsuccessful military coup-d'état against the Second Spanish Republic that led to the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939); namely, those autonomous communities of Catalonia, Galicia and the Basque Country.
Any historical kingdom or realm of Spain such as Castile, León, Navarre or Aragon.Kingdom of Córdoba
The Kingdom of Córdoba (Spanish: Reino de Córdoba; English often: Kingdom of Cordova) was a territorial jurisdiction of the Crown of Castile from the time it was won from Muslim rule in 1236 during the Reconquista until Javier de Burgos' provincial division of Spain in 1833. This was a "kingdom" ("reino") in the second sense given by the Diccionario de la lengua española de la Real Academia Española: the Crown of Castile consisted of several such kingdoms. Córdoba was one of the Four Kingdoms of Andalusia. Its extent is detailed in Respuestas Generales del Catastro de Ensenada (1750-54), which was part of the documentation of a census.
Like the other kingdoms within Spain, the Kingdom of Córdoba was abolished by the 1833 territorial division of Spain.Kingdom of Granada (Crown of Castile)
The Kingdom of Granada (; Spanish: Reino de Granada) was a territorial jurisdiction of the Crown of Castile from the conclusion of the Reconquista in 1492 until Javier de Burgos' provincial division of Spain in 1833. This was a "kingdom" ("reino") in the second sense given by the Diccionario de la lengua española de la Real Academia Española: the Crown of Castile consisted of several such kingdoms. Its extent is detailed in Gelo del Cabildo's 1751 Respuestas Generales del Catastro de Ensenada (1750–54), which was part of the documentation of a census. Like the other kingdoms within Spain, the Kingdom of Granada was abolished by the 1833 territorial division of Spain.
After the Granada War ended 2 January 1492, the old Muslim-ruled Emirate of Granada became part of the Crown of Castile. The kingdom was the location of a Muslim rebellion in 1499-1501 and after the Muslims were defeated and forcibly converted, a Morisco rebellion in 1568-1571. Following the annexation, The city of Granada, which had been the last center of Muslim power in the Iberian Peninsula, lost its political importance and even much of its economic importance, and entered a long period of decline. The European discovery of America gave preeminence to Seville, the only important inland port, which by the 16th century had become the principal city not only of Andalusia, but of all Spain. Nonetheless, Granada continued to play a significant institutional role: it was one of the seventeen cities with a vote in the Cortes de Castilla, the Granada Cathedral was the seat of an archdiocese and the Royal Chancery of Granada was the highest judicial court for half of the Crown of Castile, equaled only by a corresponding institution in Valladolid.
The difficulties of religious and ethnic integration of the Moriscos (former Muslims who had converted to Christianity) with the now-dominant Old Christians resulted in the unsuccessful, harshly repressed Morisco Revolt of 1568–1571. The Moriscos were initially dispersed in the Castilian interior, then expelled outright from Spain in 1609.
Today, all the territory of the Kingdom of Granada is part of the territory of the autonomous community of Andalusia.Kingdom of Jaén
The Kingdom of Jaén (Spanish: reino de Jaén) was a territorial jurisdiction of the Crown of Castile from the time it was won from Muslim rule in 1246 during the Reconquista until Javier de Burgos' provincial division of Spain in 1833. This was a "kingdom" ("reino") in the second sense given by the Diccionario de la lengua española de la Real Academia Española: the Crown of Castile consisted of several such kingdoms. Known also as the "Santo Reino" ("Holy Kingdom"), its territory coincided roughly with the present-day province of Jaén. Jaén was one of the Four Kingdoms of Andalusia. Its extent is detailed in Respuestas Generales del Catastro de Ensenada (1750–54), which was part of the documentation of a census.
Like the other kingdoms within Spain, the Kingdom of Jaén was abolished by the 1833 territorial division of Spain.Kingdom of Seville
The Kingdom of Seville (Spanish: Reino de Sevilla) was a territorial jurisdiction of the Crown of Castile from the time it was won from Muslim rule in 1248 during the Reconquista until Javier de Burgos' provincial division of Spain in 1833. This was a "kingdom" ("reino") in the second sense given by the Diccionario de la lengua española de la Real Academia Española: the Crown of Castile consisted of several such kingdoms. Seville was one of the Four Kingdoms of Andalusia. Its extent is detailed in Respuestas Generales del Catastro de Ensenada (1750-54), which was part of the documentation of a census. Falling largely within the present day autonomous community of Andalucia, it included roughly the territory of the present-day provinces of Huelva, Seville, and Cádiz, the Antequera Depression in the present-day province of Málaga, and also some municipalities in the present-day autonomous communities of Extremadura in the province of Badajoz.
Like the other kingdoms within Spain, the Kingdom of Seville was abolished by the 1833 territorial division of Spain.Mayor of Madrid
The Mayor of Madrid (Spanish: Alcalde de Madrid) is an elected politician who leads the City Council of Madrid, which is accountable for the strategic government of Madrid. The office is municipal and is not to be confused with that of the President of the (regional) Community of Madrid, which is a superior administrative entity created in 1983.Old Castile
Old Castile (Spanish: Castilla la Vieja [kasˈtiʎa la ˈβjexa]) is a historic region of Spain, which included territory that later corresponded to the provinces of Santander (now Cantabria), Burgos, Logroño (now La Rioja), Soria, Segovia, Ávila, Valladolid and Palencia.
Its origins are in the historic Castile that was formed in the 9th century in the zone now comprising Cantabria, Álava, and Burgos.
In the 18th century, Charles III of Spain assigned to the kingdom of Castilla la Vieja the provinces of Burgos, Soria, Segovia, Ávila, Valladolid, and Palencia.
