1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar, the 1832nd year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 832nd year of the 2nd millennium, the 32nd year of the 19th century, and the 3rd year of the 1830s decade. As of the start of 1832, the Gregorian calendar was 12 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
|1832 in various calendars|
|Ab urbe condita||2585|
|Balinese saka calendar||1753–1754|
|British Regnal year||2 Will. 4 – 3 Will. 4|
|Chinese calendar||辛卯年 (Metal Rabbit)|
4528 or 4468
— to —
壬辰年 (Water Dragon)
4529 or 4469
|- Vikram Samvat||1888–1889|
|- Shaka Samvat||1753–1754|
|- Kali Yuga||4932–4933|
|Japanese calendar||Tenpō 3|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 12 days|
|Minguo calendar||80 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||2374–2375|
1958 or 1577 or 805
— to —
1959 or 1578 or 806
The 1832 Democratic National Convention was held from May 21 to May 23, 1832, in Baltimore, Maryland. This was the first national convention of the Democratic Party of the United States; it followed presidential nominating conventions held previously by the small minority Anti-Masonic Party (in September 1831) and the National Republican Party (in December 1831). The purpose of the convention was to choose a running mate for incumbent President Andrew Jackson of Tennessee, rather than the previous methods of using a caucus of Congressional representatives and senators. The delegates nominated former Secretary of State Martin Van Buren (of New York) for Vice President to replace and succeed the earlier incumbent John C. Calhoun of South Carolina (whom Jackson had fallen out with over the nullification controversy), and endorsed Jackson's reelection.1832 New York gubernatorial election
The 1832 New York gubernatorial election was held from November 5 to 7, 1832, to elect the Governor and Lieutenant Governor of New York.1832 United Kingdom general election
The 1832 United Kingdom general election, the first after the Reform Act, saw the Whigs win a large majority, with the Tories winning less than 30% of the vote.1832 United States House of Representatives elections
Elections to the United States House of Representatives were held in 1832. They were held concurrently with the 1832 presidential election, in which Democrat Andrew Jackson was reelected.
The Jacksonians gained 17 seats, picking up several new seats in districts that were created following the 1830 census; the rival National Republican Party lost a net total of three seats. Economic issues were key factors in this election. Southern agricultural districts reacted angrily to passage of the Tariff of 1832, which led to the Nullification Crisis. President Andrew Jackson and the Jacksonians showed a distrust for the banking sector, particularly the central Second Bank of the United States, which was strongly supported by the rival Anti-Jacksonian Party.The third-party Anti-Masonic Party, based on anti-Masonry, gained eight seats, and Nullifier Party, a John C. Calhoun-led states' rights party that supported South Carolina in the Nullification Crisis, picked up five seats, including all but one of the nine representatives in the South Carolina delegation.1832 United States elections
The 1832 United States elections elected the members of the 23rd United States Congress. Taking place during the Second Party System and a political conflict over the re-authorization of the Second Bank of the United States, the elections were contested between Andrew Jackson's Democratic Party and opponents of Jackson, including the National Republicans. Though the Democrats retained the presidency and the House, they lost their Senate majority. The Anti-Masonic Party also fielded the first notable presidential candidacy from a third party.In the Presidential election, Democratic President Andrew Jackson easily defeated National Republican Senator Henry Clay from Kentucky. Anti-Masonic candidate William Wirt received 7% of the popular vote, the strongest popular vote showing by a third party up to that point, while Nullifier John Floyd was the first third party candidate to win electoral votes. Jackson was the last president to win a second term until Abraham Lincoln won a second term in 1864. The first presidential nominating conventions took place during this election. Also, for the first time, every state but South Carolina chose its presidential electors via statewide popular vote.
Following the 1830 census, the House increased in size, adding 27 seats. Opponents of Jackson maintained the same number of seats, but the Democrats won several seats, increasing their majority.In the Senate, the anti-Jackson faction won moderate gains, taking the majority in the Senate.1832 United States presidential election
The 1832 United States presidential election was the 12th quadrennial presidential election, held from Friday, November 2, to Wednesday, December 5, 1832. It saw incumbent President Andrew Jackson, candidate of the Democratic Party, defeat Henry Clay, candidate of the National Republican Party.
The election saw the first use of the presidential nominating conventions, and the Democrats, National Republicans, and the Anti-Masonic Party all used national conventions to select their respective presidential candidates. Jackson won re-nomination with no opposition, and the 1832 Democratic National Convention replaced Vice President John C. Calhoun with Martin Van Buren. The National Republican Convention nominated a ticket led by Clay, a Kentuckian who had served as the Secretary of State under President John Quincy Adams. The Anti-Masonic Party, one of the first major third parties in U.S. history, nominated former Attorney General William Wirt.
Jackson faced heavy criticism for his actions in the Bank War, but he remained popular among the general public. Jackson won a majority of the popular vote and 219 of the 286 electoral votes cast, carrying most states outside of New England. Clay won 37.4% of the popular vote and 49 electoral votes, while Wirt won 7.8% of the popular vote and carried the state of Vermont. Virginia Governor John Floyd, who had not actively campaigned, received the electoral votes of South Carolina. After the election, members of the National Republican Party and the Anti-Masonic Party formed the Whig Party, which became the primary opponent to the Democrats over the next two decades. Henry Clay won the popular vote in Maryland by just four votes- the smallest vote margin in any state ever. George W. Bush would win Florida by a smaller percentage in 2000, but the actual number of votes was larger.1832 and 1833 United States Senate elections
The United States Senate elections of 1832 and 1833 were elections that had the Anti-Jackson coalition assume control of the United States Senate from the Jacksonian coalition, despite Andrew Jackson's victory in the presidential election.
As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were elected by State legislatures.1832 in France
Events from the year 1832 in France.1832 in Ireland
Events from the year 1832 in Ireland.1832 in Sweden
Events from the year 1832 in SwedenKingdom of Greece
The Kingdom of Greece (Greek: Βασίλειον τῆς Ἑλλάδος [vaˈsiliɔn ˈtis ɛˈlaðɔs]) was a state established in 1832 at the Convention of London by the Great Powers (the United Kingdom, Kingdom of France and the Russian Empire). It was internationally recognised by the Treaty of Constantinople, where it also secured full independence from the Ottoman Empire. This event also marked the birth of the first fully independent Greek state since the fall of the Byzantine Empire to the Ottomans in the mid-15th century.
The Kingdom succeeded from the Greek provisional governments after the Greek War of Independence, and lasted until 1924. In 1924 the monarchy was abolished, and the Second Hellenic Republic was established, after Greece's defeat by Turkey in the Asia Minor Campaign. It lasted until 1935, when it was overthrown by a military coup d'état which restored the monarchy. The restored Kingdom of Greece lasted from 1935 to 1973. The Kingdom was again dissolved in the aftermath of the seven-year military dictatorship (1967–1974), and the Third Republic, the current Greek state, came to be, after a popular referendum.Lewis Carroll
Charles Lutwidge Dodgson (; 27 January 1832 – 14 January 1898), better known by his pen name Lewis Carroll, was an English writer of world-famous children's fiction, notably Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and its sequel Through the Looking-Glass. He was noted for his facility at word play, logic, and fantasy. The poems Jabberwocky and The Hunting of the Snark are classified in the genre of literary nonsense. He was also a mathematician, photographer, and Anglican deacon.
Carroll came from a family of high church Anglicans, and developed a long relationship with Christ Church, Oxford, where he lived for most of his life as a scholar and teacher. Alice Liddell, daughter of the Dean of Christ Church, Henry Liddell, is widely identified as the original for Alice in Wonderland, though Carroll always denied this.List of United Kingdom by-elections (1818–32)
This is a list of parliamentary by-elections in the United Kingdom held between 1818 and 1832, with the names of the previous incumbent and the victor in the by-election.