The royal decree of 30 November 1833, the reform of Javier de Burgos (see 1833 territorial division of Spain), established the basis for the division of Spain into provinces that, with a few modifications, continues down to the present day.
Another royal decree, on 30 November 1855, divided Spain into 49 provinces, and assigned the provinces of Valladolid and Palencia to the Kingdom of León, leaving to Castilla la Vieja only Santander, Burgos, Logroño, Soria, Segovia, and Ávila. Although there were further reform efforts in the 19th century, this division is reflected in the encyclopedias, geographies, and textbooks from the mid-19th century until it was superseded in the second half of the 20th century. For example, early editions of Enciclopedia Espasa, of the Encyclopædia Britannica and the popular student encyclopedia Álvarez all follow this division of provinces into Castilla la Vieja and León.
With the establishment of the autonomous community of Castile and León in 1983, Castilla la Vieja lost a large portion of its separate identity: (1) it was integrated politically with León into a larger entity; (2) but two of its provinces became autonomous communities in their own right (Santander became Cantabria and Logroño became La Rioja).Province of A Coruña
The province of A Coruña (Galician: [ɐ koˈɾuɲɐ]; Spanish: La Coruña [la koˈɾuɲa]; historical English: Corunna) is the most North-western Atlantic-facing province of Spain, and one of the four provinces which constitute the autonomous community of Galicia. This province is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and North, Pontevedra Province to the South and the Lugo Province to the East.Province of Calatayud
The Province of Calatayud was a province of Spain created in the 1822 territorial division of Spain (27 January 1822), during the Trienio Liberal of 1820–1823. It included the Aragonese comarcas of Comunidad de Calatayud, Campo de Daroca, Aranda, the southern part of Valdejalón (now in the province of Zaragoza), the northern part of the Comarca del Jiloca (now in Teruel), as well as some municipalities that now fall in the provinces of Soria and Guadalajara. It had a population of 105,947, which constituted 0.9 percent of the Spanish population at the time. Its capital was Calatayud.
With the restoration of absolutism, this territorial division was revoked 1 October 1823. Although Javier de Burgos's 1833 territorial division of Spain was very close to that of 1833, the province of Calatayud was not recreated; the other two major changes were the omission of the provinces of Villafranca del Bierzo and Játiva.
The question of a province of Calatayud was reopened in 1842, but firm opposition from the provinces of Guadalajara, Soria and Zaragoza led to the defeat of the proposal.Province of Játiva
The Province of Játiva was a province of Spain created in the 1822 territorial division of Spain (27 January 1822), during the Trienio Liberal of 1820–1823. Its population of 164,795 represented 1.41% of the total Spanish population of the time. Its capital was Játiva (currently officially named Xàtiva). With the restoration of absolutism, this territorial division was revoked 1 October 1823. Although Javier de Burgos's 1833 territorial division of Spain was very close to that of 1833, the province of Játiva was not recreated; the other two major changes were the omission of the provinces of Calatayud and Villafranca del Bierzo.
The province of Játiva was divided among the provinces of Valencia and Alicante, with the cities of Játiva and Cofrentes becoming part of Valencia and Gandía, Denia, Onteniente and Albaida becoming part of Alicante. These borders were adjusted in 1836, and Alicante lost the northern part of its territory to Valencia; as a result, except for Denia, all of the former province of Játiva is now part of Valencia.Province of Villafranca
The Province of Villafranca (also known as Province of Villafranca del Bierzo, Province of El Bierzo, or Province of El Vierzo) was a province of Spain created in the 1822 territorial division of Spain (27 January 1822), during the Trienio Liberal of 1820–1823. Its population of 86,365 represented 0.7% of the total Spanish population of the time. Its capital was Villafranca del Bierzo. With the restoration of absolutism, this territorial division was revoked 1 October 1823. Although Javier de Burgos's 1833 territorial division of Spain was very close to that of 1833, the province of Villafranca was not recreated; the other two major changes were the omission of the provinces of Calatayud and Játiva.Provincia de El Bierzo
The Provincia de El Bierzo (Province of The Bierzo or Province of El Bierzo) is a proposed new province of Spain advocated for by some people and some political groups of the region of El Bierzo. The region is located in the westernmost part of the Province of León and occupies one-third of that province.
The inhabitants of this region have a marked personality and idiosyncrasy favored by the geographical situation of El Bierzo, a tectonic pit consisting of several valleys of different size, each separated from similar neighboring regions by a series of mountainous mountain ranges that surround it.
These groups and persons want to restore the Provincia del Vierzo, which disappeared in the 1833 territorial division of Spain. The comarca of El Bierzo is the only one in Castile and León recognized by that region's Statute of Autonomy, and it has its own regional legislature, the Consejo Comarcal de el Bierzo (Regional Council of El Bierzo). Advocates of a Province of El Bierzo wish also to annex the territories of Valdeorras (currently in the Province of Ourense), plus (from within the province of León) Laciana and the part of La Cabrera that formed a part of the extinct province but is not in the ambit of the present regional council
According to a 2006 survey on this topic, more than 53 percent of Bercianos would support the restoration of the province.Regions of Spain (disambiguation)
Regions of Spain can refer to:
The autonomous communities of Spain, first-level political subdivisions of Spain
A Spanish constitutional designation of certain autonomous communities (see nationalities and regions of Spain)
The "historic regions" of Spain under the 1833 territorial division of SpainSolís Uprising
The Solís Uprising (Spanish: Levantamiento de Solís) was an unsuccessful military uprising in Galicia (Spain) in 1846. The soldiers executed after the defeat became known as the Martyrs of Carral (Spanish: Mártires de Carral).