In the absence of a comprehensive and reliable source, for party and factional alignments in this period, no attempt is made to define them in this article. The House of Commons: 1790-1820 and The House of Commons: 1820-1832 provide some guidance to the complex and shifting political relationships, but those works do not define each member's allegiances.List of United Kingdom by-elections (1832–47)
This is a list of parliamentary by-elections in the United Kingdom held between 1832 and 1847, with the names of the previous incumbent and the victor in the by-election and their respective parties. Where seats changed political party at the election, the result is highlighted: light blue for a Conservative (or Tory before 1835) gain, orange for a Whig gain and green for Irish Repeal gain.List of United States Supreme Court cases, volume 31
This is a list of all the United States Supreme Court cases from volume 31 of the United States Reports. This was the 6th volume reported by Richard Peters.Nullification Crisis
The Nullification Crisis was a United States sectional political crisis in 1832–33, during the presidency of Andrew Jackson, which involved a confrontation between the state of South Carolina and the federal government. It ensued after South Carolina declared that the federal Tariffs of 1828 and 1832 were unconstitutional and therefore null and void within the sovereign boundaries of the state.
The U.S. suffered an economic downturn throughout the 1820's, and South Carolina was particularly affected. Many South Carolina politicians blamed the change in fortunes on the national tariff policy that developed after the War of 1812 to promote American manufacturing over its European production competition. The controversial and highly protective Tariff of 1828 (known to its detractors as the "Tariff of Abominations") was enacted into law during the presidency of John Quincy Adams. The tariff was strongly opposed in the South, since it was perceived to put an unfair tax burden on the southern agrarian states which imported most manufactured goods. The tariff was also opposed in parts of New England. By 1828, South Carolina state politics increasingly organized around the tariff issue.
The tariff's opponents expected that the election of Jackson as President would result in the tariff being significantly reduced. When the Jackson administration failed to take any actions to address their concerns, the most radical faction in the state began to advocate that the state itself declare the tariff null and void within South Carolina. In Washington, an open split on the issue occurred between Jackson and Vice President John C. Calhoun, a native South Carolinian and the most effective proponent of the constitutional theory of state nullification, the legal theory that if a state believed a federal law unconstitutional (to the federal constitution), it could declare the law null and void in the state.On July 14, 1832, before Calhoun had resigned the Vice Presidency to run for the Senate, where he could more effectively defend nullification, Jackson signed into law the Tariff of 1832. This compromise tariff received the support of most northerners and half of the southerners in Congress. The reductions were too little for South Carolina, however, and on November 24, 1832, a state convention adopted the Ordinance of Nullification, which declared that the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832 were unconstitutional and unenforceable in South Carolina after February 1, 1833. South Carolina initiated military preparations to resist anticipated federal enforcement. However, on March 1, 1833, Congress passed both the Force Bill—authorizing the President to use military forces against South Carolina—and a new negotiated tariff, the Compromise Tariff of 1833, which was satisfactory to South Carolina. The South Carolina convention reconvened and repealed its Nullification Ordinance on March 15, 1833, but three days later nullified the Force Bill as a symbolic gesture to maintain its principles.
The crisis was over, and both sides could find reasons to claim victory. The tariff rates were reduced and stayed low to the satisfaction of the South, but the states' rights doctrine of nullification remained controversial. By the 1850's the issues of the expansion of slavery into the western territories and the threat of the Slave Power became the central issues in the nation.Since the Nullification Crisis, the doctrine of states' rights has been asserted again by opponents of the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, proponents of California's Specific Contract Act of 1863 (which nullified the Legal Tender Act of 1862), opponents of federal civil rights legislation, opponents of Federal acts prohibiting the sale and possession of marijuana in the first decade of the 21st century, and opponents of implementation of laws and regulations pertaining to firearms from the late 1900s up to early 2000s.Reform Act 1832
The Representation of the People Act 1832 (also known as the 1832 Reform Act, Great Reform Act or First Reform Act to distinguish it from subsequent Reform Acts) was an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom (indexed as 2 & 3 Will. IV c. 45) that introduced wide-ranging changes to the electoral system of England and Wales. According to its preamble, the Act was designed to "take effectual Measures for correcting divers Abuses that have long prevailed in the Choice of Members to serve in the Commons House of Parliament". Before the reform, most members nominally represented boroughs. The number of electors in a borough varied widely, from a dozen or so up to 12,000. Frequently the selection of MPs was effectively controlled by one powerful patron: for example Charles Howard, 11th Duke of Norfolk, controlled eleven boroughs. Criteria for qualification for the franchise varied greatly among boroughs, from the requirement to own land, to merely living in a house with a hearth sufficient to boil a pot.
There had been calls for reform long before 1832, but without success. The Act that finally succeeded was proposed by the Whigs, led by Prime Minister Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey. It met with significant opposition from the Pittite factions in Parliament, who had long governed the country; opposition was especially pronounced in the House of Lords. Nevertheless, the bill was eventually passed, mainly as a result of public pressure. The Act granted seats in the House of Commons to large cities that had sprung up during the Industrial Revolution, and removed seats from the "rotten boroughs": those with very small electorates and usually dominated by a wealthy patron. The Act also increased the electorate from about 400,000 to 650,000, making about one in five adult males eligible to vote.The full title is An Act to amend the representation of the people in England and Wales. Its formal short title and citation is "Representation of the People Act 1832 (2 & 3 Wm. IV, c. 45)". The Act applied only in England and Wales; the Irish Reform Act 1832 brought similar changes to Ireland. The separate Scottish Reform Act 1832 was revolutionary, enlarging the electorate by a factor of 1300% from 5000 to 65,000.Skull and Bones
Skull and Bones is an undergraduate senior secret student society at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut. The oldest senior class society at the university, Skull and Bones has become a cultural institution known for its powerful alumni and various conspiracy theories. The society's alumni organization, the Russell Trust Association, owns the organization's real estate and oversees the membership. The society is known informally as "Bones", and members are known as "Bonesmen".Treaty of Constantinople (1832)
The Treaty of Constantinople was the product of the Constantinople Conference which opened in February 1832 with the participation of the Great Powers (Britain, France and Russia) on the one hand and the Ottoman Empire on the other. The factors which shaped the treaty included the refusal of Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (the future King of Belgium), to assume the Greek throne. He was not at all satisfied with the Aspropotamos-Zitouni borderline, which replaced the more favorable Arta-Volos line considered by the Great Powers earlier.
The withdrawal of Leopold as a candidate for the throne of Greece, and the July Revolution in France, delayed the final settlement of the frontiers of the new kingdom until a new government was formed in the United Kingdom. Lord Palmerston, who took over as British Foreign Secretary, agreed to the Arta-Volos borderline. However, the secret note on Crete, which the Bavarian plenipotentiary communicated to the Courts of the United Kingdom, France and Russia, bore no fruit.
Under the protocol signed on 7 May 1832 between Bavaria and the protecting Powers, and basically dealing with the way in which the Regency was to be managed until Otto reached his majority (while also concluding the second Greek loan, for a sum of £2,400,000 sterling), Greece was defined as an independent kingdom, with the Arta-Volos line as its northern frontier. The Ottoman Empire was indemnified in the sum of 40,000,000 piastres for the loss of the territory. The borders of the Kingdom were reiterated in the London Protocol of 30 August 1832 signed by the Great Powers, which ratified the terms of the Constantinople Arrangement in connection with the border between Greece and the Ottoman Empire and marked the end of the Greek War of Independence creating modern Greece as an independent state free of the Ottoman Empire.